You are previewing Adult and Continuing Education.
O'Reilly logo
Adult and Continuing Education

Book Description

Beyond the undergraduate and graduate levels, education has traditionally ceased when students enter the workforce as professionals in their respective fields. However, recent trends in education have found that adult students beyond the traditional university age often benefit greatly from returning to further their education. Adult and Continuing Education: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools, and Applications investigates some of the most promising trends in furthering education and professional development in a variety of settings and industries. With an extensive array of chapters on topics ranging from non-traditional students to online and distance education for adult learners, this multi-volume reference book will provide students, educators, and industry professionals with the tools necessary to make the most of their return to the classroom.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Editorial Advisory Board and List of Reviewers
    1. Editor-in-Chief
    2. Associate Editors
    3. Editorial Advisory Board
  5. Preface
  6. Section 1: Fundamental Concepts and Theories
    1. Chapter 1: Historical Evolution of Adult Education in America
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN THRUST OF CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 2: Adult Learners Online
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ABC’s OF LEARNING DIFFERENCES
      4. PERSONNEL MAKING AN IMPACT, THE ROLE OF DESIGNERS, FACULTY, AND ADMINISTRATORS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 3: A Qualitative Research Approach for the Investigation and Evaluation of Adult Users' Participation Factors through Collaborative E-Learning Activities in the Virtual World of “Second Life”
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL UNDERPINNINGS
      4. ADULTS’ PARTICIPATION THEORIES IN EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES
      5. COLLABORATIVE E-LEARNING PRACTICES IN VIRTUAL WORLDS: THE CASE OF SECOND LIFE
      6. PREVIOUS QUALITATIVE WORKS
      7. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
      8. METHODOLOGY
      9. RESEARCH FRAMEWORK
      10. THE RESULTS OF THE INTERVIEW
      11. DISCUSSION POINTS
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. FUTURE WORK
      14. REFERENCES
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 4: Electronic Education and Lifelong Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATION
      4. EXPANDING HORIZONS IN ELECTRONIC EDUCATION
      5. LIMITATIONS, THE DIGITAL DIVIDE, AND GLOBAL BARRIERS
      6. ADDITIONAL ISSUES REVOLVING AROUND ELECTRONIC EDUCATION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 5: Best Practices of Teaching Cross-Cultural Adults in Online Format
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BENEFITS OF ONLINE LEARNING
      4. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD CROSS-CULTURAL ONLINE LEARNING
      5. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD ONLINE TEACHERS/TRAINERS
      6. EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR CROSS-CULTURAL ONLINE LEARNING
      7. IMPORTANCE OF EVALUATION OF ONLINE LEARNING
      8. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ADDITIONAL READING
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 6: Participatory Barriers to the Informal Learning of Older Australians using the Internet and Web 2.0 Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE INTERNET AND AN AGEING AUSTRALIAN POPULATION
      5. OVERVIEW OF GOVERNMENT AND COMMUNITY-BASED INITIATIVES IN AUSTRALIA
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 7: Millennial Adult Learners in the 21st Century
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE TRENDS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 8: Adult Millennials
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ADULT LEARNERS: CHARACTERISTICS AND ASSUMPTIONS
      4. CHARACTERISTICS AND TRAITS OF MILLENNIALS
      5. COMPARING ADULT LEARNER AND MILLENNIAL CHARACTERISTICS
      6. IMPLICATIONS FOR ONLINE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 9: Social Justice and Adult Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 10: Open Access Web Resources for Library Continuing Education and Training
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OPEN ACCESS ONLINE EDUCATION SOURCES: DESCRIPTION AND EVALUATION
      4. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 11: Professional Development Opportunities for Academic Subject Librarians
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 12: Definition and History of Online Professional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BENEFITS FOR OnLPD
      4. SOURCES FOR QUALITY ONLINE PD
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 13: Professional Development with Graduate Teaching Assistants (TAs) Teaching Online
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FIRST PRINCIPLES OF MOTIVATION TO LEARN AND E-LEARNING
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 14: Key Factors for Maximizing the Effectiveness of Blended E-Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. KEY FEATURES OF THE BLENDED PROGRAM DESIGNED AND IMPLEMENTED VIA THE DISTANCE-ADULT-EDUCATION-CENTER FOR LIFELONG LEARNING
      5. THE OBJECTIVES, THE METHODS AND THE SOURCES OF DATA FOR THE EVALUATION
      6. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION
      7. PROPOSALS AND FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 15: Assessment Processes for Online Professional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND ON ASSESSMENT
      4. DETERMINING THE ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT
      5. DEVELOPING ASSESSMENT TOOLS
      6. MAKING USE OF THE DATA
      7. CASE STUDY: USING JOURNALING AS AN ASSESSMENT TOOL
      8. FUTURE TRENDS
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  7. Section 2: Tools and Technologies
    1. Chapter 16: Enabling Creative Blended Learning for Adults through Learning Design
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. THE LEARNING ACTIVITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 17: Engaging Adult Learners with Innovative Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE GOOD NEWS: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES TO THE RESCUE!
