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Advanced Membrane Science and Technology for Sustainable Energy and Environmental Applications

Book Description

Membrane materials allow for the selective separation of gas and vapour and for ion transport. Materials research and development continues to drive improvements in the design, manufacture and integration of membrane technologies as critical components in both sustainable energy and clean industry applications. Membrane utilisation offers process simplification and intensification in industry, providing low-cost, and efficient and reliable operation, and contributing towards emissions reductions and energy security. Advanced membrane science and technology for sustainable energy and environmental applications presents a comprehensive review of membrane utilisation and integration within energy and environmental industries.

Part one introduces the topic of membrane science and engineering, from the fundamentals of membrane processes and separation to membrane characterization and economic analysis. Part two focuses on membrane utilisation for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in coal and gas power plants, including pre- and post-combustion and oxygen transport technologies. Part three reviews membranes for the petrochemical industry, with chapters covering hydrocarbon fuel, natural gas and synthesis gas processing, as well as advanced biofuels production. Part four covers membranes for alternative energy applications and energy storage, such as membrane technology for redox and lithium batteries, fuel cells and hydrogen production. Finally, part five discusses membranes utilisation in industrial and environmental applications, including microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and forward osmosis, as well as water, wastewater and nuclear power applications.

With its distinguished editors and team of expert contributors, Advanced membrane science and technology for sustainable energy and environmental applications is an essential reference for membrane and materials engineers and manufacturers, as well as researchers and academics interested in this field.

  • Presents a comprehensive review of membrane science and technology, focusing on developments and applications in sustainable energy and clean-industry
  • Discusses the fundamentals of membrane processes and separation and membrane characterization and economic analysis
  • Addresses the key issues of membrane utilisation in coal and gas power plants and the petrochemical industry, the use of membranes for alternative energy applications and membrane utilisation in industrial and environmental applications

