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A Step-by-Step Approach to Using SAS® for Univariate & Multivariate Statistics, Second Edition by Edward J. Stepanksi Ph.d., Larry Hatcher, Norm O'Rourke

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Using the LSMEANS Statement to Analyze Data from Unbalanced Designs

As discussed in Chapter 9, an experimental design is balanced if the same numbers of observations (participants) appear in each cell of the design. For example, Figure 10.7 (presented earlier in this chapter) illustrates the research design used in the investment model study. It shows that there are five participants in each cell of the design. When a research design is balanced, it is generally appropriate to use the MEANS statement with PROC GLM to request group means, multiple comparison procedures, and confidence intervals.

In contrast, a research design is said to be unbalanced if some cells in the design contain a different number of observations (participants) than other ...

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