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Advanced ICTs for Disaster Management and Threat Detection: Collaborative and Distributed Frameworks

Book Description

Advanced ICTs for Disaster Management and Threat Detection: Collaborative and Distributed Frameworks demonstrates how strategies and state-of-the-art ICT have and/or could be applied to serve as a vehicle to advance disaster management approaches, decisions and practices. This book provides both a conceptual and practical guidance to disaster management while also identifying and developing effective and efficient approaches, mechanisms, and systems using emerging technologies to support an effective operation. This state-of-the-art reference collection attempts to prompt the future direction for disaster managers to identify applicable theories and practices in order to mitigate, prepare for, respond to and recover from various foreseen and/or unforeseen disasters.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Editorial Advisory Board
  3. List of Reviewers
  4. Foreword
  5. Preface
    1. THE PURPOSE OF THE BOOK
    2. WHO SHOULD READ THE BOOK?
    3. ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK
  6. Acknowledgment
  7. 1. Current Approaches in Disaster Management
    1. 1. A Systemic Approach to Managing Natural Disasters
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. A SDMS MODEL
        1. Recursive Structure of the SDMS Model
        2. Relative Autonomy (RA)
      5. STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE SDMS MODEL
        1. System 1: Disaster- Policy Implementation
        2. System 2: Disaster-National Early Warning Coordination Centre (NEWCC)
        3. System 2*: Disaster-Local Early Warning Coordination Centre (LEWCC)
        4. System 3: Disaster-Functional (Monitoring, Assessment)
        5. System 3*: Disaster-Audit
        6. System 4: Disaster-Development
        7. System 4*: Disaster-Confidential Reporting System
        8. System 5: Disaster-Policy
          1. Hot-Line
        9. The SDMS & Its Environment
          1. Climate Change
          2. National and Local Cultures
          3. Learning from Past Disasters
          4. Unplanned Urbanization
          5. Improper Construction of Buildings
          6. Technology
          7. Weather Conditions After a Disaster
          8. Geographical Locations and Settlements
          9. Poverty
          10. Cities in a Continuous Change
          11. Lack of Regulations
          12. Isolation and Remoteness
          13. Armed Conflicts
          14. Epidemics
          15. Politics
          16. Corruption
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    2. 2. ICT Approaches in Disaster Management: Public Awareness, Education and Training, Community Resilience in India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Natural Disaster Profile: India Basic Facts
        2. Impact of Natural Disasters on India
        3. Some Recent Cyclones in India
        4. Details of Floods in the Last Few Years
          1. South East Asian Tsunami 2004: Impact on the Tamil Nadu Coast
          2. Damage to the Chennai Coast and the Tamil Nadu Coast
      3. NEED FOR COMMUNITY BASED DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND EDUCATION
        1. Importance of Communication in Disaster Management
      4. BROADBAND WIRELESS COMMUNICATION IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT: A CASE STUDY
        1. Broadband Wireless Access and the Digital Divide
        2. ICT Initiatives in the Tsunami Affected Districts of Tamil Nadu
        3. Village Knowledge Centres / Village Information Centres
        4. Challenges
      5. COMMUNITY RADIO: A CASE STUDY
      6. MULTIMEDIA CAMPAIGNS: A CASE STUDY
      7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS AND CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    3. 3. Multimedia Educational Application for Risk Reduction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. SALTARIESGO: Printed Version Description
        2. Methodology
        3. SALTARIESGO: Digital Version Description
        4. Game Application and Validation: Phases 1 and 2
        5. Evaluation of the Didactic Development: Phase 3
      4. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    4. 4. Natural Hazards: Changing Media Environments and the Efficient Use of ICT for Disaster Communication
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. The Function and Changing Logic of the Media
      4. DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION
        1. Disaster Communication in a Changing Media Environment
      5. CASE STUDY: INFORMATION ACQUISITION, PERCEPTION OF RISK AND PRESS COVERAGE OF FLOODS IN SWITZERLAND
        1. Data Basis
      6. MEDIA COVERAGE OF DISASTERS
        1. Information Seeking Behaviour and Media Use in Disaster Situations
