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A+, Network+, Security+ Exams in a Nutshell

Book Description

If you're preparing for the new CompTIA 2006 certification in A+, or the current Network+ and Security+ certifications, you'll find this book invaluable. It provides all the information you need to get ready for these exams, including the four new A+ exams -- the required Essentials exam and three elective exams that pertain to your area of specialization. As with other O'Reilly Nutshell books for certification exams, A+, Network+ and Security + in a Nutshell follows a proven style and approach. It reviews all of the topics needed to master each exam in a remarkably concise format, with required knowledge boiled down to the core. Instead of plowing through 500 to 700 pages to prepare for each exam, this book covers each one in approximately 150 pages. And because the objectives for the three elective A+ exams are redundant, and the book covers them in one section. The exams covered include:

  • A+ Essentials: Required for A+ 2006 certification

  • EXAM 220-602: For the A+ IT Technician specialization

  • EXAM 220-603: For the A+ Remote Support Technician specialization

  • EXAM 220-604: For the A+ IT Depot specialization

  • EXAM N10-003: For Network+ Certification

  • EXAM SYO-101: For Security+ Certification

Each exam is covered in three parts: Exam Overview, Study Guide and Prep and Practice. Plenty of detailed tables and screen shots are included, along with study notes and practice questions. Once you have completed the exams successfully, you will find this all-in-one book to be a valuable reference to core administration and security skills.

Table of Contents

  1. A+, Network+, Security+ Exams in a Nutshell
  2. Preface
    1. Conventions Used in This Book
    2. Other Study Resources
    3. How to Contact Us
    4. Acknowledgments
  3. I. A+ Essentials
    1. 1. Overview of A+ Essentials Exam
      1. 1.1. Areas of Study for the A+ Essentials Exam
        1. 1.1.1. Personal Computer Components
        2. 1.1.2. Laptops and Portable Devices
        3. 1.1.3. Operating Systems
        4. 1.1.4. Printers and Scanners
        5. 1.1.5. Networks
        6. 1.1.6. Security
        7. 1.1.7. Safety and Environmental Issues
        8. 1.1.8. Communication and Professionalism
    2. 2. A+ Essentials Study Guide
      1. 2.1. Personal Computer Components
        1. 2.1.1. Components of Motherboards
          1. 2.1.1.1. Form Factors
          2. 2.1.1.2. Components of motherboards
            1. 2.1.1.2.1. Chipsets
            2. 2.1.1.2.2. BIOS/Firmware
            3. 2.1.1.2.3. Memory slots
            4. 2.1.1.2.4. External cache memory
            5. 2.1.1.2.5. Processor sockets
            6. 2.1.1.2.6. Integrated I/O ports
            7. 2.1.1.2.7. Expansion bus slots
            8. 2.1.1.2.8. Floppy disk and hard disk connectors
            9. 2.1.1.2.9. Power supply connectors
          3. 2.1.1.3. Power supplies
            1. 2.1.1.3.1. Power supply connectors
          4. 2.1.1.4. Processors
            1. 2.1.1.4.1. Characteristics of processors
          5. 2.1.1.5. Memory
            1. 2.1.1.5.1. Error checking in memory
            2. 2.1.1.5.2. Types of memory
            3. 2.1.1.5.3. Memory modules
          6. 2.1.1.6. Storage devices
            1. 2.1.1.6.1. Floppy disk drives
            2. 2.1.1.6.2. Hard disk drives
            3. 2.1.1.6.3. CD-ROM drives
            4. 2.1.1.6.4. CD burners
            5. 2.1.1.6.5. DVD-ROM drives
            6. 2.1.1.6.6. DVD burners
            7. 2.1.1.6.7. Tape drives
            8. 2.1.1.6.8. Flash memory
            9. 2.1.1.6.9. External disk drives
          7. 2.1.1.7. Display devices
            1. 2.1.1.7.1. Video technologies
            2. 2.1.1.7.2. Types of monitors
          8. 2.1.1.8. Input devices
            1. 2.1.1.8.1. Mouse
            2. 2.1.1.8.2. Keyboard
            3. 2.1.1.8.3. Barcode reader
            4. 2.1.1.8.4. Multimedia devices
            5. 2.1.1.8.5. Biometric devices
            6. 2.1.1.8.6. Touch screen
          9. 2.1.1.9. Adapter cards
            1. 2.1.1.9.1. Video card
            2. 2.1.1.9.2. Network card
            3. 2.1.1.9.3. Sound card
            4. 2.1.1.9.4. Modem card
            5. 2.1.1.9.5. I/O cards
          10. 2.1.1.10. Types of port connectors
            1. 2.1.1.10.1. Universal Serial Bus (USB)
            2. 2.1.1.10.2. Firewire
            3. 2.1.1.10.3. Parallel
            4. 2.1.1.10.4. Serial
            5. 2.1.1.10.5. RJ-Series
            6. 2.1.1.10.6. PS/2 (mini-DIN)
            7. 2.1.1.10.7. Centronics
            8. 2.1.1.10.8. A/V jacks
          11. 2.1.1.11. Cooling systems
            1. 2.1.1.11.1. Fans
            2. 2.1.1.11.2. CPU cooling
        2. 2.1.2. Installing, Configuring, and Optimizing Personal Computer Components
          1. 2.1.2.1. Installing storage devices
            1. 2.1.2.1.1. Drive preparation
          2. 2.1.2.2. Installing/upgrading display devices
          3. 2.1.2.3. Installing and removing input/multimedia devices
        3. 2.1.3. Troubleshooting Tools and Procedures
          1. 2.1.3.1. Basic troubleshooting theory
          2. 2.1.3.2. Basic diagnostic procedures
          3. 2.1.3.3. Basic troubleshooting tools
            1. 2.1.3.3.1. Hardware tools
            2. 2.1.3.3.2. Software tools and utilities
          4. 2.1.3.4. Identifying problems
            1. 2.1.3.4.1. Motherboard and CPU problems
            2. 2.1.3.4.2. Power supply problems
            3. 2.1.3.4.3. Memory problems
            4. 2.1.3.4.4. Problems with display devices
            5. 2.1.3.4.5. Problems with input devices
            6. 2.1.3.4.6. Hard disk problems
            7. 2.1.3.4.7. CD/DVD problems
            8. 2.1.3.4.8. Adapter card problems
        4. 2.1.4. Preventive Maintenance (PM)
          1. 2.1.4.1. Scheduling preventive maintenance
          2. 2.1.4.2. Visual and audio inspection
          3. 2.1.4.3. Driver and firmware updates
          4. 2.1.4.4. Heat and temperature
          5. 2.1.4.5. Humidity
          6. 2.1.4.6. PM for display devices
          7. 2.1.4.7. PM for power supply
          8. 2.1.4.8. PM for input devices
          9. 2.1.4.9. PM for storage devices
          10. 2.1.4.10. PM for motherboards, memory, and adapters
      2. 2.2. Laptops and Portable Devices
        1. 2.2.1. Overview of Laptop Components
          1. 2.2.1.1. Motherboards
          2. 2.2.1.2. Processors
          3. 2.2.1.3. Power supplies
          4. 2.2.1.4. Memory
            1. 2.2.1.4.1. Small Outline-Dual In-line Memory Module (SO-DIMM)
            2. 2.2.1.4.2. Micro Dual In-line Memory Module (MicroDIMM)
          5. 2.2.1.5. Display devices
            1. 2.2.1.5.1. LCD technologies
            2. 2.2.1.5.2. LCD resolution and aspect ratio
            3. 2.2.1.5.3. Native resolution
            4. 2.2.1.5.4. Contrast ratio
          6. 2.2.1.6. Storage devices
            1. 2.2.1.6.1. Hard drive
            2. 2.2.1.6.2. CD/DVD drives
            3. 2.2.1.6.3. Floppy drive
          7. 2.2.1.7. Input devices
            1. 2.2.1.7.1. Keyboards
            2. 2.2.1.7.2. Pointing devices
          8. 2.2.1.8. Expansion buses and ports
            1. 2.2.1.8.1. Mini PCI
            2. 2.2.1.8.2. Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA)
            3. 2.2.1.8.3. ExpressBus
            4. 2.2.1.8.4. USB ports
            5. 2.2.1.8.5. Mouse and keyboard port
            6. 2.2.1.8.6. Monitor port
            7. 2.2.1.8.7. Communication ports
          9. 2.2.1.9. Docking station
        2. 2.2.2. Power Management and Device Removal
          1. 2.2.2.1. Overview of ACPI standards
          2. 2.2.2.2. Power options in Windows
          3. 2.2.2.3. Removing laptop-specific hardware
        3. 2.2.3. Troubleshooting Laptops
          1. 2.2.3.1. Power problems
          2. 2.2.3.2. Input problems
          3. 2.2.3.3. Display problems
          4. 2.2.3.4. Networking problems
          5. 2.2.3.5. Problems with external devices
        4. 2.2.4. Preventive Maintenance (PM)
          1. 2.2.4.1. Operating environment
          2. 2.2.4.2. Handling
      3. 2.3. Operating Systems
        1. 2.3.1. Overview of Operating Systems
          1. 2.3.1.1. Windows
            1. 2.3.1.1.1. Windows 1
            2. 2.3.1.1.2. Windows 2
            3. 2.3.1.1.3. Windows 3.x
            4. 2.3.1.1.4. Windows 3.1
            5. 2.3.1.1.5. Windows 3.11
            6. 2.3.1.1.6. Windows 95
            7. 2.3.1.1.7. Windows 98, Windows ME, and Windows NT
            8. 2.3.1.1.8. Windows 2000
            9. 2.3.1.1.9. Windows XP
            10. 2.3.1.1.10. Windows Server 2003
            11. 2.3.1.1.11. Windows Vista
          2. 2.3.1.2. MAC OS X
          3. 2.3.1.3. Linux
          4. 2.3.1.4. Working with Windows interfaces
