This chapter consists of five parts, namely:
From earliest recorded times groups of people have been organised to work together towards planned goals, and planners coordinated and controlled their efforts to achieve desired outcomes.
Considerable planning skills were required by, for example, the ancient Egyptians to build their pyramids, the ancient Chinese to build the Great Wall of China, and the Romans when building their roads, aqueducts and Hadrian’s Wall.
These time-enduring construction projects required large amounts of human effort with planning, organisation and coordination; and all with no computers, faxes and the combustion engine!
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the great Dark Ages descended, and it was not until the mechanical clock and Guttenberg’s moveable typefaces were invented that any further major development in ‘planning’ was forthcoming. The clock, invented by Heinrich von Wych in Paris in 1370 permitted accurate work measurement. The printing press allowed the ability to communicate by the printed word; and it was whilst at an early version of the Octoberfest that Guttenberg visualised the technique of combining the small dies used for coin-punching ...