        2. Risk Perception and Protective Behaviour
      7. IMPLICATIONS OF THE CASE STUDY FOR DISASTER COMMUNICATION AND THE USE OF ICT
      8. THE NEED FOR FURTHER RESEARCH
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    5. 5. United Arab Emirates: Disaster Management with Regard to Rapid Onset Natural Disasters
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
        1. The UAE in Brief
        2. Geography and Geology
        3. Governance and Development Strategy
        4. Emirate of Dubai
        5. Emirate of Fujairah
      4. NATURAL HAZARDS FACING UAE
        1. Al Qurayah Floods 1995
        2. Masafi Earthquake 2002
        3. Al Tawaian Landslides 2006
        4. Tropical Gonu Storm 2007
        5. Sharm Flood 2009
        6. Tsunamis
      5. IMPROVING PREPAREDNESS OF RESPONSE TO POTENTIAL NATURAL DISASTERS: REGIONAL LEVEL
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. 6. Disaster Informatics: Information Management as a Tool for Effective Disaster Risk Reduction
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INFORMATION DISSEMINATION
      5. INFORMATION MANAGEMENT AND WEB
        1. Application Examples
      6. OTHER DISSEMINATION TOOLS
      7. INTEGRATED SYSTEM
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
  8. 2. Advanced Collaborative Technologies for Disaster Management
    1. 7. Efficient Deployment of ICT Tools in Disaster Management Process
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE POTENTIAL TO USE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT) IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
        1. Nature of Information Flow in Disaster Management
        2. Advanced ICT in Three Basic Stages of Disaster Management
        3. Constraints in Use of ICT in Disaster Management
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    2. 8. Current State and Solutions for Future Challenges in Early Warning Systems and Alerting Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND ON EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS
        1. Definition of Early Warning
        2. Categorization and Views on Early Warning Systems
        3. The Role of Internet in EWS
        4. ICT Challenges in Early Warning Systems
        5. Evaluation Methods for Early Warning Systems
      4. REPRESENTATIVE SYSTEMS AND INTEROPERABILITY
        1. Selected EWS
        2. Global Level
        3. International and National Level
        4. Regional and Local Level
        5. Interoperability Issues
      5. ALERTING TECHNOLOGIES
        1. Challenges in Alerting the Public
        2. Available Alerting Technologies
          1. Classical Alert Systems (AT1)
          2. Radio and TV Broadcast (AT2)
          3. Telecommunication Systems (AT3)
          4. Mobile Radio Networks
          5. Fixed Cable Networks (AT4)
          6. Satellite Communication (AT5)
          7. Telecontrol Systems (AT6)
        3. Criteria for Comparing Alerting Technologies
          1. Coverage
          2. Availability
          3. Capacity
          4. Vulnerability
          5. Scalability
          6. Multi-Tasking
          7. Interoperability
          8. Content
          9. Cost-Effectiveness and Feasibility
        4. Comparison of Existing Alerting Technologies
      6. FUTURE CHALLENGES
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. 9. MedISys: Medical Information System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. EUROPE MEDIA MONITOR
      4. STATISTICS AND TEXT PROCESSING IN MEDISYS
      5. EXTRACTING DETAILED INFORMATION ABOUT MEDICAL OUTBREAK EVENTS USING PULS
      6. BLOG MONITORING
      7. USER INTERFACE AND CUSTOMIZATION
      8. RAPID NEWS SERVICE
      9. CONCLUSIONS & FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. REFERENCES
    4. 10. Social Media (Web 2.0) and Crisis Information: Case Study Gaza 2008-09
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION: ICTS FOR FORWARD-LOOKING CRISIS MANAGEMENT
      3. THEORY AND PRACTICE: SOCIAL MEDIA (WEB 2.0) IN CRISIS CONTEXTS
        1. Crisis Management and the Media in the Risk Society
        2. Web 2.0 Technologies and Crisis Information
          1. Social Media Use in Crises: Experiences and Trends
            1. 9/11 (2001)
            2. New Orleans Floods (2005)
            3. Virginia Tech Shootings (2007)
            4. California Wildfires (2007)
            5. The Greek Riots (2008)
            6. L'Aquila Earthquake (2009)
          2. Main Functionalities of Social Media in Crises
            1. Peer-to-Peer Communication
            2. Information
            3. Activism
            4. Case Study Gaza 2008-2009
            5. "Everyone has a Voice"
          3. Community Narratives, Distributed Collaborative Production of News: Multi-Author Narratives and the Construction of Meaning, Dissemination and Structure of the News Message