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 18: Technology as Integral to a New Paradigm of Adult Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ADULT EDUCATION THEORY AND PRACTICE
      4. TECHNOLOGY
      5. THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY IN THE NEW PARADIGM
      6. ISSUES MOVING THE FIELD FORWARD
      7. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 19: Twitter-Based Knowledge Sharing in Professional Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHOD
      5. FINDINGS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 20: Teachers' Use of Social Networking Sites for Continuing Professional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TEACHERS’ USE OF SNS FOR CPD
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 21: Assessment and Learning Partnerships in an Online Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONTEXT
      5. THE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
      6. MAKING SENSE OF DATA
      7. LATENT TRAIT OR ITEM RESPONSE THEORY
      8. STUDENT ASSESSMENT SYSTEM
      9. USE OF THE FRAMEWORKS
      10. DISCUSSION
      11. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 22: Defining Professional Development for Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. REVIEW AND CRITIQUE OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT MODELS
      4. PROCESS OF CONDUCTING EFFECTIVE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      5. PLANNING FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. APPENDIX A
      11. APPENDIX B
    8. Chapter 23: Online Professional Development for Adults
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ANDRAGOGY'S HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS
      4. IMPLEMENTING ANDRAGOGY IN ONLINE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT: PROOFS AND PREMISES
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    9. Chapter 24: Professional Development in a Virtual World
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SECOND LIFE BACKGROUND
      4. CASE STUDY: DR. SPEAKER MENTORS DR. GRUBAUGH IN SECOND LIFE
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 25: From Basic Participation to Transformation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONTEXT: TWO NEW ZEALAND ONLINE COMMUNITIES OF PRACTICE
      5. THE RESEARCH
      6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITION
      11. APPENDIX
    11. Chapter 26: 3D Virtual Classroom Simulations for Supporting School Teachers' Continuing Professional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. KEY CONCEPTS RELATED TO USING 3D VIRTUAL WORLDS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING
      5. A 3D VIRTUAL CLASSROOM SIMULATION FOR FACILITATING TEACHERS’ TRAINING IN USING 3D VIRTUAL WORLDS IN REAL EDUCATION
      6. SUMMARY OF TEACHERS’ CPD MODULE SUPPORTED BY THE 3D VCS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 27: The Use of Digital Resources to Support Elementary School Teachers' Implementation of the Common Core State Standards
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. MODES OF SUPPORT
      5. IMPLICATIONS AND CHALLENGES
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
    13. Chapter 28: Teacher Professional Development Using Mobile Technologies in a Large-Scale Project
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING AND MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES
      4. MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES IN BANGLADESH
      5. THE ENGLISH IN ACTION (EIA) PROJECT AND MOBILE TECHNOLOGIES
      6. THE ELT CONTEXT OF EIA SCHOOLS IN BANGLADESH
      7. TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE PILOT PHASE
      8. RESEARCH FINDINGS FROM THE PILOT PHASE AND DISCUSSION
      9. CHALLENGES
      10. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      11. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      12. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 29: Professional Development for Online Educators
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. FUTURE TRENDS
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 30: Enabling Professional Development with E-Portfolios
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ASSESSING LEARNING THROUGH PORTFOLIOS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      4. THE USE OF AN E-PORTFOLIO
      5. THE E-PORTFOLIO PROJECT
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. RESULTS
      8. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    16. Chapter 31: ARTI
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ARTI IMPLEMENTATION
      5. IMPLICATIONS FOR ARTI
      6. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  8. Section 3: Development and Design Methodologies
    1. Chapter 32: Design of an Online Continuing Education Module
