Vector integral calculus can be seen as a generalization of regular integral calculus. You may wish to review integration. (To refresh your memory, there is an optional review section on double integrals; see Sec. 10.3.)

Indeed, vector integral calculus extends integrals as known from regular calculus to integrals over curves, called *line integrals* (Secs. 10.1, 10.2), surfaces, called *surface integrals* (Sec. 10.6), and solids, called *triple integrals* (Sec. 10.7). The beauty of vector integral calculus is that we can transform these different integrals into one another. You do this to simplify evaluations, that is, one type of integral might be easier to solve than another, such as in potential theory (Sec. 10.8). More specifically, Green's theorem in the plane allows you to transform line integrals into double integrals, or conversely, double integrals into line integrals, as shown in Sec. 10.4. Gauss's convergence theorem (Sec. 10.7) converts surface integrals into triple integrals, and vice-versa, and Stokes's theorem deals with converting line integrals into surface integrals, and vice-versa.

This chapter is a companion to Chapter 9 on vector differential calculus. From Chapter 9, you will need to know inner product, curl, and divergence and how to parameterize curves. The root of the transformation of the integrals was largely ...

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