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A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology

Book Description

Drawing on essays from leading international and multi-disciplinary scholars, A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology is the first comprehensive and authoritative reference source to cover the key issues of technology's impact on society and our lives.

  • Presents the first complete, authoritative reference work in the field

  • Organized thematically for use both as a full introduction to the field or an encyclopedic reference

  • Draws on original essays from leading interdisciplinary scholars

  • Features the most up-to-date and cutting edge research in the interdisciplinary fields of philosophy, technology, and their broader intellectual environments

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title page
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Notes on Contributors
  6. Introduction
    1. I History of Technology
    2. II Technology and Science
    3. III Technology and Philosophy
    4. IV Technology and Environment
    5. V Technology and Politics
    6. VI Technology and Ethics
    7. VII Technology and the Future
  7. Part I: History of Technology
    1. Chapter 1: History of Technology
      1. Definitions of “Technology”
      2. Problems of Culture
      3. Dilemmas of Determinism
      4. Notes
      5. References and Further Reading
    2. Chapter 2: Definitions of Technology
      1. What Is Technology?
      2. Explicit Knowledge and Tacit Knowledge
      3. References and Further Reading
    3. Chapter 3: Western Technology
    4. Chapter 4: Chinese Technology
      1. References and Further Reading
    5. Chapter 5: Islamic Technology
      1. “Indian Agriculture”
      2. Practical Astronomy, Surveying and Time-keeping
      3. Gunpowder and Firearms
      4. Philosophy of Technology
      5. References and Further Reading
    6. Chapter 6: Japanese Technology
      1. References and Further Reading
    7. Chapter 7: Technology and War
      1. References and Further Reading
  8. Part II: Technology and Science
    1. Chapter 8: Technology and Science
      1. References and Further Reading
    2. Chapter 9: Science and Technology: Positivism and Critique
      1. Note
      2. References and Further Reading
    3. Chapter 10: Engineering Science
    4. Chapter 11: Technological Knowledge
      1. 1. Types of Knowledge in Technology
      2. 2. A Neglected Topic
      3. 3. Empirical Studies
      4. 4. Philosophical Explorations
      5. References and Further Reading
    5. Chapter 12: The Interplay between Science and Technology
      1. References and Further Reading
    6. Chapter 13: Instruments in Science and Technology
      1. 1. Science and Technology
      2. 2. Instruments in Science
      3. 3. New Experimentalism
      4. 4. Instruments in Scientific Practice
      5. 5. The Interwovenness of Science and Technology
      6. References and Further Reading
    7. Chapter 14: Social Construction of Science
      1. References and Further Reading
    8. Chapter 15: Social Construction of Technology
      1. Constructivist Studies of Science and Technology
      2. The Origin and Development of the Social Construction of Technology
      3. The Social Construction of Technology as a Heuristics for Research
      4. Some Philosophical Questions
      5. Technology and Ideas
      6. Conceptual Issues
      7. Logic and Epistemological Issues
      8. Ethical Issues
      9. Issues of Political Philosophy
      10. Religious Issues
      11. References and Further Reading
    9. Chapter 16: Theory Change and Instrumentation
      1. References and Further Reading
    10. Chapter 17: Biology and Technology
      1. Introduction
      2. History of Technology
      3. Technology and Artifacts
      4. Biology, Technology and Biotic artifacts
      5. Conclusion
      6. Notes
    11. Chapter 18: Nuclear Technologies
      1. 1. Introduction
      2. 2. The Physicists and the Bomb
      3. 3. Thermonuclear Weapons and the Cold War
      4. 4. Atoms for Peace
      5. 5. Deterrence, Détente, 9/11 and Dirty Bombs
      6. 6. Nuclear Waste
      7. 7. Climate Crisis
      8. 8. Conclusion
      9. Acknowledgments
      10. Notes
      11. References and Further Reading
    12. Chapter 19: Engineering Design
      1. General Characterization
      2. A Design
      3. The Design Process
      4. Rationality and Creativity in Engineering Design
      5. Acknowledgment
      6. Note
      7. References and Further Reading
    13. Chapter 20: Cybernetics
      1. References and Further Reading
    14. Chapter 21: Chemistry and Technology
      1. References and Further Reading
  9. Part III: Technology and Philosophy
    1. Chapter 22: Introduction: Philosophy and Technology
      1. Philosophy of Science and Philosophy of Technology
      2. Phenomenology and Technology
      3. Hermeneutics
      4. Marxism, Critical Theory and Technology
      5. Social Constructivism
      6. Pragmatism and Technology
      7. Toward an Integrated Philosophy of Technology
    2. Chapter 23: Semiotics of Technology
      1. References and Further Reading