            1. 2.3.1.4.1. Windows desktop
            2. 2.3.1.4.2. Taskbar
            3. 2.3.1.4.3. Start menu
            4. 2.3.1.4.4. Desktop icons
          5. 2.3.1.5. Control Panel
          6. 2.3.1.6. The System Control Panel
          7. 2.3.1.7. Windows Registry
            1. 2.3.1.7.1. Registry Editor
          8. 2.3.1.8. Virtual memory
          9. 2.3.1.9. Windows system files
          10. 2.3.1.10. Managing disks
            1. 2.3.1.10.1. Basic disks
            2. 2.3.1.10.2. Dynamic disks
            3. 2.3.1.10.3. Creating partitions
            4. 2.3.1.10.4. Converting from Basic disk to Dynamic disk
            5. 2.3.1.10.5. Converting from Dynamic disk to Basic disk
            6. 2.3.1.10.6. Filesystems
          11. 2.3.1.11. Managing files and folders
            1. 2.3.1.11.1. File extensions
            2. 2.3.1.11.2. File attributes
            3. 2.3.1.11.3. File permissions
        2. 2.3.2. Installing and Configuring Operating Systems
          1. 2.3.2.1. Installing the operating system
            1. 2.3.2.1.1. Minimum hardware requirements
            2. 2.3.2.1.2. Hardware compatibility
            3. 2.3.2.1.3. Installation methods
            4. 2.3.2.1.4. Installation options
            5. 2.3.2.1.5. Disk partition
          2. 2.3.2.2. Installing Windows XP Professional
            1. 2.3.2.2.1. Text mode
            2. 2.3.2.2.2. GUI mode
            3. 2.3.2.2.3. Installing over the network
          3. 2.3.2.3. Installing Windows 2000 Professional
            1. 2.3.2.3.1. Completing post-installation tasks
          4. 2.3.2.4. Upgrading an operating system
            1. 2.3.2.4.1. Available upgrade paths
            2. 2.3.2.4.2. Checking hardware compatibility
            3. 2.3.2.4.3. Checking application compatibility
            4. 2.3.2.4.4. Installing additional Windows components
            5. 2.3.2.4.5. Network compatibility
            6. 2.3.2.4.6. Upgrade utility
            7. 2.3.2.4.7. Backing up user data
            8. 2.3.2.4.8. Performing the upgrade
          5. 2.3.2.5. Installing devices and drivers
            1. 2.3.2.5.1. Identifying the PnP and non-PnP devices
            2. 2.3.2.5.2. Permissions and rights
            3. 2.3.2.5.3. Driver signing
            4. 2.3.2.5.4. Obtaining device drivers
            5. 2.3.2.5.5. Connecting the device
            6. 2.3.2.5.6. Installing and configuring the driver
            7. 2.3.2.5.7. Adding devices in Windows 2000
            8. 2.3.2.5.8. Adding devices in Windows XP
            9. 2.3.2.5.9. Verifying device driver installation
          6. 2.3.2.6. Optimizing performance
            1. 2.3.2.6.1. Virtual memory
            2. 2.3.2.6.2. Defragmenting hard disks
            3. 2.3.2.6.3. Temporary files
            4. 2.3.2.6.4. Configuring services
        3. 2.3.3. Troubleshooting Techniques
          1. 2.3.3.1. Understanding boot sequence
            1. 2.3.3.1.1. Pre-boot sequence
            2. 2.3.3.1.2. Boot sequence
            3. 2.3.3.1.3. Kernel Load and initialization
            4. 2.3.3.1.4. Logon process
          2. 2.3.3.2. Understanding the Advanced Boot Options
          3. 2.3.3.3. Recovery Console
          4. 2.3.3.4. System Restore (Windows XP)
          5. 2.3.3.5. Automated System Recovery (Windows XP)
          6. 2.3.3.6. Emergency Repair Disk (Windows 2000)
          7. 2.3.3.7. Troubleshooting procedures
            1. 2.3.3.7.1. Talking to the user
            2. 2.3.3.7.2. Gathering information
            3. 2.3.3.7.3. Identifying potential causes
            4. 2.3.3.7.4. Isolating the problem
            5. 2.3.3.7.5. Testing related components
            6. 2.3.3.7.6. Apply a solution and test results
            7. 2.3.3.7.7. Document the solution
          8. 2.3.3.8. Operational problems
            1. 2.3.3.8.1. Blue Screen
            2. 2.3.3.8.2. System lock up
            3. 2.3.3.8.3. I/O device not accessible or does not function
            4. 2.3.3.8.4. Application failed to start
            5. 2.3.3.8.5. Printing problems
            6. 2.3.3.8.6. Dr. Watson errors
            7. 2.3.3.8.7. Illegal operation
            8. 2.3.3.8.8. General protection fault (GPF)
          9. 2.3.3.9. Common error messages
          10. 2.3.3.10. Troubleshooting utilities
            1. 2.3.3.10.1. Disk Management utilities
            2. 2.3.3.10.2. System management utilities
            3. 2.3.3.10.3. File management utilities
            4. 2.3.3.10.4. Windows Reporting
        4. 2.3.4. Preventive Maintenance (PM)
          1. 2.3.4.1. Software updates
          2. 2.3.4.2. Windows Update
          3. 2.3.4.3. Data backup and restoration
          4. 2.3.4.4. Antivirus software
          5. 2.3.4.5. Creating System Restore Points
      4. 2.4. Printers and Scanners
        1. 2.4.1. Printer and Scanner Technologies
          1. 2.4.1.1. Laser printers
            1. 2.4.1.1.1. Components of a laser printer
            2. 2.4.1.1.2. The Laser printing process
          2. 2.4.1.2. Inkjet printers
            1. 2.4.1.2.1. Components of an inkjet printer
            2. 2.4.1.2.2. Inkjet printing process
          3. 2.4.1.3. Impact printers
            1. 2.4.1.3.1. Daisy wheel printers
            2. 2.4.1.3.2. Dot matrix printers
          4. 2.4.1.4. Thermal printers
          5. 2.4.1.5. Solid ink printers
          6. 2.4.1.6. Printer interfaces
          7. 2.4.1.7. Printer software
          8. 2.4.1.8. Printer memory
          9. 2.4.1.9. Printer supplies
          10. 2.4.1.10. Types of scanners
          11. 2.4.1.11. Components of a scanner
            1. 2.4.1.11.1. Scanning process
          12. 2.4.1.12. Scanner interfaces
        2. 2.4.2. Installing, Configuring, and Upgrading Printers and Scanners
          1. 2.4.2.1. Installing printers and scanners
            1. 2.4.2.1.1. Verifying compatibility
            2. 2.4.2.1.2. Connecting the device
            3. 2.4.2.1.3. Install the device driver
            4. 2.4.2.1.4. Configure the device
            5. 2.4.2.1.5. Verifying installation
          2. 2.4.2.2. Upgrading printers
            1. 2.4.2.2.1. Memory
            2. 2.4.2.2.2. Drivers
            3. 2.4.2.2.3. Firmware
            4. 2.4.2.2.4. Network interface
            5. 2.4.2.2.5. Paper feed trays and finishers
        3. 2.4.3. Troubleshooting Printers and Scanners
          1. 2.4.3.1. Basic troubleshooting procedures
          2. 2.4.3.2. Troubleshooting inkjet printers
          3. 2.4.3.3. Troubleshooting laser printers
          4. 2.4.3.4. Troubleshooting dot matrix printers
          5. 2.4.3.5. Common problems with scanners
      5. 2.5. Networks
        1. 2.5.1. Networking Fundamentals
          1. 2.5.1.1. Types of networks
          2. 2.5.1.2. Networking models
          3. 2.5.1.3. Network topologies
            1. 2.5.1.3.1. Full-duplex and half-duplex
          4. 2.5.1.4. Network cabling
            1. 2.5.1.4.1. Twisted pair cables
            2. 2.5.1.4.2. Plenum/PVC
            3. 2.5.1.4.3. Fiber optic
          5. 2.5.1.5. Connectors
          6. 2.5.1.6. Network devices
            1. 2.5.1.6.1. Hubs
          7. 2.5.1.7. Switches
            1. 2.5.1.7.1. Media Access Unit (MAU)
            2. 2.5.1.7.2. Bridges
          8. 2.5.1.8. Routers
          9. 2.5.1.9. Networking protocols
            1. 2.5.1.9.1. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
            2. 2.5.1.9.2. Internet Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX)
            3. 2.5.1.9.3. NetBEUI
          10. 2.5.1.10. Host naming and addressing
            1. 2.5.1.10.1. TCP/IP addressing
            2. 2.5.1.10.2. Classful subnetting
            3. 2.5.1.10.3. IPX addressing
            4. 2.5.1.10.4. NetBEUI addressing
            5. 2.5.1.10.5. Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
          11. 2.5.1.11. Bandwidth
          12. 2.5.1.12. LAN technologies
            1. 2.5.1.12.1. 10 Mbps Ethernet
            2. 2.5.1.12.2. 100 Mbps Ethernet
            3. 2.5.1.12.3. 1000 Mbps Ethernet
          13. 2.5.1.13. WAN technologies
            1. 2.5.1.13.1. Internet Service Provider (ISP)
            2. 2.5.1.13.2. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
            3. 2.5.1.13.3. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
            4. 2.5.1.13.4. Broadband
            5. 2.5.1.13.5. Satellite
            6. 2.5.1.13.6. Dial-up
            7. 2.5.1.13.7. Wireless
          14. 2.5.1.14. Infrared
            1. 2.5.1.14.1. Bluetooth
            2. 2.5.1.14.2. Cellular
            3. 2.5.1.14.3. VoIP
        2. 2.5.2. Installing and Maintaining Networks
          1. 2.5.2.1. Installing and configuring network cards
            1. 2.5.2.1.1. Installing a network adapter
            2. 2.5.2.1.2. Configuring the network card
        3. 2.5.3. Troubleshooting Techniques
