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Advanced MPLS Design and Implementation

Book Description

An in-depth guide to understanding advanced MPLS implementation, including packet-based VPNs, ATM-based VPNs, traffic engineering, and quality of service

Advanced MPLS Design and Implementation enables you to:

  • Understand MPLS through a detailed analysis of MPLS architecture and operation

  • Design and implement packet-based MPLS Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) using label switching routers (LSRs)

  • Design and implement ATM-based MPLS VPNs using WAN-switched ATM LSRs

  • Implement MPLS traffic engineering on your core network and optimize traffic flows dynamically

  • Implement MPLS QoS and provide hard service guarantees with multiple classes of service

  • Acquire practical design and implementation knowledge of real-world MPLS VPNs, TE, and QoS through case studies and configuration examples

  • Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a highly scalable, high-performance forwarding technology that has multiple applications in the service provider and enterprise environment. This book is intended for internetwork engineers and administrators who are responsible for designing, implementing, and supporting service provider or enterprise MPLS backbone networks. It contains a broad range of technical details on MPLS and its associated protocols, packet-based MPLS, ATM-based MPLS, MPLS traffic engineering, MPLS QoS, MPLS design, and advanced MPLS architectures.

    This book contains MPLS theory, design, configuration, and various case studies. Use this book as a reference and guide for designing, implementing, and supporting an MPLS network. Even if you're not using Cisco(r) equipment, this book can increase your awareness and understanding of MPLS technology as well as provide you with detailed design concepts and rules for building scalable MPLS networks.

    Advanced MPLS Design and Implementation is your guide to understanding, designing, and implementing MPLS VPNs, WAN-switched MPLS VPNs, MPLS traffic engineering, and MPLS QoS.