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  7. Preface
  8. Part I: Introduction to membrane science and engineering
    1. Chapter 1: Fundamental membrane processes, science and engineering
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Membrane processes
      4. 1.3 Conclusions and future trends
    2. Chapter 2: Fundamental science of gas and vapour separation in polymeric membranes
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Basic principles and definitions of separation processes
      4. 2.3 Effects of the properties of penetrants and polymers
      5. 2.4 Effects of pressure on transport parameters
      6. 2.5 Effects of temperature on transport parameters
      7. 2.6 Gas permeability of polymers: objects of membrane gas separation
      8. 2.8 Appendix: list of symbols
    3. Chapter 3: Characterization of membranes for energy and environmental applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Polymer and carbon molecular sieve membranes
      3. 3.2 Zeolite and mixed matrix membranes
      4. 3.3 Mass transport characterization
      5. 3.4 Conclusions
      6. 3.6 Appendix: list of symbols
    4. Chapter 4: Economic analysis of membrane use in industrial applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Economic analysis
      4. 4.3 Case studies
      5. 4.4 Conclusions and future trends
  9. Part II: Membranes for coal and gas power plants: carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, synthesis gas processing and oxygen (O2) transport
    1. Chapter 5: Membrane technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture in power plants
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Reasons for using membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation and sequestration
      4. 5.3 A short review of membrane technology for CO2 separation
      5. 5.4 Performance of membrane processes for CO2 sequestration
      6. 5.5 Membrane modules for CO2 sequestration
      7. 5.6 Design for power plant integration
      8. 5.7 Cost considerations and membrane technology at the industrial scale
      9. 5.8 Modelling aspects of gas permeation membrane modules
      10. 5.9 Conclusions and future trends
      11. 5.11 Appendix: list of symbols
    2. Chapter 6: Polymeric membranes for post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Basic principles of flue gas membrane separation
      4. 6.3 Membrane development and applications in power plants
      5. 6.4 Operation and performance issues and analysis
      6. 6.5 Advantages and limitations
      7. 6.6 Future trends
    3. Chapter 7: Inorganic membranes for pre-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Inorganic membranes for carbon dioxide (CO2) separation
      4. 7.3 Membrane reactors for CO2 capture
      5. 7.4 Techno-economic analysis of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and natural gas combined cycle (NGCC)
      6. 7.5 Conclusions and future trends
    4. Chapter 8: Inorganic membranes for synthesis gas processing
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Basic principles of membrane operation
      4. 8.3 Membrane materials and development
      5. 8.4 Application and integration in industry
      6. 8.5 Membrane modules
      7. 8.6 Future trends
      8. 8.7 Conclusions
      9. 8.9 Appendix: list of symbols
    5. Chapter 9: Oxygen transport membranes: dense ceramic membranes for power plant applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Oxygen transport membrane materials, development and design
      4. 9.3 Principles of oxygen membrane separation
      5. 9.4 Application and integration in power plants
      6. 9.5 Oxygen transport membranes
      7. 9.6 Future trends
      8. 9.7 Conclusions
      9. 9.8 Acknowledgements
  10. Part III: Membranes for the petrochemical industry: hydrocarbon fuel and natural gas processing, and advanced biofuels production
    1. Chapter 10: Membranes for hydrocarbon fuel processing and separation
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Membrane materials, development and design for hydrocarbon processing
      4. 10.3 Separation of olefins and paraffins
      5. 10.4 Removal of hydrocarbons from liquid streams
      6. 10.5 Nanotechnologies from fundamental research to large-scale industry
      7. 10.7 Appendix: list of symbols
    2. Chapter 11: Polymeric membranes for natural gas processing
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Polymeric membrane operations in natural gas processing
      4. 11.3 Membrane materials, development and design for natural gas processing
      5. 11.4 Operation and performance issues and analysis
      6. 11.5 Application and integration into natural gas operations
      7. 11.6 Advantages and limitations
      8. 11.7 Future trends
      9. 11.10 Appendix: list of symbols
    3. Chapter 12: Membranes for advanced biofuels production
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 General overview of second-generation biofuels
      3. 12.2 Hydrolysis of biomass to produce sugars
      4. 12.3 Key role of process engineering for second-generation biofuels production
      5. 12.4 Membrane bioreactors
      6. 12.5 Biocatalyst continuously separated by a membrane system and recirculated into the reaction tank
      7. 12.6 Biocatalyst immobilized onto the membrane surface
      8. 12.7 Continuous stirred tank reactor with biocatalyst immobilized on the membrane surface (CSTMB)
      9. 12.8 Single pass membrane bioreactor
      10. 12.9 Hollow fibre membrane bioreactor with recycling of unreacted substrate
      11. 12.10 Conclusions
      12. 12.13 Appendix: list of symbols
  11. Part IV: Membranes for alternative energy applications: batteries, fuel cells and hydrogen (H2) production
    1. Chapter 13: Ion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Electrochemical energy storage
      3. 13.2 Vanadium redox flow batteries
      4. 13.3 Membranes
      5. 13.4 Conclusions
    2. Chapter 14: Membranes for lithium batteries
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Types of lithium battery and basic operating principles
      4. 14.3 Polymer electrolyte membranes for advanced lithium batteries
      5. 14.4 Conclusions and future trends
    3. Chapter 15: Proton exchange membranes for fuel cells
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Basic operating principles and types of fuel cell
      4. 15.3 Membrane materials, design and fabrication processes
      5. 15.4 Membrane performance in operation: issues and analysis
      6. 15.5 Integration and application of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems
      7. 15.6 Advantages and limitations of PEM fuel cells
      8. 15.7 Future trends
      9. 15.10 Appendix: list of symbols
    4. Chapter 16: Functional ceramic hollow fibre membranes for catalytic membrane reactors and solid oxide fuel cells
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Membrane materials issues
      4. 16.3 Membrane development routes and macrostructure control
      5. 16.4 A multifunctional dual-layer hollow fibre membrane reactor (DL-HFMR) for methane conversion
      6. 16.5 Dual-layer hollow fibres for a micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)
      7. 16.6 Other ways of improving ceramic dual-layer hollow fibres
      8. 16.7 Conclusions
    5. Chapter 17: Proton-conducting ceramic membranes for solid oxide fuel cells and hydrogen (H2) processing
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Operation principle of proton-conducting ceramic membranes and demands on materials
      4. 17.3 Protons and proton conductance in ceramics
      5. 17.4 Conductivity and hydrogen (H2) flux of selected classes of ceramic membrane materials
      6. 17.5 Structure of selected classes of proton-conducting materials
      7. 17.6 Chemical stability of selected classes of ceramic membrane materials
      8. 17.7 Conclusions
      9. 17.8 Acknowledgements
    6. Chapter 18: Membrane electrolysers for hydrogen (H2) production
      1. Abstract:
      2. 18.1 Introduction
      3. 18.2 Basic principles of electrolysis
      4. 18.3 Membrane materials
      5. 18.4 Membrane performance
      6. 18.5 Application and integration of electrolyser systems
      7. 18.6 Some advantages and limitations of current membrane materials
      8. 18.7 Future trends
      9. 18.10 Appendix: nomenclature
    7. Chapter 19: Biomimetic membrane reactors for hydrogen (H2) production
      1. Abstract:
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 General background to the concept
      4. 19.3 An ambitious goal with numerous challenges
      5. 19.4 Thermodynamic limitations and device design
      6. 19.5 Integrated engineering approach for solar-to-fuel conversion
      7. 19.6 Conclusions
  12. Part V: Membranes for industrial, environmental and nuclear applications
    1. Chapter 20: Membranes for industrial microfiltration and ultrafiltration
      1. Abstract:
      2. 20.1 Introduction
      3. 20.2 Basic principles of microfiltration and ultrafiltration
      4. 20.3 Membrane materials and membrane preparation technology
      5. 20.4 Module configuration and process design
      6. 20.5 Concentration polarization and membrane fouling
      7. 20.6 Applications
      8. 20.7 Microfiltration and ultrafiltration in integrated processes
      9. 20.8 Advantages and limitations
      10. 20.9 Future trends
    2. Chapter 21: Membranes for forward osmosis in industrial applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 Mechanism of forward osmosis
      4. 21.3 Membranes for forward osmosis
      5. 21.4 Forward osmosis membrane modules
      6. 21.5 Effect of various parameters on transmembrane flux
      7. 21.6 Applications of forward osmosis
      8. 21.7 Conclusions
      9. 21.8 Acknowledgements
    3. Chapter 22: Degradation of polymeric membranes in water and wastewater treatment
      1. Abstract:
      2. 22.1 Introduction
      3. 22.2 Polymer materials and module design
      4. 22.3 Membrane failure and operational issues
      5. 22.4 Membrane degradation mechanisms
      6. 22.5 Identification and monitoring of membrane degradation
      7. 22.6 Materials degradation control strategies
      8. 22.7 Future trends
      9. 22.9 Acknowledgements
    4. Chapter 23: Membranes for photocatalysis in water and wastewater treatment
      1. Abstract:
      2. 23.1 Introduction
      3. 23.2 Basic principles of heterogeneous photocatalysis
      4. 23.3 Membrane materials developments and design for photocatalysis
      5. 23.4 Membrane operations performance issues and analysis: case studies
      6. 23.5 Future trends
    5. Chapter 24: Membranes for nuclear power applications
      1. Abstract:
      2. 24.1 Introduction
      3. 24.2 Membranes for nuclear fission applications
      4. 24.3 Membranes for nuclear fusion applications
      5. 24.4 Conclusions
      6. 24.5 Future trends
  13. Index