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8051 Microcontrollers, 2nd Edition

Book Description

8051 Microcontrollers is one of the most widely used microcontrollers in embedded system design. The second edition of the book discusses its internal architecture, instruction set and interfacing techniques through simple language, excellent graphical annotations and a large variety of solved examples. The latest edition of the book features additional C language based programs for varied applications.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Contents
  4. Dedication
  5. Preface to the First Edition
  6. Preface
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. 1. Introduction
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 1.1 Introduction
    3. 1.2 Microprocessor
      1. 1.2.1 Microprocessor-Based System
    4. 1.3 Microcontroller
      1. 1.3.1 General Architecture
      2. 1.3.2 Software Protection in Microcontrollers
      3. 1.3.3 Brief History of Intel Microcontrollers
    5. 1.4 MCS-51 Family
      1. 1.4.1 Princeton and Harvard Architectures
      2. 1.4.2 Comparison Between 8085 and MCS-51
    6. 1.5 Power Management
    7. 1.6 Microcontroller Packaging
      1. 1.6.1 Plastic Dual-Inline Package (PDIP)
      2. 1.6.2 Quad Flat Package (QFP)
      3. 1.6.3 Plastic-Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC)
      4. 1.6.4 Plastic Quad Flat Pack (PQFP)
      5. 1.6.5 Thin Quad Flat Pack (TQFP)
    8. 1.7 Future Trend
    9. Summary
    10. Points to Remember
    11. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  9. 2. General Architecture
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 2.1 External Features
    3. 2.2 Pins and Signals
    4. 2.3 Internal Architecture
    5. 2.4 Program Memory Organization
    6. 2.4.1 Pipeline Architecture
      1. 2.4.2 Program Lock Bits
    7. 2.5 Data Memory Organization
      1. 2.5.1 Register Banks
      2. 2.5.2 Bit-Addressable Area
      3. 2.5.3 Scratch-Pad Area
    8. 2.6 System Clock
    9. 2.7 Reset
    10. 2.8 How to Program 8051
      1. 2.8.1 Overview of Programming
      2. 2.8.2 Editor
      3. 2.8.3 Assembler
      4. 2.8.4 Burning the Chip
      5. 2.8.5 IDE
    11. Summary
    12. Points to Remember
    13. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  10. 3. I/O Ports and Special Function Registers
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 3.1 Introduction
    3. 3.2 SFR Map
    4. 3.3 SFR Functions
    5. 3.4 Processor Status Word
      1. 3.4.1 Comparison with 8085 Flags
    6. 3.5 Accumulator (Register A)
    7. 3.6 Register B
    8. 3.7 Stack Pointer
    9. 3.8 Port Registers (P0, P1, P2 and P3)
      1. 3.8.1 Comparing 8255 PPI with MCS-51 Ports
      2. 3.8.2 Architecture of MCS-51 Ports
      3. 3.8.3 DC Characteristics of MCS-51 Ports
    10. 3.9 Power Management (PCON)
    11. 3.10 Solved Examples
    12. Summary
    13. Points to Remember
    14. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  11. 4. Addressing Modes and Data Move Operations
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 4.1 Instructions and Instruction Groups of MCS-51
    3. 4.2 Addressing Modes
      1. 4.2.1 Immediate Addressing Mode
      2. 4.2.2 Direct Addressing Mode
      3. 4.2.3 Register Direct Addressing Mode
      4. 4.2.4 Register Indirect Addressing Mode
    4. 4.3 Data Transfer Mnemonics
    5. 4.4 Forms of MOV Instruction
      1. 4.4.1 16-Bit Data Load
      2. 4.4.2 8-Bit Data Load
      3. 4.4.3 Precautions in Hexadecimal Representations
      4. 4.4.4 Format of MOV Instruction
      5. 4.4.5 Comparison with 8085 Mnemonics
      6. 4.4.6 Operand Expressions
      7. 4.4.7 Restrictions in Addressing Modes
      8. 4.4.8 Reading from I/O Ports
    6. 4.5 Solved Examples
    7. Summary
    8. Points to Remember
    9. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  12. 5. Arithmetic Operations
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 5.1 Introduction
    3. 5.2 ADD Instruction
    4. 5.3 ADDC Instruction
    5. 5.4 SUBB Instruction
    6. 5.5 INC Instruction
    7. 5.6 DEC Instruction
    8. Summary
    9. Points to Remember
    10. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  13. 6. Program Branching
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 6.1 Program Branching Instructions
    3. 6.2 Unconditional Jumps
      1. 6.2.1 LJMP Instruction