          1. 2.5.3.1. Status indicators
          2. 2.5.3.2. Troubleshooting network media
          3. 2.5.3.3. Troubleshooting network devices
          4. 2.5.3.4. Troubleshooting wireless connectivity
      6. 2.6. Security
        1. 2.6.1. Principles of Security
          1. 2.6.1.1. Authentication technologies and protocols
            1. 2.6.1.1.1. Username and password
            2. 2.6.1.1.2. Biometrics
            3. 2.6.1.1.3. Smart cards
            4. 2.6.1.1.4. Security tokens
            5. 2.6.1.1.5. Digital certificates
            6. 2.6.1.1.6. Multifactor
            7. 2.6.1.1.7. Challenge-Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
            8. 2.6.1.1.8. Kerberos
          2. 2.6.1.2. Protection from malicious software
            1. 2.6.1.2.1. Virus
            2. 2.6.1.2.2. Trojans
            3. 2.6.1.2.3. Worms
            4. 2.6.1.2.4. Spam
            5. 2.6.1.2.5. Spyware
            6. 2.6.1.2.6. Adware
            7. 2.6.1.2.7. Grayware
          3. 2.6.1.3. Software firewalls
            1. 2.6.1.3.1. Filesystem security
          4. 2.6.1.4. Wireless security
            1. 2.6.1.4.1. Wireless networking protocols
            2. 2.6.1.4.2. Wireless authentication
            3. 2.6.1.4.3. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
            4. 2.6.1.4.4. Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS)
          5. 2.6.1.5. Protecting wireless networks from attacks
            1. 2.6.1.5.1. Data security
            2. 2.6.1.5.2. Data access
            3. 2.6.1.5.3. Backups
            4. 2.6.1.5.4. Encryption
            5. 2.6.1.5.5. Data migration
            6. 2.6.1.5.6. Data remnant removal
            7. 2.6.1.5.7. Password management
          6. 2.6.1.6. Physical security
        2. 2.6.2. Security Problems and Preventive Maintenance
          1. 2.6.2.1. Security-related problems
          2. 2.6.2.2. Preventive maintenance procedures
            1. 2.6.2.2.1. Antivirus software
            2. 2.6.2.2.2. Operating system updates
            3. 2.6.2.2.3. Application updates
            4. 2.6.2.2.4. Auditing and logging
            5. 2.6.2.2.5. Network devices
            6. 2.6.2.2.6. Security policies
            7. 2.6.2.2.7. User education
      7. 2.7. Safety and Environmental Issues
        1. 2.7.1. Safety and Environment Issues
          1. 2.7.1.1. Identifying potential safety hazards
          2. 2.7.1.2. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
          3. 2.7.1.3. Using appropriate repair tools
          4. 2.7.1.4. Handling safety incidents
        2. 2.7.2. Safety Procedures
          1. 2.7.2.1. ESD precautions
            1. 2.7.2.1.1. Equipment handling
        3. 2.7.3. Disposal Procedures
          1. 2.7.3.1. Batteries
          2. 2.7.3.2. Display devices
          3. 2.7.3.3. Chemicals
      8. 2.8. Communications and Professionalism
        1. 2.8.1. Communication Skills
          1. 2.8.1.1. Privacy and confidentiality
          2. 2.8.1.2. Talking to the customer
          3. 2.8.1.3. Active listening
          4. 2.8.1.4. Asking questions
          5. 2.8.1.5. Use nontechnical vocabulary
          6. 2.8.1.6. Don't be judgmental
        2. 2.8.2. Professional Behavior
          1. 2.8.2.1. Professional behavior
            1. 2.8.2.1.1. Positive attitude
            2. 2.8.2.1.2. Avoid arguments
            3. 2.8.2.1.3. Understand the problem
            4. 2.8.2.1.4. Be respectful
            5. 2.8.2.1.5. Interruptions
          2. 2.8.2.2. Use of property
            1. 2.8.2.2.1. Telephone and fax
            2. 2.8.2.2.2. Desktops
            3. 2.8.2.2.3. Laptops
            4. 2.8.2.2.4. Internet
            5. 2.8.2.2.5. Printers
            6. 2.8.2.2.6. Monitors
    3. 3. Prep and Practice for the A+ Essentials Exam
      1. 3.1. Preparing for the A+ Essentials Exam
      2. 3.2. Suggested Exercises for the A+ Essentials Exam
        1. 3.2.1. Examine the Motherboard
        2. 3.2.2. BIOS/Firmware
        3. 3.2.3. Identify Processor and Memory
        4. 3.2.4. I/O Ports and Expansion Bus Slots
        5. 3.2.5. Power Supply and Its Connectors
        6. 3.2.6. Memory Modules
        7. 3.2.7. Hard Disk Drive
        8. 3.2.8. Input Devices
        9. 3.2.9. Common Ports on a PC
        10. 3.2.10. Cooling Fans
        11. 3.2.11. Software Diagnostic Utilities
        12. 3.2.12. Troubleshooting
        13. 3.2.13. Preventive Maintenance
        14. 3.2.14. Laptop Motherboard, Processor, and Memory
        15. 3.2.15. Laptop Display
        16. 3.2.16. Safely Removing Hardware
        17. 3.2.17. Configuring Power Options
        18. 3.2.18. Configuring Windows Desktop
        19. 3.2.19. Configuring Taskbar
        20. 3.2.20. Control Panel
        21. 3.2.21. Changing the Computer Name
        22. 3.2.22. Exploring Windows Registry
        23. 3.2.23. Creating a Disk Partition
        24. 3.2.24. Using Windows Explorer
        25. 3.2.25. Changing File Attributes
        26. 3.2.26. Configuring File Permissions
        27. 3.2.27. Configuring Paging File
        28. 3.2.28. Examining Advanced Boot Options
        29. 3.2.29. Preparing an ASR
        30. 3.2.30. Creating System Restore Point (Windows XP)
        31. 3.2.31. Configuring Automatic Updates
        32. 3.2.32. Laser Printing Process
        33. 3.2.33. Inkjet Printers
        34. 3.2.34. Scanners
        35. 3.2.35. Printing Problems
        36. 3.2.36. Network Topologies
        37. 3.2.37. Network Cables and Connectors
        38. 3.2.38. Network Protocols, Services, and Addressing
        39. 3.2.39. WAN/Internet Connectivity
        40. 3.2.40. Network Troubleshooting
        41. 3.2.41. Authentication Methods
        42. 3.2.42. Protection from Malicious Software
        43. 3.2.43. Password Management
        44. 3.2.44. Preventive Maintenance for Security
      3. 3.3. Highlighters Index
        1. 3.3.1. Personal Computer Components
        2. 3.3.2. Laptop and Portable Devices
        3. 3.3.3. Operating Systems
        4. 3.3.4. Printers and Scanners
        5. 3.3.5. Networks
        6. 3.3.6. Security
        7. 3.3.7. Safety and Environmental Issues
        8. 3.3.8. Communication and Professionalism
      4. 3.4. Practice Questions for the A+ Essentials Exam
  4. II. A+ Exams 220–602, 220–603, and 220–604
    1. 4. Overview of the A+ Exams 220–602, 220–603, and 220–604
      1. 4.1. Areas of Study for A+ Exams 220–602, 220–603, and 220–604
        1. 4.1.1. Personal Computer Components
        2. 4.1.2. Laptops and Portable Devices
        3. 4.1.3. Operating Systems
        4. 4.1.4. Printers and Scanners
        5. 4.1.5. Networks
        6. 4.1.6. Security
        7. 4.1.7. Safety and Environmental Issues
        8. 4.1.8. Communication and Professionalism
    2. 5. Study Guide for A+ Exams 220–602, 220–603, and 220–604
      1. 5.1. Personal Computer Components
        1. 5.1.1. Adding, Removing, and Upgrading Computer Components
          1. 5.1.1.1. Storage devices
            1. 5.1.1.1.1. Selecting an appropriate storage device
            2. 5.1.1.1.2. Installing a hard disk
            3. 5.1.1.1.3. Installing a CD/DVD drive
            4. 5.1.1.1.4. Installing a floppy disk drive
          2. 5.1.1.2. Motherboards
            1. 5.1.1.2.1. Installing a motherboard
          3. 5.1.1.3. Power supplies
          4. 5.1.1.4. Processors/CPUs
          5. 5.1.1.5. Memory (RAM)
          6. 5.1.1.6. Display devices
          7. 5.1.1.7. Input devices
          8. 5.1.1.8. Adapter cards
        2. 5.1.2. Troubleshooting Tools and Techniques
          1. 5.1.2.1. Basic diagnostic procedures
            1. 5.1.2.1.1. Visual inspection
            2. 5.1.2.1.2. Audible inspection
            3. 5.1.2.1.3. Minimum configuration
          2. 5.1.2.2. Troubleshooting steps
            1. 5.1.2.2.1. Verifying proper installation
            2. 5.1.2.2.2. Verifying device drivers
            3. 5.1.2.2.3. Verifying resource usage
            4. 5.1.2.2.4. Verifying configuration settings
          3. 5.1.2.3. Troubleshooting tools
            1. 5.1.2.3.1. Multimeter
            2. 5.1.2.3.2. Screwdrivers
            3. 5.1.2.3.3. Antistatic straps and pads
            4. 5.1.2.3.4. Loopback plugs
            5. 5.1.2.3.5. Cleaning products
            6. 5.1.2.3.6. Additional specialty tools
        3. 5.1.3. Preventive Maintenance (PM)
          1. 5.1.3.1. Display devices
          2. 5.1.3.2. Power supply
          3. 5.1.3.3. Input devices
          4. 5.1.3.4. Storage devices
          5. 5.1.3.5. Motherboards, adapters, and memory
          6. 5.1.3.6. External ventilation factors
      2. 5.2. Laptops and Portable Devices
        1. 5.2.1. Fundamental Principles
          1. 5.2.1.1. Communication technologies for laptops
            1. 5.2.1.1.1. Bluetooth
            2. 5.2.1.1.2. Infrared
            3. 5.2.1.1.3. Cellular wide area network (WAN)
