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Action Analysis for Animators

Book Description

Action Analysis is one of the fundamental princples of animation that underpins all types of animation: 2d, 3d, computer animation, stop motion, etc. This is a fundamental skill that all animators need to create polished, believable animation. An example of Action Analysis would be Shrek's swagger in the film, Shrek. The animators clearly understood (through action analysis) the type of walk achieved by a large and heavy individual (the real) and then applied their observations to the animated character of an ogre (the fantastic). It is action analysis that enabled the animation team to visually translate a real life situation into an ogre's walk, achieving such fantastic results.

Key animation skills are demonstrated with in-depth illustrations, photographs and live action footage filmed with high speed cameras. Detailed Case Studies, practical assignments and industry interviews ground action analysis methodology with real life examples. Action Analysis for Animators is a essential guide for students, amateurs and professionals.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Halftitle
  3. Title
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. Introduction
  8. 1. The Study of Motion
    1. Asking Ourselves Some Key Questions
    2. Pioneers of Action Analysis
    3. Books About Animation
  9. 2. Dynamics and the Laws of Motion
    1. An Approach to Study: What You Need to Know
    2. Forces of Nature
    3. The Weak Nuclear Force
    4. The Strong Nuclear Force
    5. The Electromagnetic Force
    6. Gravity
    7. Newton’s Theory of Gravitation
    8. Newtononian Laws of Motion
      1. Newton’s First Law of Motion
      2. Newton’s Second Law of Motion
      3. Newton’s Third Law of Motion
  10. 3. Animation Principles
    1. A Little History
    2. Approaches to Animation
    3. Simulation
      1. Representation
      2. Interpretation
    4. Four A’s of Animation
      1. Activity
      2. Action
      3. Animation
      4. Acting
    5. Timing for Animation
      1. Pacing
      2. Phrasing
      3. Animation Timing
    6. The Hierarchy of Animated Actions
      1. Primary Action
      2. Secondary Action
      3. Tertiary Action
    7. The Principles of Animation
    8. Timing, Secondary Action, and Slow In and Slow Out
      1. Straight-Ahead Action and Pose-to-Pose
      2. Squash and Stretch
      3. Anticipation
      4. Staging
      5. Follow-through and Overlapping Action
      6. Arcs
      7. Exaggeration
      8. Solid Drawing
      9. Appeal
      10. Drag
      11. Balance and Weight
      12. Solid Modeling
      13. Energy Flow
  11. 4. Animals in Motion
    1. The Richness of Life on Earth
    2. Human Understanding of the Animal Kingdom
    3. The Principles of Locomotion
      1. Speed
      2. Maneuverability
      3. Endurance and Economy of Energy
      4. Stability and Gait
    4. Quadrupeds
    5. Quadruped Anatomy
      1. Muscle
      2. Tendons
      3. Anatomy
      4. Horses
      5. Cats
      6. Dogs
      7. Cows
      8. Other Quadrupeds
      9. Crocodiles
      10. Squirrels
      11. Quadruped Animation
    6. Birds
      1. Bird Anatomy
      2. Small Birds
      3. Medium-Sized and Large Land-Based Birds
      4. Water Birds
      5. Hummingbirds
      6. Birds of Prey
      7. Seabirds
      8. Other Birds
      9. Bird Animation
      10. Principles of Flight
      11. Types of Wings
      12. Types of Flight
    7. Fish
      1. Fish Anatomy
      2. Fish Movement
      3. Fish Animation
  12. 5. Figures in Motion
    1. Human Anatomy
      1. Human Skeletal Structure
      2. Human Musculature
    2. Human Animation
      1. The Sagittal or Median Plane
      2. The Frontal or Coronal Plane
      3. The Transverse or Horizontal Plane
      4. Objectives of Movement
      5. Balance
      6. Locomotion
      7. Projection
      8. Manipulation
      9. Effort
      10. Movement Given to One’s Own Body
      11. Movement Given to External Objects
      12. Movement under Loads
      13. Figurative Interaction
      14. Children in Motion
      15. Movement in the Elderly
      16. Movement and the Environment
    3. Walking
      1. The Stride
      2. The Passing Position
      3. A Child Walk
      4. An Elderly Walk
      5. A Heavy Walk
      6. Walking with a Limp
      7. Walking with an Aid
      8. A Happy Walk
      9. A Sad Walk
    4. Running
      1. Timing a Run
      2. Sprinting
      3. Steady Runs
      4. Jogging
      5. Child Running
    5. Lifting
    6. Lifting a Heavy Weight
      1. Lifting a Light Weight
      2. Lifting a Light Weight with One Hand
      3. Cooperation in Lifting Weight
    7. Carrying
    8. Pushing
    9. Pulling
    10. Throwing and Catching
    11. Kicking
    12. Jumping
      1. Striking
      2. Using Hands and Articulation
      3. Facial Movement
  13. 6. Action in Performance and Acting
    1. Timing Gives Meaning to Motion
    2. Body Language
    3. Mood and Psychology
    4. Facial Motion and Expression
    5. The Thinking Process
    6. Lip Sync
    7. Motivated Movements
      1. Characterization
      2. Character Types
      3. Personality
    8. Performance Dynamics
    9. Action Analysis and Acting
    10. Group Actions and Dynamics
    11. Dance and Choreography
  14. 7. Capturing and Analyzing Action
    1. Capturing Action
      1. First-Hand Observation
      2. Photographing Action
      3. Filming Action
      4. Motion Capture
    2. Analyzing Action
      1. Four A’s of Animation
      2. Analyzing the Moving Image
      3. Reading a Sequence
      4. Staging Actions and Choreography
      5. Analysis of Performance
      6. Analyzing Still Images
      7. Analyzing Animation
  15. 8. Research
    1. Reference and Research
      1. Primary Research
      2. Secondary Research
      3. Quantitative Research
      4. Qualitative Research
    2. Research Methods
      1. Heuristic
      2. Phenomenology
      3. Action Research
      4. Participant Observer
      5. Ethnographic Research
      6. Sources
    3. Creating Your Own Reference Library
    4. Further Reading and Viewing
  16. Index