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 33: Towards an Adult Learning Architecture of Participation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE UK CONTEXT AND INFORMAL ELEARNING
      4. RESEARCHING INFORMAL ELEARNING
      5. TESTING EMERGENT LEARNING: LESSONS FROM INFORMAL ELEARNING PROJECTS
      6. ORGANISATIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF PARTICIPATION ISSUES AND PUBLIC VALUE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 34: The Single Most Popular Theory
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 35: Design Guidelines for Self-Assessment Support for Adult Academic Distance Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SELF-ASSESSMENT AND METACOGNITION: A LITERATURE SURVEY COMPLEMENTED BY SOME OPEN UNIVERSITY DATA
      5. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR THE SUPPORT OF METACOGNITION
      6. GUIDELINES TO SUPPORT SELF-ASSESSMENT
      7. TANGIBLE DESIGNS
      8. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR DESIGN AND APPLICATION
      9. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 36: Designing a Professional Development Program
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DESIGN A PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
      4. FORMAL PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      5. ACTIVITIES OR LENGTH OF PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      6. ASSESSING THE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OUTCOMES
      7. GIVING TEACHERS HANDS-ON TECHNOLOGY USE
      8. ACTIVELY ENGAGE TEACHERS IN MEANINGFUL AND RELEVANT ACTIVITIES
      9. PROVIDING A VARIETY OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES
      10. TEACHERS LEARNING IN COLLABORATION WITH EACH OTHER
      11. PROMOTE COMMUNITY BUILDING
      12. ESTABLISHING A CULTURE OF TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION
      13. PLANNING FOR NEW ROLES FOR TEACHERS
      14. BUDGET FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES
      15. SUMMARY
      16. REFERENCES
      17. ADDITIONAL READING
      18. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      19. APPENDIX
    6. Chapter 37: Theoretical Rationale for Designing a Blended Learning Teachers' Professional Development Program
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 38: Designing District-Wide Technology-Rich Professional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
      3. THE CASE
      4. CONCLUSION
    8. Chapter 39: Multi-Faceted Professional Development Models Designed to Enhance Teaching and Learning within Universities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TECHNOLOGY FOR UNIVERSITY TEACHING AND LEARNING
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 40: A Framework for Developing Robust Online Professional Development Materials to Support Teacher Practice under the Common Core
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. PROBLEM STATEMENT
      3. DESIGN FRAMEWORK
      4. APPLYING THE FRAMEWORK
      5. EXTENDING THE FRAMEWORK
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 41: Designing Effective Online Instructor Training and Professional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. APPLICATION OF ADULT LEARNING AND INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES
      5. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND MODELS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 42: Designing Simulations for Professional Skill Development in Distance Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PLANNING PROCESS
      4. E-SIMULATION DESCRIPTION
      5. SIMULATION AND LEARNING THEORIES
      6. THE IMPORTANCE OF DESIGN
      7. BLENDED LEARNING IN DISTANCE EDUCATION
      8. CONSTRUCTIVE RESPONSES TO THE DESIGN CHALLENGE
      9. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 43: An Activity Theoretical Approach to Examining Virtual Professional Development and Informal Learning via Social Networks
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL NETWORKS
      4. DEFINING ACTIVITY THEORY
      5. APPLYING THE ACTIVITY THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 44: A Model for Online Instructor Training, Support, and Professional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    14. Chapter 45: Developing ITV Best Teaching Practices and Effective Professional Development Programs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. FINDINGS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    15. Chapter 46: Project Management Methods for the Implementation of an Online Faculty Development Course
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. IMPLICATIONS FOR PROJECT MANAGEMENT
      7. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  9. Section 4: Utilization and Application
    1. Chapter 47: Digital Literacy in a Lifelong Learning Programme for Adults
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE CONTEXT: SECOND CHANCE SCHOOLS AND DIGITAL LITERACY
      4. THE STUDY
