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A Practical Guide to the Thematic Apperception Test by Marvin Reznikoff, Kim Altman Weiss, Edward Aronow

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1

CHAPTER

A History of Apperception Techniques

The prehistory of projective techniques goes back quite far, including works of the ancient Greeks on stimulus ambiguity, comments by Da Vinci on the artistic usefulness of discerning objects in the mud or the embers of a fire, and Shakespeare’s comments on “cloud interpretation.”

For instance, in the 15th century, Leonardo Da Vinci quoted Botticelli as stating that when a sponge full of various colors is thrown against a wall, a blot is produced in which figures of people, various animals, and so on, may be perceived. Da Vinci suggested the use of perceptions such as these for artistic inspiration (cited in Zubin, Eron, & Schumer, 1965). He stated:

Don’t take my advice lightly when I advise you, ...

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