            4. 5.2.1.1.4. Ethernet
          2. 5.2.1.2. Power supplies
            1. 5.2.1.2.1. Improving battery performance
          3. 5.2.1.3. Components of LCD
        2. 5.2.2. Installing, Optimizing, and Upgrading
          1. 5.2.2.1. Installing and removing devices
          2. 5.2.2.2. Upgrading memory
        3. 5.2.3. Troubleshooting Tools and Procedures
          1. 5.2.3.1. Power problems
          2. 5.2.3.2. Removing unneeded devices
          3. 5.2.3.3. External monitor
          4. 5.2.3.4. Function keys
          5. 5.2.3.5. External keypad
          6. 5.2.3.6. The LCD cut-off switch and backlight
          7. 5.2.3.7. Digitizer problems
          8. 5.2.3.8. Exhaust fans
          9. 5.2.3.9. Antenna wires
      3. 5.3. Operating Systems
        1. 5.3.1. Fundamental Principles
          1. 5.3.1.1. Command-line functions and utilities
            1. 5.3.1.1.1. cmd
            2. 5.3.1.1.2. help
            3. 5.3.1.1.3. dir
            4. 5.3.1.1.4. attrib
            5. 5.3.1.1.5. edit
            6. 5.3.1.1.6. copy
            7. 5.3.1.1.7. xcopy
            8. 5.3.1.1.8. format
            9. 5.3.1.1.9. md
            10. 5.3.1.1.10. rd
            11. 5.3.1.1.11. cd
            12. 5.3.1.1.12. ipconfig and ping
          2. 5.3.1.2. Managing disks
            1. 5.3.1.2.1. Creating partitions
            2. 5.3.1.2.2. Formatting a volume
            3. 5.3.1.2.3. Using DiskPart to manage disks
            4. 5.3.1.2.4. Creating directory structures
            5. 5.3.1.2.5. Changing file attributes and permissions
          3. 5.3.1.3. Disk maintenance
            1. 5.3.1.3.1. Disk Defragmenter
            2. 5.3.1.3.2. Check Disk
            3. 5.3.1.3.3. Windows Backup
            4. 5.3.1.3.4. Device Manager
            5. 5.3.1.3.5. Task Manager
            6. 5.3.1.3.6. msconfig
            7. 5.3.1.3.7. regedit and regedt32
            8. 5.3.1.3.8. Event Viewer
            9. 5.3.1.3.9. System Restore
            10. 5.3.1.3.10. Remote Desktop
        2. 5.3.2. Optimize Operating Systems
          1. 5.3.2.1. Virtual memory
          2. 5.3.2.2. Defragmenting hard disks
          3. 5.3.2.3. Removing temporary files
          4. 5.3.2.4. Managing services
          5. 5.3.2.5. System startup
          6. 5.3.2.6. Application tuning
        3. 5.3.3. Diagnostic Tools and Troubleshooting Techniques
          1. 5.3.3.1. Operating system recovery
            1. 5.3.3.1.1. Advanced Boot Options
            2. 5.3.3.1.2. Recovery Console
            3. 5.3.3.1.3. Automated System Recovery (ASR)
            4. 5.3.3.1.4. Emergency Repair Disk (ERD)
          2. 5.3.3.2. Resolving common operational problems
            1. 5.3.3.2.1. Printing problems
            2. 5.3.3.2.2. Auto-Restart errors
            3. 5.3.3.2.3. Blue Screen errors
            4. 5.3.3.2.4. System lockup
            5. 5.3.3.2.5. Device driver failure
            6. 5.3.3.2.6. Application failures
          3. 5.3.3.3. Interpreting common error messages
            1. 5.3.3.3.1. Missing Boot Disk or Invalid Boot Drive
            2. 5.3.3.3.2. Missing NTLDR
            3. 5.3.3.3.3. Device or service failure
            4. 5.3.3.3.4. Missing Registry entry
            5. 5.3.3.3.5. Windows reporting
          4. 5.3.3.4. Utilities for diagnosing operational problems
            1. 5.3.3.4.1. Bootable media
            2. 5.3.3.4.2. Startup modes
            3. 5.3.3.4.3. Documentation
            4. 5.3.3.4.4. Task Manager
            5. 5.3.3.4.5. Device Manager
            6. 5.3.3.4.6. Event Viewer
            7. 5.3.3.4.7. System Configuration utility
            8. 5.3.3.4.8. Recovery CD
            9. 5.3.3.4.9. Remote Assistance
            10. 5.3.3.4.10. System File Checker
        4. 5.3.4. Preventive Maintenance (PM)
          1. 5.3.4.1. Software updates
            1. 5.3.4.1.1. Hotfixes
            2. 5.3.4.1.2. Patches
            3. 5.3.4.1.3. Service packs
          2. 5.3.4.2. Windows Update
          3. 5.3.4.3. Data backup and restoration
          4. 5.3.4.4. Antivirus software
      4. 5.4. Printers and Scanners
        1. 5.4.1. Fundamentals of Printers and Scanners
          1. 5.4.1.1. The printing process
          2. 5.4.1.2. Laser printers
            1. 5.4.1.2.1. Components of a laser printer
            2. 5.4.1.2.2. Laser printing process
          3. 5.4.1.3. Inkjet printers
            1. 5.4.1.3.1. The inkjet printing process
          4. 5.4.1.4. Solid ink
          5. 5.4.1.5. Thermal printers
          6. 5.4.1.6. Impact printers (dot matrix)
            1. 5.4.1.6.1. The dot matrix printing process
          7. 5.4.1.7. Scanners and the scanning process
            1. 5.4.1.7.1. Types of scanners
            2. 5.4.1.7.2. The scanning process
        2. 5.4.2. Installing and Configuring Printers and Scanners
          1. 5.4.2.1. Installing and configuring printers
            1. 5.4.2.1.1. Verifying compatibility
            2. 5.4.2.1.2. Connecting to a local port
            3. 5.4.2.1.3. Connecting to a network port
            4. 5.4.2.1.4. Installing printer drivers
            5. 5.4.2.1.5. Calibrating printers
            6. 5.4.2.1.6. Configure printer options
          2. 5.4.2.2. Educating users
          3. 5.4.2.3. Upgrading printers and scanners
            1. 5.4.2.3.1. Memory
            2. 5.4.2.3.2. Drivers
            3. 5.4.2.3.3. Firmware
          4. 5.4.2.4. Installing and configuring scanners
          5. 5.4.2.5. Optimizing printer and scanner performance
            1. 5.4.2.5.1. Resolution
            2. 5.4.2.5.2. Color profiles
            3. 5.4.2.5.3. File formats
        3. 5.4.3. Troubleshooting Printers and Scanners
          1. 5.4.3.1. Gathering information
          2. 5.4.3.2. Analyzing the collected data
          3. 5.4.3.3. Isolating the problem
          4. 5.4.3.4. Applying the solution
          5. 5.4.3.5. Repair tools
            1. 5.4.3.5.1. Multimeter
            2. 5.4.3.5.2. Screwdrivers and extension magnet
            3. 5.4.3.5.3. Cleaning solutions
            4. 5.4.3.5.4. Test patterns
        4. 5.4.4. Preventive Maintenance (PM)
          1. 5.4.4.1. Scheduled maintenance
          2. 5.4.4.2. Environment
            1. 5.4.4.2.1. Humidity
            2. 5.4.4.2.2. Temperature
            3. 5.4.4.2.3. Cleanliness
          3. 5.4.4.3. Supplies
            1. 5.4.4.3.1. Paper
            2. 5.4.4.3.2. Ink cartridges, ribbons, and toner cartridges
            3. 5.4.4.3.3. Spares
      5. 5.5. Networks
        1. 5.5.1. Network Fundamentals
          1. 5.5.1.1. OSI model
          2. 5.5.1.2. Networking protocols
            1. 5.5.1.2.1. TCP/IP
            2. 5.5.1.2.2. Internet Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX)
            3. 5.5.1.2.3. NetBEUI/NetBIOS
            4. 5.5.1.2.4. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
            5. 5.5.1.2.5. Internet Message Access Protocol 4 (IMAP4)
            6. 5.5.1.2.6. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
            7. 5.5.1.2.7. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
            8. 5.5.1.2.8. HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
            9. 5.5.1.2.9. HTTP Secure (HTTPS)
            10. 5.5.1.2.10. Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
            11. 5.5.1.2.11. Telnet
            12. 5.5.1.2.12. File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
            13. 5.5.1.2.13. DNS
            14. 5.5.1.2.14. Windows Internet Naming System (WINS)
          3. 5.5.1.3. Connectivity technologies
          4. 5.5.1.4. LAN technologies
            1. 5.5.1.4.1. 10 Mbps Ethernet
            2. 5.5.1.4.2. 100 Mbps Ethernet
            3. 5.5.1.4.3. 1000 Mbps Ethernet
          5. 5.5.1.5. WAN technologies
            1. 5.5.1.5.1. Internet Service Provider (ISP)
            2. 5.5.1.5.2. Dial-up
            3. 5.5.1.5.3. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
            4. 5.5.1.5.4. Broadband
            5. 5.5.1.5.5. Satellite
            6. 5.5.1.5.6. ISDN
            7. 5.5.1.5.7. Wireless
          6. 5.5.1.6. Infrared (IrDA)
            1. 5.5.1.6.1. Bluetooth
            2. 5.5.1.6.2. Cellular
            3. 5.5.1.6.3. VoIP
        2. 5.5.2. Installing, Configuring, and Optimizing Networks
          1. 5.5.2.1. Establishing network connectivity
            1. 5.5.2.1.1. Installing and configuring network adapters
            2. 5.5.2.1.2. Configuring client and network options
          2. 5.5.2.2. Joining a Windows workgroup or domain
          3. 5.5.2.3. Sharing network resources
            1. 5.5.2.3.1. Configuring permissions
            2. 5.5.2.3.2. NetWare file permissions
          4. 5.5.2.4. Installing and configuring network browsers
            1. 5.5.2.4.1. Configuring script settings
            2. 5.5.2.4.2. Configuring proxy settings