      5. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    2. Chapter 48: Lifelong Learning in Europe
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LIFELONG LEARNING IN EUROPE
      4. ERASMUS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 49: The Public Library in an Aging Society
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ADVANCING AN AGING SOCIETY
      4. JAPAN’S FUNDAMENTAL FRAMEWORK FOR AN AGING SOCIETY
      5. THE ELDERLY IN JAPAN
      6. LIFELONG LEARNING IN AN AGING SOCIETY
      7. SERVICES FOR THE ELDERLY ON PUBLIC LIBRARIES
      8. CASE STUDIES OF LIBRARY SERVICES FOR THE ELDERLY
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 50: Adult Education and Sustainable Learning Outcome of Rural Widows of Central Northern Nigeria
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HISTORICAL FOUNDATION, NATURE, AND CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SCHOOL
      4. DISCUSSION OF MAJOR FINDINGS
      5. FACETS OF WIDOWS’ SUSTAINABLE LEARNING OUTCOME
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    5. Chapter 51: Shifting to a Needs-Based Continuing Education Model
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. SCKLS BLaST
      5. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    6. Chapter 52: Online Mentoring as a Tool for Professional Development and Change of Novice and Experienced Teachers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MENTORSHIP AS A TOOL FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE
      4. THE ONLINE MENTORSHIP PROGRAM OF THE “PORTAL DOS PROFESSORES” (UFSCAR)
      5. RESULTS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 53: Digital Media Literacy Practices for 5th Year Pre-Service Teachers in a PDS Model
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN A PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT SCHOOL MODEL
      4. DIGITAL MEDIA LITERACY PRACTICES
      5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 54: Multi-Modal Professional Development for Faculty
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF CHAPTER
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. APPENDIX A
      10. APPENDIX B
      11. APPENDIX C
      12. APPENDIX D
    9. Chapter 55: Changing the Face of ELA Classrooms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE CASE STUDY
      5. THE EVALUATION
      6. TEACHER PERCEPTIONS OF THE PROGRAM
      7. INTEGRATION OF TECHNOLOGY INTO ELA CONTENT AND PEDAGOGY IN THE CLASSROOMS
      8. DOCUMENTED CHANGES IN STUDENT OUTCOMES
      9. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      11. SUMMARY
      12. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      13. REFERENCES
      14. ADDITIONAL READING
      15. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      16. ENDNOTES
    10. Chapter 56: Using an Observation Cycle for Helping Teachers Integrate Technology
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 57: Professional Development with and for Emerging Technologies
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 58: Ernst & Young Leadership and Professional Development Center
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. APPLICATION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 59: The Pacific Open Learning Health Net
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT
      5. LESSONS LEARNED
      6. FUTURE PLANS AND DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 60: Leveling the Professional Development Playing Field
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 61: The Pathway to Nevada's Future
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
      3. THE CASE
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
    16. Chapter 62: Transformative Learning in the Workplace
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. FIRST SCENARIO
      3. SECOND SCENARIO
      4. TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING
      5. PARADOXES
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  10. Section 5: Organizational and Social Implications
    1. Chapter 63: Transformative Learning and Technology in Adult and Vocational Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. FOUNDATIONS OF ADULT LEARNING
      4. EPISTEMOLOGICAL POSITIONS
      5. CRITICAL REFLECTION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 64: Literacy Level and Vocational Training for Substance-Using Hispanic Adults
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD
      4. RESULTS: SPANISH READING LEVEL
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. REFERENCES
    3. Chapter 65: Facilitating Learning with Adult Students in the Transcultural Classroom
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WHAT IS AN ADULT STUDENT?
      4. WHAT IS TRANSCULTURALISM, AND HOW DOES IT DIFFER FROM MULTICULTURALISM?
      5. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR FACULTY OF TRANSCULTURALISM IN THE ADULT-CENTERED CLASSROOM?
