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Ad Hoc Networks: Routing, Qos and Optimization

Book Description

This work presents ad hoc networks and their characteristics. It explains a new protocol of routing with QoS as well as its implementation in a network simulator and compares it with the existing protocols. The book discusses the principle of the load balancing, treats the approaches of optimization of energy, and proposes a new approach with an analytical model that gives a better performance.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Chapter 1: Introduction to Ad Hoc Networks
    1. 1.1. Introduction
    2. 1.2. Wireless networks and communications
      1. 1.2.1. Wireless communications
      2. 1.2.2. Wireless networks
      3. 1.2.3. Classification of wireless networks
        1. 1.2.3.1. Classification by type of network architecture
        2. 1.2.3.2. Classification by extent of the zone covered
        3. 1.2.3.3. Classification by means of access to the radio channel
          1. 1.2.3.3.1. Time division multiple access (TDMA) networks
          2. 1.2.3.3.2. Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) networks
          3. 1.2.3.3.3. Code division multiplex access (CDMA) networks
          4. 1.2.3.3.4. Space division multiplex access (SDMA) networks
    3. 1.3. Ad hoc networks (MANET)
      1. 1.3.1. Characteristics and advantages
      2. 1.3.2. Applications
    4. 1.4. Routing of ad hoc networks
      1. 1.4.1. Hierarchical routing, flat routing and routing by geographic localization
      2. 1.4.2. Link-state, distance-vector and source-routing protocols
      3. 1.4.3. Proactive, reactive and hybrid routing
    5. 1.5. Conclusion
  5. Chapter 2: Routing in MANETs
    1. 2.1. Introduction
    2. 2.2. Internet routing protocols
      1. 2.2.1. Distance-vector routing protocols
      2. 2.2.2. Link-state routing protocols
      3. 2.2.3. Unsuitability of Internet routing protocols for MANETs
    3. 2.3. Classification of routing protocols in MANET
      1. 2.3.1. Table-driven routing protocols
        1. 2.3.1.1. Destination-sequenced distance-vector routing (DSDV)
        2. 2.3.1.2. Optimized link-state routing protocol
          1. 2.3.1.2.1. Description of the protocol
          2. 2.3.1.2.2. Determination of multipoint networks (MPR)
          3. 2.3.1.2.3. Selection of MPRs
          4. 2.3.1.2.4. Calculation of the routing table
      2. 2.3.2. Reactive (on demand) routing protocols
        1. 2.3.2.1. Dynamic source-routing (DSR)
        2. 2.3.2.2. Ad hoc on-demand distance-vector
          1. 2.3.2.2.1. Description of the protocol
          2. 2.3.2.2.2. Route discovery mechanism
          3. 2.3.2.2.3. Route maintenance mechanism
      3. 2.3.3. Hybrid routing protocols
      4. 2.3.4. Hierarchical routing protocols
      5. 2.3.5. Geographic routing protocols
      6. 2.3.6. Routing protocols with power control
      7. 2.3.7. Multicast routing protocols
    4. 2.4. Conclusion
  6. Chapter 3: Performance Evaluation of OLSR and AODV Protocols
    1. 3.1. Introduction
    2. 3.2. The AODV protocol
      1. 3.2.1. Route establishment
        1. 3.2.1.1. Path discovery
        2. 3.2.1.2. Reverse path setup
        3. 3.2.1.3. Forward path setup
        4. 3.2.1.4. Routing table management
      2. 3.2.2. Path maintenance
    3. 3.3. The OLSR protocol
      1. 3.3.1. Format of OLSR packets and node addresses
      2. 3.3.2. Operation of the protocol
        1. 3.3.2.1. Neighborhood sensing
          1. 3.3.2.1.1. Link-state sensing
          2. 3.3.2.1.2. Direct neighbor sensing
          3. 3.3.2.1.3. Declaration of selector MPRs
          4. 3.3.2.1.4. HELLO message format
          5. 3.3.2.1.5. MPR technique
