Antenna Array Beamforming in 60 GHz
In early 2000, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated the 57–64 GHz millimeter wave (mm-wave) band (also known as the 60 GHz frequency band) for unlicensed use, the largest contiguous radio spectrum ever allocated.1 An equivalent isotropic radiated power (EIRP) as large as 10 watts is allowed within the band. The availability of this large frequency band with relatively loose power limitations, combined with recent advances in 60 GHz CMOS technologies, makes it attractive to support gigabit per second (Gbps) wireless applications, such as uncompressed high-definition video streaming, large file transfers, wireless gigabit Ethernet, and wireless monitors .
Standardization in 60 GHz wireless is under active development. The completed WirelessHD 1.0 specification is an early effort in standardizing the wireless HDMI interface, especially for consumer electronics. The IEEE 802.15.3c task group completed its specifications on 60GHz for a personal area network. In the meantime, the newly formed IEEE 802.11ad task group has also started its development of 60GHz wireless. When completed, the IEEE 802.1 1ad specifications should be able to support multi-Gbps throughput while at the same time being well integrated within the IEEE 802.11 family. 60 GHz wireless communications have also been actively studied for vehicular applications [5, 6].
4.2 60 GHz Channel Characteristics
To find good solutions for Gbps ...