      6. PRINCIPLES FOR WORKING WITH ADULT, TRANSCULTURAL STUDENTS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 66: Nation Building through Andragogy and Lifelong Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. INTERNATIONAL WORK
      5. “MEASURABLE PERFORMANCE INDICATORS” FOR THE CHARACTERISTIC ELEMENTS OF A LIFELONG LEARNING HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION (HEI)
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 67: An Exploratory Study of the Experiences of Older Non-Traditional Students in an Online Learning Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. NON-TRADITIONAL STUDENTS’ EXPERIENCES OF ONLINE TECHNOLOGY LEARNING: A CASE STUDY
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      9. APPENDIX
    6. Chapter 68: Differentiating Instruction for Adult Learners in an Online Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. ENACTING DIFFERENTIATION
      5. CHALLENGES AND SUGGESTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIATED LEARNING IN ONLINE COURSES
      6. WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE? DIFFERENTIATION IN AN ONLINE COURSE
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 69: Developing Self-Regulation Skills in Virtual Worlds
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
      4. A SELF-REGULATION SCENARIO APPLIED IN SECOND LIFE
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    8. Chapter 70: Lifelong Tools for the Learner, Educator, and Worker
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TOWARD A NEW PHILOSOPHICAL OUTLOOK AND PERSPECTIVE
      5. TRIADIC ELEMENTS OF LIFELONG LEARNING
      6. LIFELONG TOOLS OF EDUCATION AND LEARNING
      7. FUTURE TRENDS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 71: Adapting Adult Educators' Teaching Philosophies to Foster Adult Learners' Transformation and Emancipation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVES IN ADULT EDUCATION
      4. PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERPINNINGS OF TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING THEORY
      5. THE ROLE OF PHILOSOPHY IN EDUCATIONAL THEORY
      6. EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE
      7. THE ADULT LEARNER
      8. THE ADULT LEARNING PROFESSIONAL
      9. METHODS
      10. REFLECTIONS
      11. REFERENCES
      12. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 72: Adult Learning Influence on Faculty Learning Cycle
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 73: More than Changing Classrooms
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTEXT
      4. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      5. LEARNING WITH TECHNOLOGY
      6. PROFESSIONAL LEARNING IN TECHNOLOGY-CENTRIC ENVIRONMENTS
      7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
      8. DATA ANALYSIS
      9. CASE STUDY FINDINGS
      10. IMPLICATIONS FOR PLANNING AN ONLINE COURSE
      11. DISCUSSION
      12. RECOMMENDATIONS
      13. REFERENCES
    12. Chapter 74: Reflections on Personal Experiences of Staff Training and Continuing Professional Development for Academic Staff in the Development of High Quality Support for Disabled Students in Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. STAFF TRAINING AND CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT: DOES MORE NEED TO BE DONE?
      4. ISSUES IN POLICY AND PROVISION OF TRAINING AND CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      5. SOME SAMPLE TASKS FOR USE IN DISABILITY EDUCATION SESSIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 75: Adding the “Digital Layer”
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONTEXT FOR CRWP
      4. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS: TEACHER TRANSFORMATION AND TPACK
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. DATA
      7. IMPLICATIONS
      8. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 76: Professional Development through Web 2.0 Collaborative Applications
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CHALLENGES TO COLLABORATIVE APPLICATIONS
      4. COLLABORATIVE APPLICATIONS
      5. FUTURE OF COLLABORATIVE APPLICATIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    15. Chapter 77: Implementing the Professional Development Program
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHODS OF IMPLEMENTING THE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
      4. PROVIDING INCENTIVES
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. ADDITIONAL READING
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    16. Chapter 78: School Librarians as Significant Other
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. THE SCHOOL LIBRARIAN AS A SIGNIFICANT OTHER FOR PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  11. Section 6: Managerial Impact
    1. Chapter 79: No Adult Left Behind
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PURPOSE
      4. BACKGROUND
      5. LITERATURE REVIEW
      6. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY WORDS AND DEFINITIONS
    2. Chapter 80: The Art and Science of Designing and Developing an Online English Language Training Module for Adult Learners
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. E-TRAINING AS A MEANS FOR CONTINUOUS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      3. WORKPLACE ONLINE TRAINING
      4. OLELT DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT
      5. DEVELOPING A LEARNING CULTURE AMONG ACADEMICIANS: LESSON LEARNED
      6. REFERENCES
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS:
    3. Chapter 81: Partnerships between University and Adult Education Providers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PARTNERSHIPS
      4. CURRENT PRACTICES
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    4. Chapter 82: Partnerships between Business and Adult Education Providers
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BUILDING A PARTNERSHIP
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 83: Moving from Corporate Training to Corporate Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. MOVING FROM CORPORATE TRAINING TO CORPORATE EDUCATION
      4. THE IMPORTANCE OF CORPORATE EDUCATION IN ACCOUNTANCY
      5. CURRENT ACCOUNTING EDUCATION IN TURKEY
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 84: Professional Development Opportunities Provided by Consortia
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. THE INLAND NORTHWEST COUNCIL OF LIBRARIES (INCOL): A CONSORTIUM SERVING A REGION
