You are previewing A Practical Guide to Transmission Electron Microscopy.
O'Reilly logo
A Practical Guide to Transmission Electron Microscopy

Book Description

Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) is a very powerful tool for characterizing various types of materials. Using a light microscope, the imaging resolution is at several hundred nanometers, and for a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) at several nanometers. The imaging resolution of the TEM, however, can routinely reach several angstroms on a modem instrument. In addition, the TEM can also provide material structural information, since the electrons penetrate through the thin specimens, and chemical compositional information due to the strong electron-specimen atom interactions. This book provides a concise practical guide to the TEM user, starting from the beginner level, including upper-division undergraduates, graduates, researchers, and engineers, on how to learn TEM efficiently in a short period of time. It covers most of the areas using TEM, including the instrumentation, sample preparation, diffraction, imaging, analytical microscopy, and some newly developed advanced microscopy techniques. This book may serve as a textbook for a TEM course or workshop, or a reference book for the TEM user to improve their TEM skills.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. About the Book
  9. Personnel Experiences with TEM
  10. Chapter 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 Microscope Resolution
    2. 1.2 Interactions of Electrons with Specimen
    3. 1.3 Comparison of TEM with Other Microscopy Techniques
    4. References
  11. Chapter 2 Sample Preparation
    1. 2.1 Material Samples
      1. 2.1.1 TEM Grids
      2. 2.1.2 Ion Milling
      3. 2.1.3 Electropolishing
      4. 2.1.4 Focused Ion Beam
      5. 2.1.5 Microtomy
    2. 2.2 Biological Samples
      1. 2.2.1 Particulate Samples
      2. 2.2.2 Cells and Tissue Samples
    3. References
  12. Chapter 3 Instrumentation and Operation
    1. 3.1 Construction
      1. 3.1.1 Electron Gun
      2. 3.1.2 Electromagnetic Lens
      3. 3.1.3 Condenser Lenses and Condenser Apertures
      4. 3.1.4 Objective Lens and Objective Aperture
      5. 3.1.5 Intermediate Lens and Diffraction Aperture
      6. 3.1.6 Projector Lens
      7. 3.1.7 Viewing Screen and Camera
    2. 3.2 Instrument Imperfections, Alignments, Corrections, and Calibrations
      1. 3.2.1 Beam Shift and Beam Tilt
      2. 3.2.2 Spherical Aberration
      3. 3.2.3 Chromatic Aberration
      4. 3.2.4 Depth of Field and Depth of Focus
      5. 3.2.5 Specimen Height
      6. 3.2.6 Astigmatism
      7. 3.2.7 Aperture Alignment
      8. 3.2.8 Magnification Calibration
      9. 3.2.9 Camera Length Calibration
      10. 3.2.10 Magnetic Rotation Calibration
    3. 3.3 TEM Operating Procedures
      1. 3.3.1 Startup
      2. 3.3.2 Specimen Loading and Unloading
      3. 3.3.3 Alignments
      4. 3.3.4 Data Recording
      5. 3.3.5 Finishing
    4. References
  13. Chapter 4 Electron Diffraction I
    1. 4.1 Formation of Electron Diffraction
    2. 4.2 Reciprocal Space
    3. 4.3 Indexing of Electron Diffraction Patterns
      1. 4.3.1 Indexing of Powder Patterns
      2. 4.3.2 Indexing of Single-Crystal Diffraction Patterns
      3. 4.3.3 Indexing of Compound Patterns: Twins
      4. 4.3.4 Indexing of Compound Patterns: Multiple Phases
      5. 4.3.5 Indexing of Compound Patterns: Double Diffraction
    4. 4.4 Experimental Procedures
    5. 4.5 Simulation of Diffraction Patterns
    6. References
  14. Chapter 5 Imaging I
    1. 5.1 Imaging Contrast
    2. 5.2 Imaging with Mass-Thickness Contrast
    3. 5.3 Imaging with Diffraction Contrast
      1. 5.3.1 Formation of Diffraction Contrast
      2. 5.3.2 Central Dark-Field Imaging
      3. 5.3.3 Two-Beam Condition
      4. 5.3.4 Bragg-Diffracted Beam Intensity
      5. 5.3.5 Thickness Fringes
      6. 5.3.6 Bend Contours
      7. 5.3.7 Weak-Beam Dark-Field Imaging
      8. 5.3.8 Planar Defects
      9. 5.3.9 Dislocations
    4. References
  15. Appendices
    1. Appendix I. SAED Indexing Table of Primitive Cubic Structure
    2. Appendix II. SAED Indexing Table of Body-Centered Cubic Structure
    3. Appendix III. SAED Indexing Table of Face-Centered Cubic Structure
    4. Appendix IV. SAED Indexing Table of Close-Packed Hexagonal Structure
  16. Illustration Credits
  17. Index