N.K. Rastogi and C.A. Nayak, Central Food Technological Research Institute, India
Forward osmosis is recognized as one of the most promising membrane-based separation processes owing to its inherent advantages. It finds its application not only in food processing, but also in many other separation processes such as wastewater treatment or seawater/brackish water desalination. This review discusses the mechanism of water transport during forward osmosis, the principles involved as well as the factors affecting the flux. Recent advances and developments in forward osmosis membrane processes, its application and limitations have also been presented.