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 85: Providing Professional Development Opportunities to Staff in Tough Economic Times
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ADMINISTRATORS AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      4. CONCLUSION
      5. REFERENCES
      6. ADDITIONAL READING
      7. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 86: Improving Teachers' Self-Confidence in Learning Technology Skills and Math Education through Professional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. PROBLEM OVERVIEW
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. FINDINGS
      7. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. APPENDIX
    9. Chapter 87: The Development and Change of Teachers' Strategic Knowledge in Teachers' Online Community of Practice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
      4. PURPOSE, RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 88: Benefits of Internal Professional Development for Academic Librarians
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. BENEFITS AND ROLES OF INTERNAL PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    11. Chapter 89: Teacher Leadership
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINING TEACHER LEADERS
      4. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
      5. A SHARED RESPONSIBILITY
      6. IDENTIFYING DISPOSITIONS OF TEACHER LEADERS
      7. TEACHERS LEADING TEACHERS
      8. TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHER LEADERSHIP
      9. FINAL THOUGHTS
      10. REFERENCES
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
  12. Section 7: Critical Issues
    1. Chapter 90: Interests as a Component of Adult Course Preferences
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CASE STUDIES
      4. RESULTS
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
      7. APPENDIX
    2. Chapter 91: Profiling and Supporting Adult Learners
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: ADULT LEARNING THEORIES AND RESEARCH SURVEY
      4. A FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING ADULT LEARNER CHARACTERISTICS
      5. IMPLICATIONS AND BEST PRACTICES
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 92: Teaching Computers to Adults
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE: DIGITAL LITERACY AND ADULT LEARNING
      4. THE CONTEXT
      5. RESEARCH AIMS AND METHODOLOGY
      6. FINDINGS
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 93: Chinese Pedagogy or Western Andragogy?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. ADULT EDUCATION METHODS IN CHINA
      5. ADULT EDUCATION METHODS IN THE UNITED STATES
      6. RESEARCH METHODS
      7. PARTICIPANTS
      8. VALIDATION OF INSTRUMENTS
      9. DATA ANALYSIS
      10. FINDINGS
      11. DISCUSSION
      12. CONCLUSION
      13. REFERENCES
      14. APPENDIX A
      15. APPENDIX B
    5. Chapter 94: From Politicized Adult Education to Market Oriented Adult Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. POLITICIZED ADULT EDUCATION PRACTICE
      4. MARKET ORIENTED ADULT HIGHER EDUCATION
      5. FINDINGS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. IMPLICATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
      8. REFERENCES
    6. Chapter 95: The E-Learning Cycle and Continuous Improvement for E-Entrepreneurs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. FROM LEARNING TO E-LEARNING IN E-ENTREPRENEURSHIP
      3. INFLUX OF TECHNOLOGY IN OUR LIVES
      4. THE PRINCIPLE OF CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT
      5. THE CIRCLE OF E-LEARNING
      6. THE 4R’S OF THE CIRCLE OF LEARNING
      7. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      8. REFERENCES
    7. Chapter 96: Moving Beyond the One-Shot for Professional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. INTENSIVE INSTITUTES
      4. CURRENT OFFERINGS
      5. PARTICIPANT REACTIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 97: Evaluating and Funding the Professional Development Program
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BUILT-IN AND ONGOING EVALUATION
      4. SOURCES FOR FUNDING AND SUPPORT
      5. EVALUATION CHECKLIST
      6. ISSUES AND CONCERNS
      7. SUMMARY
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND EXPLANATIONS
    9. Chapter 98: Creating an Authentic Space for a Private and Public Self through E-Portfolios
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ASSESSING LEARNING THROUGH PORTFOLIOS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
      3. THE USE OF AN E-PORTFOLIO
      4. AUTHENTICITY AND PORTFOLIO DEVELOPMENT
      5. EXAMINING AN E-PORTFOLIO INTERVENTION
      6. METHODOLOGY
      7. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
    10. Chapter 99: Library Associations, Conferences, and Professional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. RESULTS
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. APPENDIX
    11. Chapter 100: A Professional Development School Technology Integration and Research Plan
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. ORGANIZATION BACKGROUND
      3. SETTING THE STAGE: TECHNOLOGY USE IN A TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM
      4. CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES FACING THE ORGANIZATION
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 101: An Intramuscular Approach to Teacher Development in International Collaborative Higher Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. MAIN FOCUS OF THE CHAPTER
      5. RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      12. APPENDIX
    13. Chapter 102: A Decade Later
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. RESEARCH ON EFFECTIVE TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
      4. THE NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR ICT IN SCHOOLS (ITiS) 1999-2002
      5. AIM
      6. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS
      7. ANALYSIS
      8. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION
      9. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 103: Online Communities of Practice as Vehicles for Teacher Professional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. EXPERIENCES OF TRAINING STATISTICS TEACHERS AT-A-DISTANCE
      5. ISSUES, CONTROVERSIES, PROBLEMS
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
    15. Chapter 104: Is Presence of Community of Practice Dimensions Sufficient for Community-Based Teacher Professional Development?