      2. 6.2.2 AJMP Instruction
      3. 6.2.3 SJMP Instruction
      4. 6.2.4 Application of AJMP and SJMP
    4. 6.3 Conditional Branching
      1. 6.3.1 JZ Instruction
      2. 6.3.2 JNZ Instruction
      3. 6.3.3 CJNE Instruction
      4. 6.3.4 DJNZ Instruction
      5. 6.3.5 Labels in Program Listing
    5. 6.4 NOP Instruction
    6. 6.5 Solved Examples
    7. Summary
    8. Points to Remember
    9. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  14. 7. Programming Examples-I
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 7.1 Introduction
    3. 7.2 Copy Block
    4. 7.3 Shift Block
    5. 7.4 Count No. of Nulls
    6. 7.5 Find Checksum
    7. 7.6 Sum of Natural Numbers
    8. 7.7 Sum of a Series
    9. 7.8 Fibonacci Series
    10. 7.9 Generate a Series
    11. Summary
    12. Points to Remember
    13. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  15. 8. Subroutines and Stack
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 8.1 Need of Subroutines
    3. 8.2 LCALL Instruction
    4. 8.3 RET Instruction
    5. 8.4 ACALL Instruction
    6. 8.5 Mechanism of Subroutines
    7. 8.6 Nesting of Subroutines
    8. 8.7 Stack
    9. 8.8 PUSH Instruction
    10. 8.9 POP Instruction
    11. 8.10 Other Applications of Subroutine
    12. 8.11 Comparison with 8085
    13. 8.12 Solved Examples
    14. 8.13 Parameter Passing in Subroutines
    15. Summary
    16. Points to Remember
    17. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  16. 9. Logical Operations
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 9.1 Introduction
    3. 9.2 ANL Instruction
    4. 9.3 ORL Instruction
    5. 9.4 XRL Instruction
    6. 9.5 CLR Instruction
    7. 9.6 CPL Instruction
    8. 9.7 RL Instruction
    9. 9.8 RLC Instruction
    10. 9.9 RR Instruction
    11. 9.10 RRC Instruction
    12. 9.11 Solved Examples
    13. Summary
    14. Points to Remember
    15. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  17. 10. Boolean Variable Manipulation
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 10.1 Introduction
      1. 10.1.1 Source and Destination of Boolean Operations
    3. 10.2 Boolean Data Loading and Movement
      1. 10.2.1 CLR Instruction
      2. 10.2.2 SETB Instruction
      3. 10.2.3 MOV Instruction
    4. 10.3 Bit-Oriented Program Branching
      1. 10.3.1 JC Instruction
      2. 10.3.2 JNC Instruction
      3. 10.3.3 JB Instruction
      4. 10.3.4 JNB Instruction
    5. 10.4 Bit-Oriented Logical Operations
      1. 10.4.1 ANL Instruction
      2. 10.4.2 ORL Instruction
      3. 10.4.3 CPL Instruction
    6. 10.5 Solved Examples
    7. Summary
    8. Points to Remember
    9. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  18. 11. Programming Examples-II
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 11.1 Introduction
    3. 11.2 Count 1s in a Byte
    4. 11.3 Unpack a BCD Number
    5. 11.4 Pack BCD Digits
    6. 11.5 Pack Array of Unpacked BCD Digits
    7. 11.6 Find Largest and Smallest Integers of an Array
    8. 11.7 Bubble Sorting
    9. 11.8 Find the Sum of Factorials
    10. 11.9 Sort Out Numbers Divisible by 4
    11. Summary
    12. Points to Remember
    13. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  19. 12. Advanced Instructions
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 12.1 Introduction
    3. 12.2 MOVC Instruction
    4. 12.3 MOVX Instruction
    5. 12.4 XCH Instruction
    6. 12.5 XCHD Instruction
    7. 12.6 MUL Instruction
    8. 12.7 DIV Instruction
    9. 12.8 DA A Instruction
    10. 12.9 JMP Instruction
    11. 12.10 SWAP Instruction
    12. 12.11 JBC Instruction
    13. 12.12 RETI Instruction
    14. 12.13 Solved Examples
    15. Summary
    16. Points to Remember
    17. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  20. 13. Programming Examples-III
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 13.1 Compare with External Array
    3. 13.2 Find Sum of a Series
    4. 13.3 Reverse an Array
    5. 13.4 HEX to BCD Conversion
    6. 13.5 Update Clock Display
    7. 13.6 Display Shift for Right Entry
    8. 13.7 Count Number of Words
    9. 13.8 Generate Prime Numbers
    10. Summary
    11. Points to Remember
    12. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  21. 14. External Interrupts
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 14.1 Introduction
      1. 14.1.1 What is an Interrupt?