    Table of Contents

    1. Copyright
      1. Dedications
    2. About the Author
      1. About the Technical Reviewers
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Introduction
      1. Who Should Read This Book
      2. Scope and Definition
        1. Chapter 1 “Introduction to MPLS”
        2. Chapter 2 “WAN Technologies and MPLS”
        3. Chapter 3 “MPLS Architecture”
        4. Chapter 4 “Virtual Private Networks”
        5. Chapter 5 “Packet-Based MPLS VPNs”
        6. Chapter 6 “ATM-Based MPLS VPNs”
        7. Chapter 7 “MPLS Traffic Engineering”
        8. Chapter 8 “MPLS Quality of Service”
        9. Chapter 9 “MPLS Design and Migration”
        10. Chapter 10 “Advanced MPLS Architectures”
        11. Appendixes
      3. Command Conventions
      4. Illustration Iconography
    5. 1. Introduction to MPLS
      1. A New Forwarding Paradigm
      2. What Is MPLS?
        1. Evolution of MPLS
        2. Benefits of MPLS
        3. MPLS and the Internet Architecture
      3. Summary
    6. 2. WAN Technologies and MPLS
      1. Inside the Cloud
        1. Circuit Switching and TDM
          1. DS Framing
          2. Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
        2. Packet and Cell Switching
          1. Frame Relay
            1. Data-Link Connection Identifier (DLCI)
            2. Committed Information Rate (CIR)
            3. Frame Relay Frame
            4. Local Management Interface (LMI) Status Polling
            5. Congestion Control
          2. ATM
            1. The ATM Reference Model Planes
              1. Layer Management
              2. Plane Management
            2. ATM Layers
            3. ATM Cell
              1. ATM Cells at the UNI
              2. ATM Cells at the NNI
            4. ATM Cell Generation
            5. ATM Interfaces and Signaling
            6. Virtual Connections
            7. ATM Management
            8. ATM-to-Frame Relay Interworking
            9. ATM Quality of Service (QoS)
      2. Layer 3 Routing
        1. Forwarding Component
        2. Control Component
        3. Forwarding Equivalency Class
      3. Label Switching
        1. Conventional Layer 3 Routing Versus MPLS
      4. Integration of IP and ATM
        1. MPLS Versus Traditional IP over ATM
          1. Integration
          2. Higher Reliability
          3. Direct Class of Service Implementation
          4. Efficient Support of Multicast and RSVP
          5. VPN Scalability and Manageability
          6. Reduced Load on Network Cores
          7. Traffic Engineering Capabilities
      5. Challenges Faced by Service Providers
      6. Summary
    7. 3. MPLS Architecture
      1. MPLS Operation
      2. MPLS Node Architecture
        1. Forwarding Plane
          1. MPLS Label
            1. Label Stack
            2. TTL
          2. Label Forwarding Information Base
          3. Label Forwarding Algorithm
        2. Control Plane
          1. Unicast Routing Module
          2. Multicast Routing Module
          3. Traffic Engineering Module
          4. Virtual Private Network (VPN) Module
          5. Quality of Service (QoS) Module
      3. MPLS Elements
        1. Label-Switched Router (LSR)
          1. Packet-Based LSR Operation
            1. Penultimate Hop Popping
          2. ATM LSR Operation
        2. Label-Switched Path (LSP)
          1. LSP Establishment
            1. Independent Control LSP Establishment
            2. Ordered Control LSP Establishment
        3. Label Distribution Protocol (LDP)
          1. Downstream-on-Demand Mode LDP
          2. Unsolicited Downstream Mode LDP
          3. Liberal Label Retention Mode LDP
          4. Conservative Label Retention Mode LDP
      4. Loop Survival, Detection, and Prevention in MPLS
        1. The Effect of Routing Loops on MPLS
        2. Loop Control in MPLS
          1. Loop Survival
            1. Loop Survival in TTL Segments
            2. Loop Survival in Non-TTL Segments
          2. Loop Detection
          3. Loop Prevention
            1. Nonstate Merging LSPs
            2. State Merging LSPs
              1. Path Vector Diffusion (PD) Algorithm
              2. Colored Thread (CT) Algorithm
              3. Extending the Thread
              4. Rewinding the Thread
      5. Summary
    8. 4. Virtual Private Networks
      1. Overview of VPNs
      2. Connection-Oriented VPNs
        1. Layer 2 Connection-Oriented VPNs
          1. TDM-Based Networks
          2. Frame-Based VPNs
          3. Cell-Based VPNs
        2. Layer 3 Connection-Oriented VPNs
          1. GRE Tunneled VPNs
          2. IPSec Tunneled VPNs
          3. Virtual Private Dialup Network
      3. Connectionless VPNs
        1. Layer 3 Connectionless VPNs
        2. Conventional IP VPNs
        3. MPLS VPNs
      4. Comparison of VPN Technologies
      5. Advantages of MPLS VPNs
        1. Scalability
        2. Security
        3. Ease of VPN Creation
        4. Flexible Addressing
        5. Standards-Based
        6. Flexible Architecture
        7. End-to-End Priority Services
        8. Consolidation
        9. Traffic Engineering
        10. Centralized Service
        11. Integrated Class of Service (CoS) Support