        2. 3.3.2.2. Topology management
          1. 3.3.2.2.1. TC messages and the topological information base
          2. 3.3.2.2.2. MID messages and the declaration of multiple interfaces
          3. 3.3.2.2.3. Management of subnetworks
        3. 3.3.2.3. Routing
    4. 3.4. Simulation environment
      1. 3.4.1. The ns-2 network simulator
      2. 3.4.2. Methodology
      3. 3.4.3. Parameters to evaluate
        1. 3.4.3.1. Average packet delay
        2. 3.4.3.2. Packet delivery success rate
        3. 3.4.3.3. Traffic overhead (TOH)
        4. 3.4.3.4. Route acquisition latency (RAL)
    5. 3.5. Results and analysis
      1. 3.5.1. Packet delivery ratio
      2. 3.5.2. Average packet delay
      3. 3.5.3. Control traffic volume
      4. 3.5.4. Route acquisition latency
    6. 3.6. Conclusion
  7. Chapter 4: Quality of Service in MANETs
    1. 4.1. Introduction
    2. 4.2. QoS: a definition
      1. 4.2.1. QoS in wired networks
        1. 4.2.1.1. The IntServ/RSVP approach
        2. 4.2.1.2. The DiffServ approach
      2. 4.2.2. QoS in wireless networks
        1. 4.2.2.1. QoS models
        2. 4.2.2.2. Signaling
        3. 4.2.2.3. Routing with QoS
          1. 4.2.2.3.1. Definition of routing with QoS
          2. 4.2.2.3.2. Ticket-based probing (TBP) algorithm
          3. 4.2.2.3.3. CEDAR
          4. 4.2.2.3.4. QoS AODV
        4. 4.2.2.4. MAC layer
    3. 4.3. The OLSRQSUP protocol and QoS extensions
      1. 4.3.1. Operation of the protocol
        1. 4.3.1.1. Delay
        2. 4.3.1.2. Bandwidth
      2. 4.3.2. Sensing of neighborhood QoS parameters
        1. 4.3.2.1. HELLO message extensions
        2. 4.3.2.2. Format of information base extensions
          1. 4.3.2.2.1. Neighbor set
          2. 4.3.2.2.2. Two-hop Neighbor Set
          3. 4.3.2.2.3. MPR selector set
        3. 4.3.2.3. MPR selection algorithm
        4. 4.3.2.4. Topology management
        5. 4.3.2.5. Routing
    4. 4.4. Conclusion
  8. Chapter 5: Implementation and Simulation
    1. 5.1. Introduction
    2. 5.2. Implementation
      1. 5.2.1. Use of the simulator
      2. 5.2.2. Implementation by steps
      3. 5.2.3. OLSRQSUP modules
      4. 5.2.4. Calculation of metrics
    3. 5.3. Simulation
      1. 5.3.1. Simulation parameters
      2. 5.3.2. Parameters to evaluate
      3. 5.3.3. Simulation results
        1. 5.3.3.1. Quantitative results
        2. 5.3.3.2. Impact of mobility and network density
          1. 5.3.3.2.1. Packet delivery ratio
          2. 5.3.3.2.2. Average packet delay (APD)
          3. 5.3.3.2.3. Average throughput received
          4. 5.3.3.2.4. Average number of MPRs
          5. 5.3.3.2.5. Control traffic
        3. 5.3.3.3. Traffic impact
          1. 5.3.3.3.1. Packet delivery ratio
          2. 5.3.3.3.2. Average packet delay
          3. 5.3.3.3.3. Average throughput
          4. 5.3.3.3.4. Average path length
    4. 5.4. Conclusion
  9. Chapter 6: Load Distribution in MANETs
    1. 6.1. Introduction
    2. 6.2. Previous approaches to the load-sharing problem
      1. 6.2.1. Approaches to load-sharing in multipath routing
        1. 6.2.1.1. The multipath adaptative load balancing (MALB) mechanism
          1. 6.2.1.1.1. Modeling of the network
          2. 6.2.1.1.2. Formulation of the problem
          3. 6.2.1.1.3. Description of the mechanism
          4. 6.2.1.1.4. Performance evaluation
      2. 6.2.2. Approaches to load-sharing in single-path routing
      3. 6.2.3. Performance comparison of load-sharing approaches in single-path and multipath routing
        1. 6.2.3.1. Packet queues in single-path routing
        2. 6.2.3.2. Packet queues in multipath routing
        3. 6.2.3.3. Commentary