      2. 14.1.2 Vectored Interrupt
    3. 14.2 External Interrupts of 8051
    4. 14.3 SFRs for External Interrupt
      1. 14.3.1 TCON (bits 0, 1, 2 and 3)
      2. 14.3.2 IE (bits 0, 2 and 7)
      3. 14.3.3 IP (bits 0 and 2)
    5. 14.4 Interrupt Service Routine (ISR)
      1. 14.4.1 Checklist for INT0
      2. 14.4.2 Checklist for INT1
    6. 14.5 Software Interrupts
    7. 14.6 Benefits of Interrupt
    8. 14.7 Solved Examples
    9. Summary
    10. Points to Remember
    11. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  22. 15. Timer/Counter Interrupts
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 15.1 Introduction
      1. 15.1.1 What is a Timer?
      2. 15.1.2 Purpose of a Timer
      3. 15.1.3 Differences Between a Timer and a Counter
    3. 15.2 8051/52 Timers
    4. 15.3 Functioning of Timers 0 and 1
      1. 15.3.1 Timer/Counter Select Block
      2. 15.3.2 Run/Stop Control Block
    5. 15.4 SFRs for Timer 0 and 1 Interrupts
      1. 15.4.1 TMOD
      2. 15.4.2 TCON (bits 4, 5, 6 and 7)
      3. 15.4.3 IE (bits 1, 3 and 7)
      4. 15.4.4 IP (bits 1 and 3)
      5. 15.4.5 TL0, TH0, TL1, TH1
    6. 15.5 Interrupt Service Routines
      1. 15.5.1 Checklist for Timer 0
      2. 15.5.2 Checklist for Timer 1
    7. 15.6 Timer 2
      1. 15.6.1 Similarities with Timers 0 and 1
      2. 15.6.2 Differences with Timers 0 and 1
      3. 15.6.3 Modes of Timer 2
      4. 15.6.4 Functioning of Timer 2
      5. 15.6.5 Timer 2 SFRs
      6. 15.6.6 Checklist for Timer 2
    8. 15.7 Solved Examples
    9. Summary
    10. Points to Remember
    11. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  23. 16. Serial Communication and Serial Interrupts
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 16.1 Introduction
      1. 16.1.1 Serial and Parallel Communications
      2. 16.1.2 Simplex, Full-Duplex and Half-Duplex Communications
      3. 16.1.3 Synchronous and Asynchronous Communications
    3. 16.2 Overview of Serial Communication
      1. 16.2.1 How Serial Communication Works
      2. 16.2.2 Serial Data Format
      3. 16.2.3 Baud Rate
    4. 16.3 Serial Communication SFRs
      1. 16.3.1 SBUF
      2. 16.3.2 SCON
      3. 16.3.3 PCON
    5. 16.4 Modes of Serial Communication
      1. 16.4.1 Mode 0 (Shift Register Mode)
      2. 16.4.2 Mode 1 (8-bit UART)
      3. 16.4.3 Mode 2 (9-bit UART with Fixed Baud Rate)
      4. 16.4.4 Mode 3 (9-bit UART with Variable Baud Rate)
    6. 16.5 Serial Communication Issues
      1. 16.5.1 Multiprocessor Communication
      2. 16.5.2 Role of Timer in Baud-Rate Generation
      3. 16.5.3 Why 11.0592 MHz?