            3. 5.5.2.4.3. Configuring security settings
        3. 5.5.3. Troubleshooting Network Problems
          1. 5.5.3.1. Troubleshooting tools
            1. 5.5.3.1.1. ipconfig
            2. 5.5.3.1.2. ping
            3. 5.5.3.1.3. tracert
            4. 5.5.3.1.4. nslookup
          2. 5.5.3.2. Cable-testing devices
            1. 5.5.3.2.1. Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
            2. 5.5.3.2.2. Tone generators and tone locators
            3. 5.5.3.2.3. Loopback connectors
          3. 5.5.3.3. Configuration problems
            1. 5.5.3.3.1. Network interface and driver
            2. 5.5.3.3.2. TCP/IP configuration
            3. 5.5.3.3.3. IPX/SPX configuration
            4. 5.5.3.3.4. Resource permissions
            5. 5.5.3.3.5. Firewall configuration
            6. 5.5.3.3.6. Electrical interference
          4. 5.5.3.4. Preventive maintenance for networks
            1. 5.5.3.4.1. Securing network cables
            2. 5.5.3.4.2. Restricting physical access
            3. 5.5.3.4.3. Server and desktop hardening
            4. 5.5.3.4.4. Data backups and recovery
            5. 5.5.3.4.5. Power redundancy
            6. 5.5.3.4.6. Link redundancy
            7. 5.5.3.4.7. Server clusters
            8. 5.5.3.4.8. Hot, warm, and cold sites
            9. 5.5.3.4.9. Hot and cold spares
      6. 5.6. Security
        1. 5.6.1. Principles of Security
          1. 5.6.1.1. Access control
          2. 5.6.1.2. User accounts
          3. 5.6.1.3. Access control using groups
          4. 5.6.1.4. Permissions and level of access
            1. 5.6.1.4.1. Level of access
          5. 5.6.1.5. Restricted spaces
          6. 5.6.1.6. Auditing and event logging
            1. 5.6.1.6.1. Auditing
            2. 5.6.1.6.2. Logging
        2. 5.6.2. Install, Configure, and Upgrade Security
          1. 5.6.2.1. Authentication technologies
            1. 5.6.2.1.1. Username and password
            2. 5.6.2.1.2. Tokens
            3. 5.6.2.1.3. Biometrics
            4. 5.6.2.1.4. Multifactor
            5. 5.6.2.1.5. Wireless authentication
          2. 5.6.2.2. Software firewalls
          3. 5.6.2.3. Enabling and disabling auditing
          4. 5.6.2.4. Wireless client configuration
            1. 5.6.2.4.1. Configuring the access point
            2. 5.6.2.4.2. Configuring the wireless clients
          5. 5.6.2.5. Data access
            1. 5.6.2.5.1. Converting from FAT or FAT32 to NTFS
        3. 5.6.3. Diagnostic and Troubleshooting Techniques
          1. 5.6.3.1. Software firewall issues
          2. 5.6.3.2. Wireless client configuration issues with SSID
          3. 5.6.3.3. Data access issues
        4. 5.6.4. Preventive Maintenance for Security
          1. 5.6.4.1. Security policies
          2. 5.6.4.2. Social engineering
            1. 5.6.4.2.1. Addressing social engineering issues
    3. 6. Prep and Practice for the A+ Exams 220–602, 220–603, and 220–604
      1. 6.1. Preparing for the A+ Exams
      2. 6.2. Suggested Exercises for the Exams
        1. 6.2.1. Installing a Hard Drive
        2. 6.2.2. Upgrading Memory
        3. 6.2.3. Installing an Adapter Card
        4. 6.2.4. Visual Inspection of Internal Components
        5. 6.2.5. Audible Codes
        6. 6.2.6. Testing the Power Supply DC Output Voltages
        7. 6.2.7. Starting the Computer with Minimum Configuration
        8. 6.2.8. Adding/Removing Laptop-Specific Components
        9. 6.2.9. Connecting External Devices
        10. 6.2.10. Connecting a Laptop to a Wireless Network
        11. 6.2.11. Using the Windows Command Prompt
        12. 6.2.12. Creating New Folders
        13. 6.2.13. Changing File/Folder Attributes
        14. 6.2.14. Disk Partitioning and Formatting
        15. 6.2.15. Converting a Disk from FAT to NTFS
        16. 6.2.16. Using Disk Maintenance Tools
        17. 6.2.17. Examining System Startup Environment
        18. 6.2.18. Configuring Virtual Memory
        19. 6.2.19. Changing the System Startup Settings
        20. 6.2.20. Using Event Viewer
        21. 6.2.21. Using Task Manager
        22. 6.2.22. Using Device Manager
        23. 6.2.23. Accessing Advanced Boot Options
        24. 6.2.24. Enabling Automatic Updates
        25. 6.2.25. Connecting the Printer to a Local Port
        26. 6.2.26. Configuring and Verifying TCP/IP Properties
        27. 6.2.27. Testing Network Connectivity
        28. 6.2.28. Configuring Share Permissions
        29. 6.2.29. Enabling and Configuring Windows Firewall
        30. 6.2.30. Viewing Access Permissions
        31. 6.2.31. Configuring Auditing and Logging
        32. 6.2.32. Viewing the Local Security Policy
      3. 6.3. Highlighters Index
        1. 6.3.1. Personal Computer Components
        2. 6.3.2. Laptop and Portable Devices
        3. 6.3.3. Operating Systems
        4. 6.3.4. Printers and Scanners
        5. 6.3.5. Networks
        6. 6.3.6. Security
      4. 6.4. Practice Questions for the A+ Exams
  5. III. Network+
    1. 7. Overview of the Network+ Exam
      1. 7.1. Areas of Study for the Network+ Exam
        1. 7.1.1. Media and Topologies
        2. 7.1.2. Protocols and Standards
        3. 7.1.3. Network Implementation
        4. 7.1.4. Network Support
    2. 8. Network+ Exam Study Guide
      1. 8.1. Media and Topologies
        1. 8.1.1. Overview of Networks
          1. 8.1.1.1. Local area network (LAN)
          2. 8.1.1.2. Wide area network (WAN)
          3. 8.1.1.3. Personal area network (PAN)
          4. 8.1.1.4. Metropolitan area network (MAN)
          5. 8.1.1.5. Centralized and decentralized computing
          6. 8.1.1.6. Peer-to-peer (P2P) network
          7. 8.1.1.7. Client/server network
        2. 8.1.2. Physical Network Topologies
          1. 8.1.2.1. Star topology
          2. 8.1.2.2. Bus topology
          3. 8.1.2.3. Mesh topology
          4. 8.1.2.4. Ring topology
          5. 8.1.2.5. Wireless topologies
            1. 8.1.2.5.1. Ad-hoc wireless network
            2. 8.1.2.5.2. Infrastructure wireless networks
        3. 8.1.3. Networking Standards
          1. 8.1.3.1. IEEE 802.2
          2. 8.1.3.2. IEEE 802.3
          3. 8.1.3.3. IEEE 802.5
          4. 8.1.3.4. IEEE 802.11
            1. 8.1.3.4.1. IEEE 801.11b
            2. 8.1.3.4.2. IEEE 802.11a
            3. 8.1.3.4.3. IEEE 802.11g
          5. 8.1.3.5. Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
        4. 8.1.4. Types of Cables
          1. 8.1.4.1. Coaxial cable
          2. 8.1.4.2. Twisted pair cables
            1. 8.1.4.2.1. Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) cables
            2. 8.1.4.2.2. Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) cables
          3. 8.1.4.3. Fiber optic cables
            1. 8.1.4.3.1. Single mode fiber optic cable
            2. 8.1.4.3.2. Multimode fiber optic cable
        5. 8.1.5. Networking and Cable Standards
          1. 8.1.5.1. 10 Mbps Ethernet
          2. 8.1.5.2. 100 Mbps Ethernet
          3. 8.1.5.3. 1000 Mbps Ethernet
          4. 8.1.5.4. 10 Gigabit Ethernet
        6. 8.1.6. Media Connectors
          1. 8.1.6.1. Registered Jack-11 (RJ-11)
          2. 8.1.6.2. Registered Jack-45 (RJ-45)
          3. 8.1.6.3. F-Type
          4. 8.1.6.4. BNC connectors
          5. 8.1.6.5. Fiber optic connectors
          6. 8.1.6.6. IEEE 1394
          7. 8.1.6.7. Universal Serial Bus (USB)
        7. 8.1.7. Network Devices
          1. 8.1.7.1. Hubs
          2. 8.1.7.2. Switches
          3. 8.1.7.3. Media Access Unit (MAU)
          4. 8.1.7.4. Bridges
            1. 8.1.7.4.1. Spanning tree protocol
          5. 8.1.7.5. Routers
            1. 8.1.7.5.1. Distance vector routing protocol
            2. 8.1.7.5.2. Link state routing protocol
          6. 8.1.7.6. Gateways
          7. 8.1.7.7. Channel Service Unit (CSU)/Data Service Unit (DSU)
          8. 8.1.7.8. Network Interface Card (NIC)
          9. 8.1.7.9. ISDN adapters
          10. 8.1.7.10. Wireless Access Point (WAP)
          11. 8.1.7.11. Modems
          12. 8.1.7.12. Transceivers and media converters
          13. 8.1.7.13. Firewalls
        8. 8.1.8. Wireless Technologies
          1. 8.1.8.1. Spread spectrum wireless technology
          2. 8.1.8.2. Infrared
          3. 8.1.8.3. Bluetooth
          4. 8.1.8.4. Factors that affect wireless services
            1. 8.1.8.4.1. Interferences
            2. 8.1.8.4.2. Type of antenna
            3. 8.1.8.4.3. Environmental factors
      2. 8.2. Protocols and Standards
        1. 8.2.1. Media Access Control (MAC) Address
        2. 8.2.2. The OSI Networking Model
          1. 8.2.2.1. Physical layer (Layer 1)
          2. 8.2.2.2. Data Link layer (Layer 2)
          3. 8.2.2.3. Network layer (Layer 3)
          4. 8.2.2.4. Transport layer (Layer 4)
          5. 8.2.2.5. Session layer (Layer 5)
          6. 8.2.2.6. Presentation layer (Layer 6)