    3. Chapter 24: Critical Theory of Technology
      1. Critical Theories of Technology
      2. Technology and Democracy
      3. Code and Bias
      4. Modernity, Premodernity, Alternative Modernity
      5. References and Further Reading
    4. Chapter 25: Cyborgs
    5. Chapter 26: Simulation
    6. Chapter 27: Technology as “Applied Science”
      1. References and Further Reading
    7. Chapter 28: Technological Artifacts
      1. 1. Introduction
      2. 2. Definitions of Technological Artifacts
      3. 3. Technological Artifacts in Philosophy
      4. References and Further Reading
    8. Chapter 29: Technical Practice
      1. References and Further Reading
    9. Chapter 30: Technological Pragmatism
      1. References and Further Reading
    10. Chapter 31: Hermeneutics and Technologies
      1. Notes
    11. Chapter 32: Analytic Philosophy of Technology
      1. References and Further Reading
    12. Chapter 33: Technological Rationality
      1. Notes
      2. References and Further Reading
    13. Chapter 34: Phenomenology and Technology
      1. Notes
    14. Chapter 35: Expertise
    15. Chapter 36: Imaging Technologies
      1. Notes
      2. References and Further Reading
    16. Chapter 37: The Critique of the Precautionary Principle and the Possibility for an “Enlightened Doomsaying”
      1. Notes
    17. Chapter 38: Technology and Metaphysics
      1. Notes
    18. Chapter 39: Large Technical Systems
      1. Background
      2. Concepts for Examining LTS Dynamics
      3. Societal Implications of LTS
      4. References and Further Reading
    19. Chapter 40: Sociotechnical Systems
    20. Chapter 41: Information Technology
      1. The Evolution of IT
      2. Understanding IT
      3. IT in the Information Society
      4. Conclusion
      5. References and Further Reading
  10. Part IV: Technology and Environment
    1. Chapter 42: Technology and Environment
      1. Notes
      2. References and Further Reading
    2. Chapter 43: The Precautionary Principle
      1. General Background
      2. Critical Debate
      3. Practical Implications
      4. Notes
    3. Chapter 44: Boundary-work, Pluralism and the Environment
      1. The Tension between Sustainability and Diversity and the Quest for Unity
      2. Boundary-work
      3. Conclusion
      4. References and Further Reading
    4. Chapter 45: Global Warming
      1. The Science of Global Warming
      2. The Impacts of Global Warming
      3. Can We Believe the Evidence?
      4. International Agreement Required
      5. What Actions Can Be Taken?
      6. Notes
    5. Chapter 46: The Reinvention of CO2 as Refrigerant for Both Heating and Cooling
      1. The Breakthrough of the Refrigerant System
      2. CO2 Makes a Brief Appearance
      3. The New Wonder Refrigerants
      4. The Area of the HFC Gases
      5. A New Technology Is Born – in Norway
      6. The SHECCO Transcritical CO2 Circuit
      7. The CO2 Paradox
    6. Chapter 47: Environmental Science and Technology
      1. Notes
      2. References and Further Reading
    7. Chapter 48: Agriculture and Technology
      1. References and Further Reading
    8. Chapter 49: The Built Environment
      1. 1. Environmental Impact
      2. 2. Built Environment versus Environment?
      3. Notes
  11. Part V: Technology and Politics
    1. Chapter 50: Technology and Politics
    2. Chapter 51: The Idea of Progress
      1. Notes
    3. Chapter 52: Technology and Power
    4. Chapter 53: Technology and Culture
    5. Chapter 54: Technology Management
      1. What Is Technology Management/Management of Technology (MOT)?
      2. Significance of Technology Management
      3. New Endeavors in Management of Technology
      4. References and Further Reading
    6. Chapter 55: Technology Strategy
      1. References and Further Reading
    7. Chapter 56: Technology and Globalization
      1. Technology and the Global Political Economy
      2. The Global Political Economy and Technology
    8. Chapter 57: Technology Transfer
    9. Chapter 58: Technology and Capitalism
      1. Technology and the Development of Capitalism
      2. Monopoly and Welfare State Capitalism
      3. Technology and Late Capitalism
    10. Chapter 59: The Politics of Gender and Technology
      1. References and Further Reading
    11. Chapter 60: European Politics, Economy and Technology
    12. Chapter 61: Asian Politics, Economy and Technology
      1. Introduction
      2. Recent History and Politics
      3. The West: Politics, Economy and Technology
      4. Nationalism, Modernization and Westernization
      5. Conclusion
      6. Notes
    13. Chapter 62: US Politics, Economy and Technology
      1. American Liberalism
      2. The Constitutional System
      3. Federal Patronage
      4. Looking Forward
      5. Notes
    14. Chapter 63: Energy, Technology and Geopolitics
      1. References and Further Reading
  12. Part VI: Technology and Ethics
    1. Chapter 64: Technology and Ethics: Overview
      1. 1. From Cultural Criticism to Cultural Lag
      2. 2. Dramatic Tensions
      3. 3. Dramatic Theory
      4. 4. Theory and Description
      5. 5. Description Plus
