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A Step-by-Step Approach to Using SAS® for Univariate & Multivariate Statistics, Second Edition by Edward J. Stepanksi Ph.d., Larry Hatcher, Norm O'Rourke

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Introduction: The Basics of Multivariate Analysis of Variance

Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) with one between-subjects factor is appropriate when an analysis involves the following:

  • a single predictor variable measured on a nominal scale;

  • multiple criterion variables, each of which is measured on an interval or ratio scale.

MANOVA is similar to ANOVA in that it tests for significant differences between two or more groups of participants. There is an important difference between MANOVA and ANOVA, however: ANOVA is appropriate when the study involves just one criterion variable whereas MANOVA is appropriate when the study involves more than one criterion variable. With MANOVA, you can perform a single computation that determines whether ...

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