          7. 8.2.2.7. Application layer (Layer 7)
        3. 8.2.3. Network Protocols
          1. 8.2.3.1. NetBEUI
          2. 8.2.3.2. Internet Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX)
            1. 8.2.3.2.1. NetWare hostnames
            2. 8.2.3.2.2. IPX addresses
            3. 8.2.3.2.3. NetWare frame types
            4. 8.2.3.2.4. IPX/SPX interoperability and routing
          3. 8.2.3.3. AppleTalk
            1. 8.2.3.3.1. AppleTalk addressing and naming
            2. 8.2.3.3.2. AppleTalk interoperability and routing
          4. 8.2.3.4. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
            1. 8.2.3.4.1. TCP/IP addressing
            2. 8.2.3.4.2. TCP/IP naming
            3. 8.2.3.4.3. TCP/IP routing
            4. 8.2.3.4.4. TCP/IP interoperability
        4. 8.2.4. IP Addressing
          1. 8.2.4.1. IPv4 addresses
            1. 8.2.4.1.1. Subnet mask
            2. 8.2.4.1.2. Default gateway
          2. 8.2.4.2. Public and private IP addresses
          3. 8.2.4.3. Subnetting
          4. 8.2.4.4. IPv6 addresses
          5. 8.2.4.5. Address assignment
          6. 8.2.4.6. Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA)
          7. 8.2.4.7. TCP/IP protocols
          8. 8.2.4.8. Port assignments in TCP/IP
          9. 8.2.4.9. Network services
            1. 8.2.4.9.1. Domain Name Service (DNS)
            2. 8.2.4.9.2. Windows Internet Name Service (WINS)
            3. 8.2.4.9.3. Network Address Translation (NAT)
            4. 8.2.4.9.4. Internet Connection Sharing (ICS)
            5. 8.2.4.9.5. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
            6. 8.2.4.9.6. Network File System (NFS)
            7. 8.2.4.9.7. Zero Configuration (ZeroConf)
            8. 8.2.4.9.8. Server Message Block (SMB)
            9. 8.2.4.9.9. Apple File Protocol (AFP)
            10. 8.2.4.9.10. Line Printer Daemon (LPD)
            11. 8.2.4.9.11. Samba
        5. 8.2.5. WAN Technologies
          1. 8.2.5.1. Packet switching
          2. 8.2.5.2. Circuit switching
          3. 8.2.5.3. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
          4. 8.2.5.4. Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
          5. 8.2.5.5. T-Carrier
          6. 8.2.5.6. Optical Carrier (OC)
          7. 8.2.5.7. X.25
        6. 8.2.6. Internet Access Technologies
          1. 8.2.6.1. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
          2. 8.2.6.2. Broadband cable
          3. 8.2.6.3. Plain Old Telephone System/Public Switched Telephone Network (POTS/PSTN)
          4. 8.2.6.4. Satellite
          5. 8.2.6.5. Wireless
        7. 8.2.7. Remote Access Protocols and Services
          1. 8.2.7.1. Remote Access Service (RAS)
          2. 8.2.7.2. Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP)
          3. 8.2.7.3. Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
            1. 8.2.7.3.1. PPP Over Ethernet (PPPoE)
          4. 8.2.7.4. Virtual Private Networking
          5. 8.2.7.5. Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)
        8. 8.2.8. Security Protocols
          1. 8.2.8.1. IP Security (IPSec)
            1. 8.2.8.1.1. IPSec authentication
          2. 8.2.8.2. Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
          3. 8.2.8.3. Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)
          4. 8.2.8.4. Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
          5. 8.2.8.5. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
          6. 8.2.8.6. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
          7. 8.2.8.7. 802.1x
        9. 8.2.9. Authentication Protocols
          1. 8.2.9.1. Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS)
          2. 8.2.9.2. Kerberos
      3. 8.3. Network Implementation
        1. 8.3.1. Network Operating Systems (NOS)
          1. 8.3.1.1. Linux/Unix
            1. 8.3.1.1.1. Authentication
            2. 8.3.1.1.2. File and print services
            3. 8.3.1.1.3. Application support
            4. 8.3.1.1.4. Security
          2. 8.3.1.2. MAC OS X
            1. 8.3.1.2.1. Authentication
            2. 8.3.1.2.2. File and print services
            3. 8.3.1.2.3. Security
          3. 8.3.1.3. NetWare
            1. 8.3.1.3.1. Authentication
            2. 8.3.1.3.2. File and print services
            3. 8.3.1.3.3. Application support
            4. 8.3.1.3.4. Security
          4. 8.3.1.4. Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003
            1. 8.3.1.4.1. Authentication
            2. 8.3.1.4.2. File and print services
            3. 8.3.1.4.3. Application support
            4. 8.3.1.4.4. Security
            5. 8.3.1.4.5. Client support
            6. 8.3.1.4.6. Interoperability of operating systems
        2. 8.3.2. Network Wiring Tools
          1. 8.3.2.1. Wire crimpers
          2. 8.3.2.2. Punchdown tools
          3. 8.3.2.3. Media testers/certifiers
          4. 8.3.2.4. Tone generators
          5. 8.3.2.5. Loopback connectors
        3. 8.3.3. Components of Network Security
          1. 8.3.3.1. Firewalls
            1. 8.3.3.1.1. Packet filtering firewalls
            2. 8.3.3.1.2. Application layer firewalls
            3. 8.3.3.1.3. Stateful inspection firewalls
          2. 8.3.3.2. Proxy servers
          3. 8.3.3.3. Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN)
            1. 8.3.3.3.1. Intranet
            2. 8.3.3.3.2. Extranet
        4. 8.3.4. Implementing Network Security
          1. 8.3.4.1. Port blocking/filtering
          2. 8.3.4.2. Authentication
            1. 8.3.4.2.1. Mutual Authentication
            2. 8.3.4.2.2. Username/Password
          3. 8.3.4.3. Biometrics
            1. 8.3.4.3.1. Multifactor
          4. 8.3.4.4. Encryption
          5. 8.3.4.5. Types of malicious codes
          6. 8.3.4.6. Viruses
          7. 8.3.4.7. Worms
          8. 8.3.4.8. Trojan horses
          9. 8.3.4.9. Logic bombs
        5. 8.3.5. Fault Tolerance and Disaster Recovery
          1. 8.3.5.1. Disk fault tolerance
            1. 8.3.5.1.1. RAID-1
            2. 8.3.5.1.2. RAID-5
          2. 8.3.5.2. Server fault tolerance
            1. 8.3.5.2.1. Stand-by servers
            2. 8.3.5.2.2. Server clustering
            3. 8.3.5.2.3. Power supply
            4. 8.3.5.2.4. Link redundancy
          3. 8.3.5.3. Disaster recovery
          4. 8.3.5.4. Data backup
            1. 8.3.5.4.1. Tape rotation
            2. 8.3.5.4.2. Offsite storage
            3. 8.3.5.4.3. Secure recovery
            4. 8.3.5.4.4. Hot and cold spares
            5. 8.3.5.4.5. Hot, warm, and cold sites
      4. 8.4. Network Support
        1. 8.4.1. Troubleshooting Utilities
          1. 8.4.1.1. tracert/traceroute
          2. 8.4.1.2. ping
            1. 8.4.1.2.1. ping command parameters
            2. 8.4.1.2.2. Understanding ping output messages
            3. 8.4.1.2.3. Troubleshooting with ping
          3. 8.4.1.3. arp
          4. 8.4.1.4. netstat
            1. 8.4.1.4.1. Displaying detailed TCP/IP connection statistics
            2. 8.4.1.4.2. Activities of network interface
            3. 8.4.1.4.3. TCP and UDP statistics
            4. 8.4.1.4.4. Displaying the routing table
          5. 8.4.1.5. nbtstat
          6. 8.4.1.6. ipconfig
          7. 8.4.1.7. ifconfig
          8. 8.4.1.8. winipcfg
          9. 8.4.1.9. nslookup
          10. 8.4.1.10. dig
        2. 8.4.2. Visual Indicators
        3. 8.4.3. Troubleshooting Remote Connectivity
          1. 8.4.3.1. File and print permissions
          2. 8.4.3.2. Authentication failures
          3. 8.4.3.3. Protocol configuration
          4. 8.4.3.4. Physical connectivity
        4. 8.4.4. Troubleshooting Network Connectivity Problems
          1. 8.4.4.1. Troubleshooting network services
            1. 8.4.4.1.1. Adding, removing, or modifying the DHCP service
            2. 8.4.4.1.2. Adding, removing, or modifying the DNS service
            3. 8.4.4.1.3. Adding, removing, or modifying the WINS service
          2. 8.4.4.2. Troubleshooting physical topologies
            1. 8.4.4.2.1. Bus network
            2. 8.4.4.2.2. Star network
            3. 8.4.4.2.3. Ring network
            4. 8.4.4.2.4. Mesh network
          3. 8.4.4.3. Troubleshooting network infrastructure
            1. 8.4.4.3.1. Network media and devices
            2. 8.4.4.3.2. Wireless network
          4. 8.4.4.4. Troubleshooting strategy
            1. 8.4.4.4.1. Identify the symptoms and potential causes
            2. 8.4.4.4.2. Identify the affected area
            3. 8.4.4.4.3. Establish what has changed
            4. 8.4.4.4.4. Select the most probable cause
            5. 8.4.4.4.5. Implement an action plan and solution including potential effects
            6. 8.4.4.4.6. Test the results
            7. 8.4.4.4.7. Identify the results and effects of the solution
            8. 8.4.4.4.8. Document the solution and process