      4. 16.5.4 Initiation of Data Transmission and Reception
      5. 16.5.5 Signal Boosting for Long Distance Transmission
    7. 16.6 Serial Communication Routines
      1. 16.6.1 Initialization Steps for Serial Communication
      2. 16.6.2 Serial Communication Interrupt Service Routine
    8. 16.7 Solved Examples
    9. Summary
    10. Points to Remember
    11. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  24. 17. Interfacing: External Memory
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 17.1 Introduction
      1. 17.1.1 Need of External Memory
    3. 17.2 Interfacing Signals
    4. 17.3 Program Memory Interfacing
    5. 17.4 Data Memory Interfacing
    6. 17.5 Software Security Features
      1. 17.5.1 One Lock Bit
      2. 17.5.2 Two Lock Bits
      3. 17.5.3 Three Lock Bits
    7. 17.6 Solved Example
    8. Summary
    9. Points to Remember
    10. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  25. 18. Interfacing: Keyboards
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 18.1 Introduction
    3. 18.2 Contact Type Keys
    4. 18.3 Interfacing a Key
    5. 18.4 Solved Example’s
    6. 18.5 Bouncing of Keys
      1. 18.5.1 Hardware Debouncing
      2. 18.5.2 Software Debouncing
    7. 18.6 Key Matrix
    8. 18.7 Scanning Keyboard Matrix
    9. 18.8 Debouncing Keyboard Matrix
    10. Summary
    11. Points to Remember
    12. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  26. 19. Interfacing: Display Devices
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 19.1 Introduction
    3. 19.2 LED Interfacing
    4. 19.3 Solved Examples
    5. 19.4 Seven-Segment Display Interfacing
    6. 19.5 Multiplexed Display
    7. 19.6 Multiplexed Keyboard Display Interface
    8. Summary
    9. Points to Remember
    10. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  27. 20. Interfacing: DAC/ADC
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 20.1 Introduction
      1. 20.1.1 How a DAC Works
      2. 20.1.2 How an ADC Works
      3. 20.1.3 Sample and Hold
    3. 20.2 Interfacing DAC
    4. 20.3 Interfacing ADC
    5. 20.4 Solved Examples
    6. Summary
    7. Points to Remember
    8. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  28. 21. Interfacing: DC Motor
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 21.1 Introduction
      1. 21.1.1 How DC Motor Works
    3. 21.2 Direction Control
      1. 21.2.1 H-Bridge
      2. 21.2.2 H-Bridge Using Transistors
      3. 21.2.3 L293D
    4. 21.3 Speed Control
      1. 21.3.1 Through DAC
      2. 21.3.2 Changing Duty Cycle of Square Wave
    5. 21.4 Relay and Optocoupler
    6. 21.5 Solved Examples
    7. Summary
    8. Points to Remember
    9. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  29. 22. Interfacing: Stepper Motor
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 22.1 Introduction
    3. 22.2 How Stepper Motor Functions
      1. 22.2.1 Full-Step Rotation
      2. 22.2.2 How Step Angle is Controlled
      3. 22.2.3 Generation of 3.6° Step Angle
      4. 22.2.4 Generation of Half-Step
    4. 22.3 Stepper Motor Interfacing
      1. 22.3.1 Using Transistors
      2. 22.3.2 Using Dedicated ICs
    5. 22.4 Direction Control
    6. 22.5 Speed Control
    7. 22.6 Solved Examples
    8. Summary
    9. Points to Remember
    10. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  30. 23. Interfacing: Servomotor
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 23.1 Introduction
    3. 23.2 How a Servomotor Works
    4. 23.3 Inside a Servo
    5. 23.4 Controlling Direction of Rotation
    6. 23.4.1 For Pulses of 2 Milliseconds
      1. 23.4.2 For Pulses of 1 Millisecond
      2. 23.4.3 For Pulses of 1.5 Milliseconds
    7. 23.5 Interfacing a Servomotor
    8. 23.6 Home-Position Detection
    9. 23.7 Solved Example
    10. Summary
    11. Points to Remember
    12. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  31. 24. Power Management
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 24.1 Introduction
    3. 24.2 Power-Saving Modes
      1. 24.2.1 Idle Mode
      2. 24.2.2 Exit from Idle Mode
      3. 24.2.3 Power-Down Mode
      4. 24.2.4 Exit from Power-Down Mode
      5. 24.2.5 Difference Between Idle and Power-Down Modes
      6. 24.2.6 Distinguishing Cold Start and Warm Start
    4. 24.3 A Case Study on Power Management
      1. 24.3.1 Case 1: Normal Design Without Power Management
      2. 24.3.2 Case 2: Power Management Using Idle Mode
      3. 24.3.3 Case 3: Power Management Using Power-Down Mode
      4. 24.3.4 Comparison of Performance in Three Cases
      5. 24.3.5 Further Improvements
    5. Summary
    6. Points to Remember
    7. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  32. 25. Case Study: A Home Protection System
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 25.1 Initial Planning
      1. 25.1.1 What is Home Protection System?
