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A One-Semester Course in Modeling of VSLI Interconnections

Book Description

Quantitative understanding of the parasitic capacitances and inductances, and the resultant propagation delays and crosstalk phenomena associated with the metallic interconnections on the very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits has become extremely important for the optimum design of the state-of-the-art integrated circuits. More than 65 percent of the delays on the integrated circuit chip occur in the interconnections and not in the transistors on the chip. Mathematical techniques to model the parasitic capacitances, inductances, propagation delays, crosstalk noise, and electromigration-induced failure associated with the interconnections in the realistic high-density environment on a chip will be discussed. A One-Semester Course in Modeling of VLSI Interconnections also includes an overview of the future interconnection technologies for the nanotechnology circuits.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Dedication
  5. Abstract
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Chapter 1 Introductory Concepts
    1. 1.1 Metallic Interconnections
    2. 1.2 Simplified Modeling of Resistive Interconnections as Ladder Networks
    3. 1.3 Propagation Modes in a Metallic Interconnection
    4. 1.4 Slow-Wave Mode
    5. 1.5 Propagation Delays
  10. Chapter 2 Modeling of Interconnection Resistances, Capacitances, and Inductances
    1. 2.1 Interconnection Resistance
    2. 2.2 Modeling of Resistance for a Copper Interconnection
    3. 2.3 Interconnection Capacitances
    4. 2.4 The Green’s Function Method—Method of Images
    5. 2.5 The Green’s Function Method—Fourier Integral Approach
    6. 2.6 Interconnection Inductances
    7. 2.7 Inductance Extraction Using FastHenry
    8. 2.8 Approximate Equations for Capacitances
    9. 2.9 Approximate Equations for Interconnection Capacitances and Inductances on Silicon and GaAs Substrates
  11. Chapter 3 Modeling of Interconnection Delays
    1. 3.1 Metal–Insulator–Semiconductor Microstrip Line Model of an Interconnection
    2. 3.2 Transmission Line Analysis of Single-Level Interconnections
    3. 3.3 Transmission Line Model for Multilevel Interconnections
    4. 3.4 Modeling of Parallel and Crossing Interconnections
    5. 3.5 Modeling of Very-High-Frequency Losses in Interconnections
    6. 3.6 Compact Modeling of Interconnection Delays
    7. 3.7 Modeling of Active Interconnections
  12. Chapter 4 Modeling of Interconnection Crosstalk
    1. 4.1 Lumped Capacitance Model
    2. 4.2 Coupled Multiconductor MIS Microstrip Line Model
    3. 4.3 Frequency-Domain Model Analysis of Single-Level Interconnections
    4. 4.4 Transmission Line Analysis of Parallel Multilevel Interconnections
    5. 4.5 Compact Expressions for Crosstalk Analysis
  13. Chapter 5 Modeling of Electromigration-Induced Interconnection Failure
    1. 5.1 Electromigration Factors and Mechanism
    2. 5.2 Problems Caused by Electromigration
    3. 5.3 Reduction of Electromigration
    4. 5.4 Measurement of Electromigration
    5. 5.5 Electromigration in the Copper Interconnections
    6. 5.6 Models of Integrated Circuit Reliability
    7. 5.7 Modeling of Electromigration Due to Current Pulses
    8. 5.8 Guidelines for Testing Electromigration
  14. Chapter 6 Other Interconnection Technologies
    1. 6.1 Optical Interconnections
    2. 6.2 Superconducting Interconnections
    3. 6.3 Nanotechnology Circuit Interconnections
  15. Appendixes
    1. Appendix A Tables of Constants
    2. Appendix B Method of Images
    3. Appendix C Method of Moments
    4. Appendix D Transmission Line Equations
    5. Appendix E Miller’s Theorem
    6. Appendix F Inverse Laplace Transformation Technique
  16. Index