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. LITERATURE REVIEW
      5. METHODOLOGY
      6. PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
      7. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. APPENDIX
    16. Chapter 105: ABCs and PCs
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND INFORMATION
      3. SETTING THE STAGE
      4. THE CASE
      5. CURRENT CHALLENGES
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
  13. Section 8: Emerging Trends
    1. Chapter 106: Examining Adult Learning Assumptions and Theories in Technology-Infused Communities and Professions
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND/THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. A NEW PARADIGM FOR ADULT LEARNING IN TECHNOLOGY INFUSED COMMUNITIES AND PROFESSIONS
      5. POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      6. FUTURE TRENDS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    2. Chapter 107: Collective Transformation of Three Generations of Chinese Adult Learners in K-20 Education
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. RESEARCH METHODS
      5. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    3. Chapter 108: Participatory Learning in Formal Adult Education Contexts
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. TEACHING ADULTS AS A SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITY
      5. CRITICAL PEDAGOGY
      6. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE IN FORMAL ADULT EDUCATION SETTINGS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    4. Chapter 109: Improving Workforce Education and Adult Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. REDEFINING WORKFORCE EDUCATION AND ADULT LEARNING IN THE 21 CENTURY
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    5. Chapter 110: Story-Based Professional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. WIKI DESIGN, SURVEY DESIGN, AND WIKI IMPLEMENTATION
      4. RESULTS
      5. DISCUSSION
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. APPENDIX
    6. Chapter 111: Contrasting Professional Development and Continuing Education Opportunities for Library Professionals
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. OPPORTUNITIES PROVIDED BY MAJOR PROFESSIONAL LIBRARY ASSOCIATIONS
      5. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OUTSIDE OF LIBRARIANSHIP
      6. SOLUTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READINGS
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    7. Chapter 112: Taking Action Research in Teacher Education Online
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND: ACTION RESEARCH AND COACHING
      4. CRITICAL JUNCTURES IN THE ACTION RESEARCH PROCESS
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    8. Chapter 113: Online Learning Community
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. ONLINE LEARNING COMMUNITY (OLC)
      4. OLC AND PLC
      5. THE CONTEXT
      6. OLC4TPD: THE DESIGN
      7. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
      8. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ADDITIONAL READING
      11. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    9. Chapter 114: Teacher Professional Development through Virtual Campuses
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. DEFINITIONS AND APPROACHES REVISED
      4. VIRTUAL CAMPUSES: TOWARDS A ‘NEW’ TPD MODEL
      5. ASPECTS OF THE VCTPD MODEL
      6. RECOMMENDATIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    10. Chapter 115: The Impact of New Technologies on Professional Development
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND/THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      4. THE NEW LEARNING ENVIRONMENT
      5. FUTURE TRENDS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
    11. Chapter 116: Developing Professional Competencies through International Peer Learning Communities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND
      4. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH AND THE SETTING FOR THE STUDY
      5. LEARNING COMMUNITIES: HOW DO THEY WORK IN PRACTICE
      6. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ADDITIONAL READING
      10. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    12. Chapter 117: Managing Project-Based Workplace Learning at a Distance
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. THE PLACE OF WORKPLACE LEARNING IN THE CURRICULUM
      4. MANAGING THE WORKPLACE LEARNING AT A DISTANCE
      5. EVALUATION AND COURSE IMPROVEMENT
      6. CHALLENGES OF DISTANCE
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
    13. Chapter 118: Towards More Socio-Culturally Sensitive Research and Study of Workplace E-Learning
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BACKGROUND
      3. MAIN FOCUS
      4. THE SOCIO-CULTURAL IMPERATIVE FOR WORKPLACE E-LEARNING RESEARCH AND STUDY
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
    14. Chapter 119: Moving from Professional Development to Real-Time Use
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
      4. RESULTS OF REAL TIME USE
      5. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ADDITIONAL READING
      9. KEY TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
      10. ENDNOTES