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A Step-by-Step Approach to Using SAS® for Univariate & Multivariate Statistics, Second Edition by Edward J. Stepanksi Ph.d., Larry Hatcher, Norm O'Rourke

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Introduction: What Is a Repeated-Measures Design?

A one-way repeated-measures ANOVA is appropriate when:

  • the analysis involves a single predictor variable measured on a nominal scale;

  • the analysis also involves a single criterion variable measured on an interval- or ratio-scale;

  • each participant is exposed to each condition under the independent variable.

The repeated-measures design derives its name from the fact that each participant provides repeated scores on the criterion variable. Each participant is exposed to every treatment condition under the study’s independent variable and provides scores on the criterion under each of these conditions. Perhaps the easiest way to understand the repeated-measures design is to contrast it with the

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