        12. Migration
        13. Centralized Management and Provisioning via Cisco Service Management (CSM)
      6. Summary
    9. 5. Packet-Based MPLS VPNs
      1. MPLS VPN Operation
        1. VPN Routing and Forwarding
        2. VPN Route Target Communities
        3. Distribution of VPN Routing Information
        4. MPLS Forwarding
        5. Configuring Router-Based MPLS VPNs
          1. Step 1: Configuring Your Interfaces and IGP
          2. Step 2: Defining Your VPNs
          3. Step 3: Configuring PE-to-PE Routing
          4. Step 4: Configuring PE-to-CE Routing
            1. Configuring Static PE-to-CE Routing Sessions
            2. Configuring RIPv2 PE-to-CE Routing Sessions
            3. Configuring BGP4 PE-to-CE Routing Sessions
            4. Configuring OSPF PE-to-CE Routing Sessions
          5. Step 5: Configuring P Routers
          6. Step 6: Configuring CE Routers
            1. CE Routers with Static Routing
            2. CE Routers with RIPv2 Routing
            3. CE Routers with BGP4 Routing
            4. CE Routers with OSPF Routing
      2. Verifying VPN Operation
      3. Case Study of an MPLS VPN Design and Implementation
        1. Provider Router Configurations
          1. P1 Router Configuration
          2. P2 Router Configuration
          3. P3 Router Configuration
        2. Provider and Customer Router Configurations
          1. Chicago Configuration
            1. Chicago PE Configuration
            2. Chicago CE Configuration (Customer A)
            3. Chicago CE Configuration (Customer B)
          2. Seattle Configuration
            1. Seattle PE Configuration
            2. Seattle CE Configuration (Customer B)
            3. Seattle CE Configuration (Customer C)
          3. San Diego Configuration
            1. San Diego PE Configuration
            2. San Diego CE Configuration (Customer A)
            3. San Diego CE Configuration (Customer C)
          4. Miami Configuration
            1. Miami PE Configuration
            2. Miami CE Configuration (Customer A)
            3. Miami CE Configuration (Customer C)
            4. Washington Configuration
            5. Washington PE Configuration
            6. Washington CE Configuration (Customer A)
            7. Washington CE Configuration (Customer B)
      4. BGP Route Reflectors
      5. Inter-Autonomous System MPLS VPNs
        1. Inter-Autonomous System MPLS VPN Architectures
          1. Inter-Provider MPLS VPN Configuration
            1. Configuration for AS1, CE1
            2. Configuration for AS1, PE1
            3. Configuration for AS1, P1
            4. Configuration for AS1, EBGP1
            5. Configuration for AS2, EBGP2
            6. Configuration for AS2, P2
            7. Configuration for AS2, PE2
          2. Configuration for AS2, CE2
          3. BGP Confederation Inter-Provider MPLS VPN Configuration
            1. Configuration for AS1, CE1
            2. Configuration for AS1, PE1
            3. Configuration for AS1, P1
            4. Configuration for AS1, EBGP1
            5. Configuration for AS2, EBGP2
            6. Configuration for AS2, P2
            7. Configuration for AS2, PE2
            8. Configuration for AS2, CE2
      6. Carrier-over-Carrier MPLS VPNs
        1. Providing a Backbone Network to a Customer Carrier (ISP)
        2. Providing a Backbone Network to a Customer Carrier (MPLS VPN Service Provider)
      7. Internet Access over MPLS VPNs
        1. Internet Connectivity via an External ISP
          1. CE1 Configuration
          2. PE1 Configuration
        2. Internet Connectivity Using Static Default Routes
          1. CE1 Configuration
          2. PE1 Configuration
        3. Internet Connectivity Using BGP Sessions
          1. BGP Next-Hop Configuration
          2. EBGP Multihop Configuration
            1. CE1 Configuration
            2. PE2 Configuration
      8. MPLS Redundancy Using HSRP
        1. HSRP Support Between Two VRF Interfaces
      9. Trace Route Enhancements
      10. MPLS VPN Management Using the Cisco VPN Solutions Center
        1. Advantages of the Cisco VPN Solutions Center
        2. Key Functions of Cisco VPNSC
      11. Summary
    10. 6. ATM-Based MPLS VPNs
      1. Introduction to ATM-Based MPLS VPNs
      2. MPLS and Tag Switching Terminology
        1. MPLS Elements
      3. Packet-Based MPLS over ATM
      4. ATM-Based MPLS
        1. Forwarding Component
        2. Control Component
      5. Cell Interleaving
      6. VC Merge
      7. Label Virtual Circuits
        1. Signaling LVC
        2. Ordinary LVC
      8. Label Switch Controllers
        1. Label Switch Controller Implementation
          1. Integrated LSC software
          2. Internal LSC
          3. External LSC
        2. LSC Control of a Switch
          1. Signaling LVCs
          2. Switch-Control VCs
      9. Virtual Switch Interface
      10. IP+ATM
        1. Structure of an IP+ATM Switch
        2. IP+ATM Networks
      11. Packet-Based MPLS over ATM VPNs
        1. Configuring Packet-Based MPLS over ATM VPNs
          1. Configuration of PE routers
          2. Configuration of CE Routers
          3. Configuration of P Routers
      12. Case Study of a Packet-Based MPLS over ATM VPN