      6. References and Further Reading
    2. Chapter 65: Agriculture Ethics
      1. Health and Environment
      2. Topsoil Erosion
      3. Monocrops
      4. Global Trade
      5. Genetically Modified Food
      6. Animals
    3. Chapter 66: Architecture Ethics
      1. References and Further Reading
    4. Chapter 67: Biomedical Engineering Ethics
      1. General Ethical Issues
      2. Cellular, Genetic and Tissue Engineering
      3. Biomaterials, Prostheses and Implants
      4. Biomedical Imaging and Optics
      5. Neural Engineering
      6. References and Further Reading
    5. Chapter 68: Bioethics
      1. References and Further Reading
    6. Chapter 69: Biotechnology: Plants and Animals
      1. Intrinsic Value
      2. Environmental and Health Risks
      3. Human Hunger and Benefit-sharing
      4. References and Further Reading
    7. Chapter 70: Computer Ethics
      1. Approaches in Computer Ethics
      2. Topics in Computer Ethics
      3. Moral Responsibility
      4. Other Topics
      5. References and Further Reading
    8. Chapter 71: Consumerism
      1. References and Further Reading
    9. Chapter 72: Development Ethics
      1. References and Further Reading
    10. Chapter 73: Energy Ethics
      1. Energy and Economic Growth
      2. Transportation Access
      3. Exhaustible Resources
      4. Note
      5. References and Further Reading
    11. Chapter 74: Engineering Ethics
      1. 1. The Birth of a Discipline
      2. 2. Status and Stakes of Engineering Ethics?
      3. 3. The Moral Responsibility of Engineers
      4. References and Further Reading
      5. Abbreviations
    12. Chapter 75: Environmental Ethics
      1. 1. Introduction
      2. 2. The Axiology of Environmental Ethics
      3. 3. Normative Theories and Environmental Ethics
      4. Notes
    13. Chapter 76: Food Ethics
      1. Food Safety
      2. Food Processing
      3. Genetically Modified Food
      4. Functional Food
      5. Food Nanotechnology
    14. Chapter 77: Future Generations
      1. References and Further Reading
    15. Chapter 78: Genethics
      1. 1. Genes, Identity and Ethics
      2. 2. Identity-affecting Genetic Interventions
      3. 3. Identity-preserving Genetic Interventions
      4. 4. Justice
      5. References and Further Reading
    16. Chapter 79: Technology and the Law
    17. Chapter 80: Media Ethics
      1. References and Further Reading
    18. Chapter 81: Medical Ethics
      1. History
      2. Specific Features of Medical Ethics
      3. Recent Developments
      4. References and Further Reading
    19. Chapter 82: Nanoethics
      1. References and Further Reading
    20. Chapter 83: Nuclear Ethics
      1. Introduction
      2. Ethics and the Use of Nuclear Weapons
      3. Ethics and the Possession of Nuclear Weapons
      4. Toward a Theory of Justified Deterrence
      5. Applying Justified Deterrence Theory
      6. References and Further Reading
    21. Chapter 84: Religion and Technology
      1. Historico-theological Debates
      2. From History to Philosophy
      3. Conclusions
      4. References and Further Reading
    22. Chapter 85: Technology and Personal Moral Responsibility
      1. References and Further Reading
    23. Chapter 86: Value-sensitive Design
      1. References and Further Reading
  13. Part VII: Technology and the Future
    1. Chapter 87: Technology, Prosperity and Risk
      1. 1. Introduction
      2. 2. Technological Risks
      3. 3. Future Technology
      4. 4. Dealing with Technological Uncertainty
      5. 5. How Special Is Technology?
      6. References and Further Reading
    2. Chapter 88: World Risk Society
      1. Notes
    3. Chapter 89: Risk Analysis
    4. Chapter 90: Prosperity and the Future of Technology
      1. Economic Prosperity and Innovation
      2. The Information Age
      3. The Nanotechnology Age
      4. Conclusion
      5. Note
      6. References and Further Reading
    5. Chapter 91: Converging Technologies
      1. The NBIC Fields
      2. Philosophical Implications of Convergence
      3. Conclusion
      4. Note
      5. References and Further Reading
    6. Chapter 92: Nanotechnology
      1. Notes
    7. Chapter 93: Energy Forecast Technologies
      1. Hubbert’s Oil Supply Forecast
      2. Energy Forecast Methodology
      3. Energy Forecast Trend
      4. References and Further Reading
    8. Chapter 94: Biotechnology
      1. Decision-making about New Technologies
      2. Case Studies for Biotechnology
      3. Guidance from the Public
      4. Notes
      5. References and Further Reading
    9. Chapter 95: Transportation
      1. The Transportation System
      2. Transportation System Benefits, Harms and Hazards
      3. Conclusions and Further Questions
      4. References and Further Reading
    10. Chapter 96: Global Challenges
      1. Cases of S&T Applied to the MDGs
      2. Ways Forward
      3. Notes
      4. References and Further Reading
    11. Chapter 97: Chemicals
      1. Toxic Chemicals in the Arctic
      2. Stratospheric Ozone Loss and Global Warming
      3. References and Further Reading
    12. Chapter 98: The Future of Humanity
      1. References and Further Reading
  14. Index