          4. Establishing Credibility, Constructing Reliability, Accuracy in the Multifaceted Narrative, Discrediting and Slander
        3. Roles: The Changing Role of the Audience; The Changing role of the Journalist; The Expert
        4. Processes
          1. Social Media as a News Centre; The News Consumer as a News Producer and Peace Activist
          2. The Two Faces of an Activist's Blog: A Forum, and a News Service
        5. Summing Up Gaza: Does it Indicate a Paradigm Shift in Crisis Information Management?
        6. Towards Future Developments
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. DISCLAIMER
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    5. 11. Utilizing Web 2.0 for Decision Support in Disaster Mitigation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WEB 2.0 APPLICATIONS AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT
        1. Social Tagging
        2. Photo Sharing
        3. Blogs
      4. XML
        1. Ajax
      5. DISCUSSION
        1. Activity Theory
        2. Activity Theory Principles
        3. Comparison of Web 2.0 Applications
        4. Remaining Challenges
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    6. 12. Incident and Disaster Management Training: Collaborative Learning Opportunities Using Virtual World Scenarios
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
        1. Integration of Learning Theories with Information and Communication Technology
        2. Applications to Scenario Design in Training and Development
      4. SELECTING AN APPROPRIATE TEL MODEL: MOVING TOWARDS VIRTUAL LEARNING
        1. From Tabletop Exercises to Simulations to Virtual Worlds
        2. Virtual Worlds as a Training Tool
      5. CASE STUDY APPLICATION
        1. Incident and Disaster Management Training in a Graduate Program
        2. Scenario Course Implementation and Learning Methodology
        3. Scenario Scripting
        4. Facilitating Scenario Communication Opportunities
        5. Scenario Evaluation
        6. Scenario Limitations
        7. Lessons Learned: Solutions to the Training Challenges
      6. IDENTIFICATION OF CHALLENGES AND FUTURE RESEARCH
        1. Challenges
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
  9. 3. Next Generation Approaches and Distributed Frameworks for Disaster Management
    1. 13. Mathematical Models Generators of Decision Support Systems for Help in Case of Catastrophes: An Experience from Venezuela
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Catastrophes, Models and DSS
        2. Catastrophes
        3. Mathematical Models
          1. Decreasing Digits
          2. Goal Programming
          3. Inventory Models and A, B, C Model
        4. A, B, C Model
          1. Matrixes of Weighing (MOW)
            1. Characteristics of the Matrixes of Weighing
          2. Models Based in Fuzzy Set
          3. Multiattribute Models with Multiplicative Factors
        5. The Multiplicative Factors
          1. Problems of Maximum Flow and Flow of Minimal Cost
          2. Problems of Shorter Routes and Dijkstra Algorithm
          3. Structures of Decisions Trees
          4. Transportation Models, Transhipment Problems and Assignment Model
        6. Decision Support Systems (DSS)
        7. Application of the Decision Support Systems in Catastrophes
          1. Decreasing Digits
          2. Goal Programming
          3. Inventory Models and A, B, C Model
          4. Matrixes of Weighing (MOW)
          5. Models Based in Fuzzy Set
          6. Multiattribute Models with Multiplicative Factors
          7. Flow Problems
          8. Problems of Shorter Routes
          9. Structures of Decisions Trees
          10. Transportation Models and Their Varieties
          11. The Decision Support System of López & Pérez (2006)
      3. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      6. REFERENCES
    2. 14. Integrating Scenario-Based Reasoning into a Multi-Criteria Decision Support System for Emergency Management
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
        1. Information Systems for a Standard MCDA Approach: Multi-Attribute Value Theory and Tools
        2. Problem Structuring
        3. Preference Elicitation
        4. MCDA Results
        5. MCDA and Uncertainty
        6. Scenario-Based Reasoning (SBR)
        7. Constructing and Using Scenarios in Emergency Management
        8. Scenario Selection and Evaluation of Decision Alternatives
        9. Illustrative Example
        10. Chlorine Incident Scenario Construction
        11. Scenario Selection and Representation of Results
      3. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      4. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ENDNOTE
    3. 15. POP-C + + and Alpine3D: Petition for a New HPC Approach
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Usual Approach and Limitations
        2. Phenomenological Approach and Limitations
        3. Need for a New DHPC Programming Paradigm
        4. Case Study: The Alpine3D Model
        5. MeteoIo
        6. Energy Balance
        7. Snow Distribution
        8. Snowpack
        9. Runoff
      3. DISTRIBUTED HPC WITH THE POP PROGRAMMING MODEL
        1. The Parallel Object Programming (POP) Model
          1. Remote Method Invocation Semantics in the POP Model
        2. The POP-C++ Programming Language
          1. Object Resources Description in POP-C++
          2. Coupling MPI Code with POP-C++ Code
          3. Advanced Distributed OO Programming with POP-C++
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. 16. Sensor and Computing Infrastructure for Environmental Risks: The SCIER System
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Related Work
        2. SCIER System
        3. Sensing Subsystem
        4. Localized Alerting Subsystem
        5. Computing Subsystem
        6. Fusion Process in SCIER
        7. First Level Fusion
        8. Second Level Fusion
          1. Examples of the Fusion Process
      3. FIRE FRONT EVOLUTION SIMULATION – GRID WORKFLOW
      4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
        1. Simulation Setup
        2. Evaluation Method
        3. Experimental Results and Discussion
      5. EXPLOITATION
      6. FUTURE WORK
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    5. 17. A Personalized Forest Fire Evacuation Data Grid Push Service: The FFED-GPS Approach
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BRIEF BACKGROUND REVIEW
        1. Case Scenario: Improving Current Practice
      4. OVERVIEW OF RELATED TECHNOLOGIES
      5. FFED-GPS ARCHITECTURE
      6. FFED-GPS DEVELOPMENT APPROACH
        1. The Algorithm for Quadrant 1
          1. Single Direction Fires
          2. Variable Direction Fires
      7. FFED-GPS IMPLEMENTATION
        1. Testing and Simulation Results of the FFED-GPS Prototype
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
  10. Compilation of References
  11. About the Contributors