        1. Provider Edge Configuration
          1. Chicago Configuration
            1. Chicago PE Configuration
          2. Seattle Configuration
            1. Seattle PE Configuration
          3. San Diego Configuration
            1. San Diego PE Configuration
          4. Miami Configuration
            1. Miami Configuration
          5. Washington Configuration
            1. Washington PE Configuration
      13. ATM-Based MPLS VPNs
        1. Configuring ATM-Based MPLS VPNs
          1. Configuration of PE Routers
          2. Configuration of CE Routers
          3. Configuration of ATM MPLS Core Switches
            1. BPX 8650
            2. BPX 8650 Configuration
              1. Step 1
              2. Step 2
              3. Step 3
              4. Step 4
              5. Step 5
              6. Step 6
              7. Step 7
          4. Label Switch Controller Configuration
            1. LSC as a Label Edge Device
      14. Case Study of an ATM-Based MPLS VPN
        1. Provider Edge Configuration
          1. Chicago Configuration
            1. Chicago PE Configuration
          2. Seattle Configuration
            1. Seattle PE Configuration
          3. San Diego Configuration
            1. San Diego PE Configuration
          4. Miami Configuration
            1. Miami PE Configuration
          5. Washington Configuration
            1. Washington PE Configuration
        2. Label Switch Controller Configuration
          1. LSC1 Configuration
          2. LSC2 Configuration
          3. LSC3 Configuration
        3. BPX Switch Configuration
          1. BPX1 Configuration
            1. Step 1
            2. Step 2
            3. Step 3
            4. Step 4
            5. Step 5
            6. Step 6
            7. Step 7
            8. Step 8
      15. Summary
    11. 7. MPLS Traffic Engineering
      1. The Need for Traffic Engineering on the Internet
      2. Unequal-Cost Load Balancing via Metric Manipulation
        1. OSPF Unequal-Cost Load Balancing
        2. EIGRP Unequal-Cost Load Balancing
        3. Metric Manipulation Versus MPLS Traffic Engineering
      3. Advantages of MPLS Traffic Engineering
      4. MPLS Traffic Engineering Elements
        1. LSP Tunnels
        2. Distribution of Constraint-Based Routing Information
        3. Assigning Traffic to Tunnels
        4. Rerouting
          1. Fast Rerouting
            1. Splicing Technique
            2. Stacking Technique
          2. Optimized Rerouting
      5. MPLS Traffic Engineering Configuration
        1. Configuring a Device to Support MPLS TE Tunnels
        2. Configuring the Interface(s) to Support RSVP Signaling and IGP Flooding
        3. Configuring MPLS Tunnels
        4. Explicit Path Configuration
        5. Configuring an MPLS TE Tunnel for IGP Use
        6. Configuring IS-IS for MPLS TE
          1. IS-IS Migration Solution 1
            1. IS-IS Migration Solution 1 Transition Steps
          2. IS-IS Migration Solution 2
            1. IS-IS Migration Solution 2 Transition Steps
              1. Configuring IS-IS for MPLS TE Within the AS
        7. Configuring OSPF for MPLS TE
        8. Configuring MPLS Tunnel Unequal-Cost Load Balancing
        9. Verifying MPLS Traffic Engineering Operation
      6. Configuration Case Study of an MPLS Traffic-Engineered Network (IS-IS)
        1. R1 Traffic Engineering Policy
        2. R1 Configuration (IS-IS)
        3. R3 Traffic Engineering Policy
        4. R3 Configuration (IS-IS)
        5. R8 Traffic Engineering Policy
        6. R8 Configuration (IS-IS)
        7. R2 Configuration (IS-IS)
        8. R4 Configuration (IS-IS)
        9. R5 Configuration (IS-IS)
        10. R6 Configuration (IS-IS)
        11. R7 Configuration (IS-IS)
      7. Configuration Case Study of an MPLS Traffic-Engineered Network (OSPF)
        1. R1 Configuration (OSPF)
        2. R3 Configuration (OSPF)
        3. R8 Configuration (OSPF)
      8. Summary
    12. 8. MPLS Quality of Service
      1. Quality of Service
      2. Integrated Services
        1. IntServ Service Classes
          1. Guaranteed Service
          2. Controlled Load
        2. RSVP
        3. MPLS Implementation of IntServ
          1. Guaranteed Bandwidth LSPs
      3. IP Precedence
      4. Differentiated Services
        1. Per-Hop Behavior (PHB)
          1. Default PHB
          2. Class-Selector PHB
          3. Expedited Forwarding (EF) PHB
          4. Assured Forwarding (AF) PHB
        2. Differentiated Services Architecture
        3. DiffServ Mechanisms
          1. Traffic Policing
          2. Traffic Shaping
        4. PHB Enforcement
          1. LLQ for the AF PHB
          2. CBWFQ and WRED for the AF PHB
          3. Traffic Policing for the AF PHB
      5. Modular QoS CLI
      6. MPLS Implementation of DiffServ
      7. MPLS VPN Support of QoS
        1. MPLS VPN QoS Pipe Model
        2. MPLS VPN QoS Hose Model
      8. MPLS QoS Implementation
        1. MPLS Experimental Field
        2. Packet Prioritization
        3. Ingress PE Router Configuration
      9. Configuring QoS for MPLS VPNs
        1. Traffic Class Configuration
        2. Service Policy Configuration