    3. 6.3. Analytical study of the load-sharing problem in an ad hoc network with shortest-path routing
    4. 6.4. Proposition
      1. 6.4.1. Proactive routing protocols
        1. 6.4.1.1. Proposal for a new routing metric
        2. 6.4.1.2. Modification of the routing algorithm
      2. 6.4.2. Reactive routing protocols
        1. 6.4.2.1. Proposed new routing metric
        2. 6.4.2.2. Proposed handover mechanism
        3. 6.4.2.3. Modification of the routing algorithm
    5. 6.5. Performance evaluation of proposed load-balancing mechanisms
      1. 6.5.1. Evaluation: load distribution
      2. 6.5.2. Evaluation: end-to-end delay
      3. 6.5.3. Evaluation: packet delivery fraction
    6. 6.6. Conclusion
  10. Chapter 7: Energy Optimization in Routing Protocols
    1. 7.1. Introduction
    2. 7.2. Energy optimization techniques
      1. 7.2.1. Energy consumption in ad hoc networks
      2. 7.2.2. Energy minimization methods for ad hoc networks
        1. 7.2.2.1. The physical layer
        2. 7.2.2.2. The data liaison layer
          1. 7.2.2.2.1. The MAC layer
          2. 7.2.2.2.2. The LLC layer
        3. 7.2.2.3. The network layer
          1. 7.2.2.3.1. Global minimization
          2. 7.2.2.3.2. Local minimization
          3. 7.2.2.3.3. Transmission power modulation
        4. 7.2.2.4. The transport layer
        5. 7.2.2.5. The application layer
    3. 7.3. Energy minimizing routing models in ad hoc networks
      1. 7.3.1. Minimum total transmission power routing
      2. 7.3.2. Minimum battery cost routing
      3. 7.3.3. Min–max cost routing
      4. 7.3.4. Conditional min–max battery capacity routing
        1. 7.3.4.1. SVSZ
        2. 7.3.4.2. FVSZ
    4. 7.4. Comparison of energy consumption for an ad hoc network routing protocols simulated in ns-2
      1. 7.4.1. The energy consumption model
      2. 7.4.2. Simulation method
      3. 7.4.3. Simulation results
        1. 7.4.3.1. Basic scenario simulation
        2. 7.4.3.2. Pause time variation
        3. 7.4.3.3. Variation of maximum node velocity
        4. 7.4.3.4. Variation in number of traffic sources
        5. 7.4.3.5. Variation in number of nodes
        6. 7.4.3.6. Variation of test network surface
        7. 7.4.3.7. Transfer debit variation
    5. 7.5. Conclusion
  11. Chapter 8: Wi-Fi Access for Ad Hoc Networks
    1. 8.1. Introduction
    2. 8.2. Wi-Fi network structure
      1. 8.2.1. The physical layer
        1. 8.2.1.1. Frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS)
        2. 8.2.1.2. Direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS)
        3. 8.2.1.3. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
      2. 8.2.2. The data link layer
        1. 8.2.2.1. CSMA/CA
        2. 8.2.2.2. RTS/CTS
        3. 8.2.2.3. Modes of access to the wireless channel
          1. 8.2.2.3.1. DCF mode
          2. 8.2.2.3.2. PCF mode
        4. 8.2.2.4. Additionl properties of the MAC and LLC layers
    3. 8.3. Wi-Fi network architecture
      1. 8.3.1. Ad hoc mode
      2. 8.3.2. Infrastructure mode
        1. 8.3.2.1. Communication with the AP
        2. 8.3.2.2. Roaming
      3. 8.3.3. Grid mode
    4. 8.4. Wi-Fi norms
      1. 8.4.1. The 802.11a norm
      2. 8.4.2. The 802.11b norm
      3. 8.4.3. The 802.11e norm
      4. 8.4.4. The 802.11f norm
      5. 8.4.5. The 802.11g norm
      6. 8.4.6. The 802.11i norm
      7. 8.4.7. The 802.1x norm
      8. 8.4.8. The 802.11n specification
    5. 8.5. 802.11n migration
    6. 8.6. Conclusion
  12. Bibliography
  13. APPENDICES
    1. Appendix 1: The Ad Hoc Networks Simulator (ANS)
      1. A1.1. The ANS Application
      2. A1.2. Traces
      3. A1.3. Curve tracing
    2. Appendix 2: TCL Script of OLSRQSUP Protocol
    3. Appendix 3: Awk Script
  14. Index