    3. 9. Network+ Exam Prep and Practice
      1. 9.1. Preparing for the Network+ Exam
      2. 9.2. Network+ Exam Suggested Exercises
        1. 9.2.1. Network Topologies
        2. 9.2.2. Network Media
        3. 9.2.3. Wireless Network
        4. 9.2.4. Cable Types
        5. 9.2.5. Media Devices
        6. 9.2.6. MAC Address
        7. 9.2.7. Networking Protocols
        8. 9.2.8. IP Addressing
        9. 9.2.9. TCP/IP Services
        10. 9.2.10. WAN and Internet Technologies
        11. 9.2.11. Remote Access Protocols and Services
        12. 9.2.12. Network Operating Systems
        13. 9.2.13. Interoperability of Network Operating Systems
        14. 9.2.14. Network Wiring Tools
        15. 9.2.15. Network Security
        16. 9.2.16. Fault Tolerance
        17. 9.2.17. Disaster Recovery
        18. 9.2.18. Troubleshooting Utilities
        19. 9.2.19. Troubleshooting Network Connectivity
        20. 9.2.20. Troubleshooting Network Devices
        21. 9.2.21. Using the arp Command
        22. 9.2.22. Using the netstat Command
      3. 9.3. Network+ Exam Highlighters Index
        1. 9.3.1. Media and Topologies
        2. 9.3.2. Protocols and Standards
        3. 9.3.3. Network Implementation
        4. 9.3.4. Network Support
      4. 9.4. Network+ Exam Practice Questions
  6. IV. Security+
    1. 10. Overview of Security+ Exam
      1. 10.1. Areas of Study for Security+ Exam
        1. 10.1.1. General Security Concepts
        2. 10.1.2. Communication Security
        3. 10.1.3. Infrastructure Security
        4. 10.1.4. Basics of Cryptography
        5. 10.1.5. Operational/Organizational Security
    2. 11. Security+ Exam Study Guide
      1. 11.1. General Security Concepts
        1. 11.1.1. Access Control Models
          1. 11.1.1.1. Mandatory Access Control (MAC)
          2. 11.1.1.2. Discretionary Access Control (DAC)
          3. 11.1.1.3. Role-Based Access Control (RBAC)
        2. 11.1.2. Authentication Methods
          1. 11.1.2.1. Kerberos
          2. 11.1.2.2. Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
          3. 11.1.2.3. Certificates
          4. 11.1.2.4. Username/Password
          5. 11.1.2.5. Tokens
          6. 11.1.2.6. Multifactor
          7. 11.1.2.7. Mutual authentication
          8. 11.1.2.8. Biometrics
        3. 11.1.3. Auditing and Logging
          1. 11.1.3.1. System auditing
          2. 11.1.3.2. Logging
        4. 11.1.4. System Scanning
        5. 11.1.5. Types of Attacks
          1. 11.1.5.1. Denial of Service (DoS)
          2. 11.1.5.2. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)
            1. 11.1.5.2.1. Reflected DDoS attack
          3. 11.1.5.3. SYN flood
          4. 11.1.5.4. IP spoofing
          5. 11.1.5.5. Man-in-the-Middle Attacks (MITM)
          6. 11.1.5.6. Replay attacks
          7. 11.1.5.7. TCP/IP hijacking
          8. 11.1.5.8. Weak keys
          9. 11.1.5.9. Password attacks
            1. 11.1.5.9.1. Password guessing
            2. 11.1.5.9.2. Dictionary attacks
            3. 11.1.5.9.3. Brute force attack
          10. 11.1.5.10. Buffer overflow
          11. 11.1.5.11. Software exploitation
          12. 11.1.5.12. Back door
        6. 11.1.6. Types of Malicious Codes
          1. 11.1.6.1. Viruses
          2. 11.1.6.2. Worms
          3. 11.1.6.3. Trojan horses
          4. 11.1.6.4. Logic bombs and time bombs
          5. 11.1.6.5. Wardialing
          6. 11.1.6.6. Dumpster diving
        7. 11.1.7. Risks Involved in Social Engineering
        8. 11.1.8. Identifying and Disabling Nonessential Services and Protocols
          1. 11.1.8.1. Nonessential services
          2. 11.1.8.2. Nonessential protocols
      2. 11.2. Communication Security
        1. 11.2.1. Remote Access
          1. 11.2.1.1. 802.1x
            1. 11.2.1.1.1. Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)
            2. 11.2.1.1.2. Vulnerabilities in the 802.1x authentication protocol
          2. 11.2.1.2. Virtual Private Networking
            1. 11.2.1.2.1. Remote Access VPN
            2. 11.2.1.2.2. Site-to-Site VPN
          3. 11.2.1.3. Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service (RADIUS)
          4. 11.2.1.4. Terminal Access Controller Access Control System (TACACS)
          5. 11.2.1.5. TACACS+
          6. 11.2.1.6. Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)
          7. 11.2.1.7. Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)
          8. 11.2.1.8. Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)
            1. 11.2.1.8.1. Transport mode
            2. 11.2.1.8.2. Tunnel mode
            3. 11.2.1.8.3. IPSec components
            4. 11.2.1.8.4. IPSec authentication
          9. 11.2.1.9. Secure Shell (SSH)
          10. 11.2.1.10. Vulnerabilities in Remote Access Services (RAS)
        2. 11.2.2. Email
          1. 11.2.2.1. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
          2. 11.2.2.2. Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME)
          3. 11.2.2.3. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
          4. 11.2.2.4. Email vulnerabilities
            1. 11.2.2.4.1. Spam
            2. 11.2.2.4.2. Email hoaxes
            3. 11.2.2.4.3. Email viruses
            4. 11.2.2.4.4. SMTP relay
        3. 11.2.3. Internet Security Concepts
          1. 11.2.3.1. Securing web servers
          2. 11.2.3.2. Securing web browsers
          3. 11.2.3.3. Secure Socket Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TSL)
          4. 11.2.3.4. HTTP/HTTPS
          5. 11.2.3.5. Instant Messaging (IM)
          6. 11.2.3.6. Vulnerabilities in Internet services
            1. 11.2.3.6.1. Java Applets and JavaScript
            2. 11.2.3.6.2. ActiveX
            3. 11.2.3.6.3. Protecting the Internet client
            4. 11.2.3.6.4. Protecting the web server
            5. 11.2.3.6.5. Cookies
            6. 11.2.3.6.6. Buffer overflows
            7. 11.2.3.6.7. Signed applets
            8. 11.2.3.6.8. Problems with signed applets
            9. 11.2.3.6.9. Common Gateway Interface (CGI)
        4. 11.2.4. Directory Services Security
          1. 11.2.4.1. LDAP naming conventions
          2. 11.2.4.2. LDAP security
        5. 11.2.5. File Transfer Protocols (FTP)
          1. 11.2.5.1. Blind FTP
          2. 11.2.5.2. Secure FTP (S/FTP)
        6. 11.2.6. Wireless Communications
          1. 11.2.6.1. Wireless local area networks
            1. 11.2.6.1.1. Spread spectrum wireless technology
          2. 11.2.6.2. Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
          3. 11.2.6.3. Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS)
          4. 11.2.6.4. IEEE 802.11
            1. 11.2.6.4.1. IEEE 802.11b
            2. 11.2.6.4.2. IEEE 802.11a
            3. 11.2.6.4.3. IEEE 802.11g
            4. 11.2.6.4.4. Ad-hoc and Infrastructure wireless networks
          5. 11.2.6.5. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
          6. 11.2.6.6. Authentication in wireless networks
            1. 11.2.6.6.1. Open authentication
            2. 11.2.6.6.2. Shared key authentication
            3. 11.2.6.6.3. 802.1x authentication
          7. 11.2.6.7. Types of attacks on wireless networks
          8. 11.2.6.8. Protecting wireless networks from attacks
            1. 11.2.6.8.1. Site surveys
      3. 11.3. Infrastructure Security
        1. 11.3.1. Device-based Security
          1. 11.3.1.1. Firewalls
            1. 11.3.1.1.1. Packet-filtering firewalls
            2. 11.3.1.1.2. Application-layer firewalls
            3. 11.3.1.1.3. Stateful Inspection Firewalls
          2. 11.3.1.2. Routers
          3. 11.3.1.3. Switches
          4. 11.3.1.4. Wireless
          5. 11.3.1.5. Modems
          6. 11.3.1.6. Remote Access Servers (RAS)
          7. 11.3.1.7. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
          8. 11.3.1.8. Network monitoring
          9. 11.3.1.9. Workstations
          10. 11.3.1.10. Servers
          11. 11.3.1.11. Mobile devices
        2. 11.3.2. Media Security
          1. 11.3.2.1. Coaxial cable
          2. 11.3.2.2. Unshielded fwisted pair/shielded twisted pair (UTP/STP) cables
          3. 11.3.2.3. Fiber optic cable
          4. 11.3.2.4. Removable media
            1. 11.3.2.4.1. Magnetic tapes
            2. 11.3.2.4.2. Compact Disk-Recordable (CD-R)
            3. 11.3.2.4.3. Hard drives
            4. 11.3.2.4.4. Floppy disks
            5. 11.3.2.4.5. Flash cards
            6. 11.3.2.4.6. Smart cards
        3. 11.3.3. Security Topologies
          1. 11.3.3.1. Security zones
            1. 11.3.3.1.1. Demilitarized zone (DMZ)
            2. 11.3.3.1.2. Intranet
            3. 11.3.3.1.3. Extranet
          2. 11.3.3.2. Virtual local area network (VLAN)
          3. 11.3.3.3. Network address translation (NAT)
          4. 11.3.3.4. Tunneling
        4. 11.3.4. Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
          1. 11.3.4.1.
