Transmission lines are parts of a circuit that interconnect the different components of a circuit. They are also used to model transmission lines in communication systems. In many integrated circuits there are losses due to the interconnections between the different components. These losses are due to limitations such as the bandwidth, attenuation, and distortion, among many other factors, which in many cases are negligible because the circuits operate at low frequencies. An interconnection consisting of two conductors and a dielectric can be considered as a transmission line. Transmission lines have distributed parameters and have a characteristic impedance which is a dynamic parameter defined by ...