        3. Configure the Service Policy to Attach to an Interface
        4. Verify the Modular QoS CLI Configuration
        5. CAR Configuration of the Ingress PE
          1. Configure a Rate-Limit Access List for Classifying IP Packets
          2. Configure a Rate Limit on an Input Interface to Set MPLS Packets
      10. MPLS QoS Case Study
        1. Step 1: Create Traffic Classes
          1. PE1 Configuration
          2. PE2 Configuration
          3. PE3 Configuration
          4. PE4 Configuration
          5. PE5 Configuration
          6. P-LSR Configuration
        2. Step 2: Create Service Policies and Associate the Traffic Classes with Them
          1. Service Policy for VPN A
          2. Service Policy for VPN B
          3. Service Policy for VPN C
          4. Service Policy for VPN D
          5. Service Policy for the P-LSRs
            1. Service Policy for Traffic Class class1
            2. Service Policy for Traffic Class class2
            3. Service Policy for Traffic Class class3
            4. Service Policy for Traffic Class class4
        3. Step 3: Attach the Service Policies to the Input Interfaces
          1. PE1 Configuration
          2. PE2 Configuration
          3. PE3 Configuration
          4. PE4 Configuration
          5. PE5 Configuration
          6. P1 Configuration
          7. P2 Configuration
          8. P3 Configuration
      11. Summary
    13. 9. MPLS Design and Migration
      1. MPLS VPN Design and Topologies
        1. Packet-Based MPLS VPNs
        2. ATM-Based MPLS VPNs
        3. Hybrid ATM and Packet-Based MPLS VPNs
      2. Migrating MPLS into an ATM Network
      3. ATM MPLS Design Criteria
        1. Design Criteria for Selecting ATM Edge LSRs
        2. Design Criteria for Selecting ATM LSRs
      4. Designing MPLS Networks
        1. PoP Design
          1. Single ATM Edge LSR
          2. Multiple Edge LSRs and an ATM LSR
          3. Access Concentrator, Edge LSR, and an ATM LSR
          4. Multiservice Access Concentrator as an Edge LSR
          5. Single LSR PoP
        2. MPLS Backbone Link Sizing
          1. Step 1: Design Points of Presence
          2. Step 2: Estimate Traffic from Each Point of Presence
          3. Step 3: Estimate the Unidirectional Traffic Matrix
          4. Step 4: Estimate the Bidirectional Traffic Matrix
          5. Step 5: Design the Backbone Trunk Topology
          6. Step 6: Calculate Estimated Link Bandwidths
          7. Step 7: Assign Link Capacity
          8. Step 8: Adjust Redundancy
          9. Step 9: Verify Equipment Selection
          10. ATM Link Redundancy
        3. Layer 3 Routing Design
          1. MPLS Layer 3 Routing Design Criteria
        4. MPLS LVC Sizing
          1. Destination Prefixes
          2. LVCs and VC Merge
          3. Design Calculations for Edge LSRs
            1. Equation 1
            2. Equation 2
            3. Equation 3
            4. Equation Guidelines: Equations 1 Through 3
            5. Design Case Study 1
              1. Solution to Design Case Study 1
            6. Design Case Study 2
              1. Solution to Design Case Study 2
            7. Design Case Study 3
              1. Solution to Design Case Study 3
          4. Design Calculations for ATM LSRs with VC Merge
            1. Equation 4
            2. Equation 5
            3. Equation Guidelines: Equations 4 and 5
            4. Design Case Study 4
              1. Solution to Design Case Study 4
            5. Design Case Study 5
              1. Solution to Design Case Study 5
            6. Design Case Study 6
              1. Solution to Design Case Study 6
          5. Design Calculations for ATM LSRs Without VC Merge
            1. Equation 6
            2. Equation 7
            3. Equation Guidelines: Equations 6 and 7
            4. Design Case Study 7
              1. Solution to Design Case Study 7
            5. Design Case Study 8
              1. Solution to Design Case Study 8
        5. Fine-Tuning the Evolving Network
      5. Additional MPLS Design Considerations
        1. Internet Routing Tables
        2. Traffic Engineering Constraints
        3. Virtual Path Tunnel Constraints
        4. LVC Exhaustion
      6. Summary
    14. 10. Advanced MPLS Architectures
      1. Optical Networking
        1. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
      2. Optical Transport Network Elements
        1. Optical Amplifiers
        2. Wavelength Converters
        3. Optical Add Drop Multiplexer
        4. Optical Cross-Connect
        5. Optical Gateways
      3. Multiprotocol Lambda Switching
      4. Optical UNI
      5. Unified Control Plane
        1. UCP Management and Control Architecture
        2. UCP Overlay Model
        3. UCP Peer Model
        4. Deployment Options
          1. Phase 1: SONET DCC Channels
          2. Phase 2: O-UNI with Static NNI
          3. Phase 3: Intradomain NNI
          4. Phase 4: Interdomain NNI
          5. Phase 5: Unified Control Plane
      6. Summary
    15. A. MPLS Command Reference
    16. B. MPLS Equipment Design Specifications
    17. C. MPLS Glossary
      1. Glossary
    18. D. References
      1. Published References
      2. Reference URLs