            1. 11.3.4.1.1. Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS)
            2. 11.3.4.1.2. Host-based IDS
            3. 11.3.4.1.3. Signature based IDS
            4. 11.3.4.1.4. Application protocol-based IDS
            5. 11.3.4.1.5. Protocol-based IDS
            6. 11.3.4.1.6. Hybrid IDS
          2. 11.3.4.2. Honeypots
          3. 11.3.4.3. Incident response
        5. 11.3.5. Operating System Hardening
          1. 11.3.5.1. Filesystems
          2. 11.3.5.2. Updates
            1. 11.3.5.2.1. Hotfixes
            2. 11.3.5.2.2. Service Packs (SPs)
            3. 11.3.5.2.3. Patches
        6. 11.3.6. Network Hardening
          1. 11.3.6.1.
            1. 11.3.6.1.1. Updating firmware
            2. 11.3.6.1.2. Configuration
            3. 11.3.6.1.3. Access Control Lists (ACLs)
        7. 11.3.7. Application Hardening
          1. 11.3.7.1. Web servers
          2. 11.3.7.2. Email servers
          3. 11.3.7.3. FTP servers
          4. 11.3.7.4. DNS servers
          5. 11.3.7.5. NNTP servers
          6. 11.3.7.6. File and print servers
            1. 11.3.7.6.1. DHCP servers
          7. 11.3.7.7. Data repositories
            1. 11.3.7.7.1. Directory services
            2. 11.3.7.7.2. Databases
      4. 11.4. Basics of Cryptography
        1. 11.4.1. Encryption Algorithms
          1. 11.4.1.1. Symmetric algorithms
            1. 11.4.1.1.1. Data Encryption Standard (DES)
            2. 11.4.1.1.2. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)
            3. 11.4.1.1.3. International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA)
          2. 11.4.1.2. Asymmetric algorithms
            1. 11.4.1.2.1. Diffie-Hellman
            2. 11.4.1.2.2. RSA
            3. 11.4.1.2.3. ElGamal
          3. 11.4.1.3. Hashing algorithms
        2. 11.4.2. Concepts of Cryptography
          1. 11.4.2.1. Confidentiality
          2. 11.4.2.2. Integrity
            1. 11.4.2.2.1. Digital signatures
          3. 11.4.2.3. Authentication
          4. 11.4.2.4. Non-repudiation
        3. 11.4.3. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
          1. 11.4.3.1. Certificates
            1. 11.4.3.1.1. Certificate Policies (CPs)
            2. 11.4.3.1.2. Certificate Practice Statements (CPSs)
          2. 11.4.3.2. Trust models
            1. 11.4.3.2.1. Single CA model
            2. 11.4.3.2.2. Hierarchical model
            3. 11.4.3.2.3. Web of trust model
          3. 11.4.3.3. PKI standards and protocols
          4. 11.4.3.4. Key management and certificate lifecycles
            1. 11.4.3.4.1. Storage
            2. 11.4.3.4.2. Escrow
            3. 11.4.3.4.3. Expiration
            4. 11.4.3.4.4. Revocation
            5. 11.4.3.4.5. Suspension
            6. 11.4.3.4.6. Recovery
            7. 11.4.3.4.7. Renewal
            8. 11.4.3.4.8. Destruction
            9. 11.4.3.4.9. Key usage
      5. 11.5. Operational and Organizational Security
        1. 11.5.1. Physical Security
          1. 11.5.1.1. Access control
          2. 11.5.1.2. Social engineering
          3. 11.5.1.3. Environment
        2. 11.5.2. Disaster Recovery
          1. 11.5.2.1. Backups
            1. 11.5.2.1.1. Tape rotation
            2. 11.5.2.1.2. Offsite storage
          2. 11.5.2.2. Secure recovery
            1. 11.5.2.2.1. Alternate sites
          3. 11.5.2.3. Disaster recovery plan
          4. 11.5.2.4. Business continuity plan
            1. 11.5.2.4.1. Utilities
            2. 11.5.2.4.2. High availability and fault tolerance
        3. 11.5.3. Security Policies and Procedures
          1. 11.5.3.1.
            1. 11.5.3.1.1. Acceptable use policy
            2. 11.5.3.1.2. Due care policy
            3. 11.5.3.1.3. Privacy policy
            4. 11.5.3.1.4. Separation of duties policy
            5. 11.5.3.1.5. Need-to-know policy
            6. 11.5.3.1.6. Password management policy
            7. 11.5.3.1.7. Service Level Agreements (SLA)
            8. 11.5.3.1.8. Disposal and destruction policy
            9. 11.5.3.1.9. Human resources policies
            10. 11.5.3.1.10. Code of ethics
          2. 11.5.3.2. Incident response policy
        4. 11.5.4. Privilege Management
          1. 11.5.4.1. User/Group/Role management
          2. 11.5.4.2. Single sign-on
          3. 11.5.4.3. Centralized verses decentralized
          4. 11.5.4.4. Auditing
          5. 11.5.4.5. Mandatory Access Control/ Discretionary Access Control/Role-based Access Control (MAC/DAC/RBAC)
        5. 11.5.5. Computer Forensics
          1. 11.5.5.1. Chain of custody
          2. 11.5.5.2. Preservation of evidence
          3. 11.5.5.3. Collection of evidence
        6. 11.5.6. Education and Training
          1. 11.5.6.1. Communication
          2. 11.5.6.2. User awareness
          3. 11.5.6.3. Education
          4. 11.5.6.4. Online resources
        7. 11.5.7. Risk Identification
          1. 11.5.7.1. Asset identification
          2. 11.5.7.2. Risk assessment
          3. 11.5.7.3. Threat identification
          4. 11.5.7.4. Vulnerabilities
    3. 12. Security+ Exam Prep and Practice
      1. 12.1. Preparing for the Security+ Exam
      2. 12.2. Security+ Exam Suggested Exercises
        1. 12.2.1. Access Control
        2. 12.2.2. Authentication
        3. 12.2.3. Auditing and Logging
        4. 12.2.4. System Scanning
        5. 12.2.5. Disabling Non-Essential Services and Protocols
        6. 12.2.6. Social Engineering Attack
        7. 12.2.7. Remote Access and VPN
        8. 12.2.8. Email Security
        9. 12.2.9. Wireless Security
        10. 12.2.10. Web Server Security
        11. 12.2.11. Web Browser Security
        12. 12.2.12. Demilitarized Zones
        13. 12.2.13. System Hardening
        14. 12.2.14. Data Backup
        15. 12.2.15. Disaster Recover Plan
      3. 12.3. Security+ Exam Highlighters Index
        1. 12.3.1. General Security Concepts
        2. 12.3.2. Communication Security
        3. 12.3.3. Infrastructure Security
        4. 12.3.4. Basics of Cryptography
        5. 12.3.5. Operational and Organizational Security
      4. 12.4. Security+ Exam Practice Questions
  7. Index
  8. About the Author
  9. Colophon
  10. Copyright