      2. 25.1.2 Sensor Selection
      3. 25.1.3 Overall System
      4. 25.1.4 Software Modules
    3. 25.2 Hardware Realization
      1. 25.2.1 Display Drivers
      2. 25.2.2 Key Return Lines and External Pull-Ups
      3. 25.2.3 System Reset and Crystal
      4. 25.2.4 Audio Interfacing
      5. 25.2.5 Sensor Interfacing
      6. 25.2.6 Power Supply
    4. 25.3 Software Development
      1. 25.3.1 IR-Sensing Module
      2. 25.3.2 External Interrupts’ Routines
      3. 25.3.3 Timer 0 Interrupt Service Routine
      4. 25.3.4 Timer 1 Interrupt Service Routine
      5. 25.3.5 Key Scanning
      6. 25.3.6 Display Refreshing
      7. 25.3.7 Main Loop
      8. 25.3.8 Reset I nitialization
    5. 25.4 Software Listing
    6. Summary
    7. Points to Remember
    8. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  33. 26. Advanced Microcontrollers
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 26.1 Introduction
    3. 26.2 AVR Microcontrollers
      1. 26.2.1 Important Features
      2. 26.2.2 Pins and Signals
      3. 26.2.3 External Reset and Crystal Inputs (Optional)
      4. 26.2.4 Operating Voltages and Power Consumption
      5. 26.2.5 Internal Architecture
      6. 26.2.6 Program Memory (Flash)
      7. 26.2.7 Data Memory (SRAM)
      8. 26.2.8 Status Register
      9. 26.2.9 Stack and Stack Pointer
      10. 26.2.10 Power Management and Sleep Modes
      11. 26.2.11 System Reset
      12. 26.2.12 Watchdog Timer
      13. 26.2.13 ATmega8 Instruction Set
      14. 26.2.14 Comparison Between ATmega8 and ATmega16
      15. 26.2.15 JTAG Interface
    4. 26.3 MCS-96 Microcontrollers
      1. 26.3.1 Important Features
      2. 26.3.2 Pins and Signals
      3. 26.3.3 Internal Architecture
      4. 26.3.4 Memory Map
      5. 26.3.5 Addressing Modes
      6. 26.3.6 Instruction Set
    5. 26.4 ARM Microcontrollers
      1. 26.4.1 ARM Core Architecture
      2. 26.4.2 Versions of ARM
      3. 26.4.3 Important Features
      4. 26.4.4 Intelligent Energy Manager (IEM)
    6. 26.5 Renesas Microcontrollers
    7. Summary
    8. Points to Remember
    9. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  34. 27. Interfacing Intel 8255 PPI with 8051
    1. Chapter Objectives
    2. 27.1 Introduction
    3. 27.2 Overview of 8255
    4. 27.3 Control Words for 8255
    5. 27.4 Mode 0 of 8255 (Basic Input/Output Mode)
    6. 27.5 Mode 1 of 8255 (Strobed Input/Output Mode)
    7. 27.6 Mode 2 of 8255 (Bidirectional Bus Mode)
    8. 27.7 Bit Set/Reset Mode
    9. 27.8 Hardware Interfacing
    10. 27.9 Solved Examples
      1. 27.9.1 Example 1
      2. 27.9.1 Example 2
    11. Summary
    12. Points to Remember
    13. Review Questions
      1. Evaluate Yourself
      2. Search for Answers
      3. Think and Solve
  35. Answers for Evaluate Yourself
  36. Appendix A
    1. MCS-51 Instruction Set
    2. A.1 Instructions Arranged by Functional Order
      1. A.1.1 Arithmetic Operations
      2. A.1.2 Logical Operations
      3. A.1.3 Data Movement Operation
      4. A.1.4 Boolean Variable Operations
      5. A.1.5 Call and Jump Operations
    3. A.2 Instructions Arranged by their Opcodes
    4. A.3 Instructions Arranged by Alphabetical Order
    5. A.4 Instructions Arranged by Operand Types
      1. A.4.1 Instructions with Bit Operands
      2. A.4.2 Instruction with Direct Addressing
      3. A.4.3 Instructions with Indirect Addressing Through R0
      4. A.4.4 Instructions with Indirect Addressing Through R1
      5. A.4.5 Instructions with Register Addressing Through R0
      6. A.4.6 Instructions with Register Addressing Through R1
      7. A.4.7 Instructions with Register Addressing Through R2
      8. A.4.8 Instructions with Register Addressing Through R3
      9. A.4.9 Instructions with Register Addressing Through R4
      10. A.4.10 Instructions with Register Addressing Through R5
      11. A.4.11 Instructions with Register Addressing Through R6
      12. A.4.12 Instructions with Register Addressing Through R7
      13. A.4.13 Instructions with Register Addressing Through the Accumulator
  37. Appendix B
    1. Intel · MCS®-51 Programmer’s Guide and Instruction Set (Instruction Definitions)
  38. Bibliography
  39. Copyright