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Advanced Organic Chemistry by Maya Shankar Singh

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1

Concept of Acids and Bases

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

By the end of this chapter you should be familiar with

  • Why some molecules are acidic and others basic. Why some acids are strong and others weak.
  • Why some bases are strong and others weak.
  • Estimating acidity and basicity using pH and pKa. Structure and equilibria in proton transfer reactions.
  • Which protons in more complex molecules are more acidic and which lone pairs in more complex molecules are more basic.
  • The effects of structure and medium on the strength of acids and bases. The levelling effects.
  • Making reactions selective using acids and bases.
1.1 INTRODUCTION

In the mid-19th century, the German chemist Justus von Liebig commented that the wealth of a nation could be gauged by the amount ...

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