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5G Mobile and Wireless Communications Technology

Book Description

Written by leading experts in 5G research, this book is a comprehensive overview of the current state of 5G. Covering everything from the most likely use cases, spectrum aspects, and a wide range of technology options to potential 5G system architectures, it is an indispensable reference for academics and professionals involved in wireless and mobile communications. Global research efforts are summarised, and key component technologies including D2D, mm-wave communications, massive MIMO, coordinated multi-point, wireless network coding, interference management and spectrum issues are described and explained. The significance of 5G for the automotive, building, energy, and manufacturing economic sectors is addressed, as is the relationship between IoT, machine type communications, and cyber-physical systems. This essential resource equips you with a solid insight into the nature, impact and opportunities of 5G.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half title
  3. Title page
  4. Imprints page
  5. Dedication
  6. Contents
  7. Contributors
  8. Foreword
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. Acronyms
  11. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 Historical background
      1. 1.1.1 Industrial and technological revolution: from steam engines to the Internet
      2. 1.1.2 Mobile communications generations: from 1G to 4G
      3. 1.1.3 From mobile broadband (MBB) to extreme MBB
      4. 1.1.4 IoT: relation to 5G
    2. 1.2 From ICT to the whole economy
    3. 1.3 Rationale of 5G: high data volume, twenty-five billion connected devices and wide requirements
      1. 1.3.1 Security
    4. 1.4 Global initiatives
      1. 1.4.1 METIS and the 5G-PPP
      2. 1.4.2 China: 5G promotion group
      3. 1.4.3 Korea: 5G Forum
      4. 1.4.4 Japan: ARIB 2020 and Beyond Ad Hoc
      5. 1.4.5 Other 5G initiatives
      6. 1.4.6 IoT activities
    5. 1.5 Standardization activities
      1. 1.5.1 ITU-R
      2. 1.5.2 3GPP
      3. 1.5.3 IEEE
    6. 1.6 Scope of the book
    7. References
  12. 2 5G use cases and system concept
    1. 2.1 Use cases and requirements
      1. 2.1.1 Use cases
        1. 2.1.1.1 Autonomous vehicle control
        2. 2.1.1.2 Emergency communication
        3. 2.1.1.3 Factory cell automation
        4. 2.1.1.4 High-speed train
        5. 2.1.1.5 Large outdoor event
        6. 2.1.1.6 Massive amount of geographically spread devices
        7. 2.1.1.7 Media on demand
        8. 2.1.1.8 Remote surgery and examination
        9. 2.1.1.9 Shopping mall
        10. 2.1.1.10 Smart city
        11. 2.1.1.11 Stadium
        12. 2.1.1.12 Teleprotection in smart grid network
        13. 2.1.1.13 Traffic jam
        14. 2.1.1.14 Virtual and augmented reality
        15. 2.1.1.15 Other use cases: two examples
      2. 2.1.2 Requirements and key performance indicators
    2. 2.2 5G system concept
      1. 2.2.1 Concept overview
      2. 2.2.2 Extreme mobile broadband
        1. 2.2.2.1 Access to new spectrum and new types of spectrum access
        2. 2.2.2.2 New radio interface for dense deployments
        3. 2.2.2.3 Spectral efficiency and advanced antenna systems
        4. 2.2.2.4 Number of users
        5. 2.2.2.5 User mobility
        6. 2.2.2.6 Links to the main enablers
      3. 2.2.3 Massive machine-type communication
        1. 2.2.3.1 Links to the main enablers
      4. 2.2.4 Ultra-reliable machine-type communication
        1. 2.2.4.1 Links to the main enablers
      5. 2.2.5 Dynamic radio access network
        1. 2.2.5.1 Ultra-dense networks
        2. 2.2.5.2 Moving Networks
        3. 2.2.5.3 Antenna beams
        4. 2.2.5.4 Wireless devices as temporary network nodes
        5. 2.2.5.5 Device-to-device communication
        6. 2.2.5.6 Activation and deactivation of nodes
        7. 2.2.5.7 Interference identification and mitigation
        8. 2.2.5.8 Mobility management
        9. 2.2.5.9 Wireless backhaul
      6. 2.2.6 Lean system control plane
        1. 2.2.6.1 Common system access
        2. 2.2.6.2 Service-specific signaling
        3. 2.2.6.3 Control and user plane separation
        4. 2.2.6.4 Support of different frequency ranges
        5. 2.2.6.5 Energy performance
      7. 2.2.7 Localized contents and traffic flows
        1. 2.2.7.1 Anti-tromboning
        2. 2.2.7.2 Device-to-device offloading
        3. 2.2.7.3 Servers and contents close to the radio edge
      8. 2.2.8 Spectrum toolbox
        1. 2.2.8.1 Spectrum needs for xMBB
        2. 2.2.8.2 Spectrum needs for mMTC
        3. 2.2.8.3 Spectrum needs for uMTC
        4. 2.2.8.4 Properties of the spectrum toolbox
    3. 2.3 Conclusions
    4. References
  13. 3 The 5G architecture
    1. 3.1 Introduction
      1. 3.1.1 NFV and SDN
      2. 3.1.2 Basics about RAN architecture
    2. 3.2 High-level requirements for the 5G architecture
    3. 3.3 Functional architecture and 5G flexibility
      1. 3.3.1 Functional split criteria
      2. 3.3.2 Functional split alternatives
      3. 3.3.3 Functional optimization for specific applications
      4. 3.3.4 Integration of LTE and new air interface to fulfill 5G requirements
        1. Inter-connected core networks or a common core network
        2. Common physical layer (PHY)
        3. Common medium access control (MAC)
        4. Common RLC
        5. Common PDCP/radio resource control (RRC)
      5. 3.3.5 Enhanced Multi-RAT coordination features
        1. Control plane diversity
        2. Fast control plane switching
        3. User plane aggregation
        4. Fast user plane switching
        5. Lean by help of LTE
    4. 3.4 Physical architecture and 5G deployment
      1. 3.4.1 Deployment enablers
      2. 3.4.2 Flexible function placement in 5G deployments
        1. 3.4.2.1 Wide-area coverage with optical fiber deployment
        2. 3.4.2.2 Wide-area coverage with heterogeneous backhaul
        3. 3.4.2.3 Local-area stadium
    5. 3.5 Conclusions
    6. References
  14. 4 Machine-type communications
    1. 4.1 Introduction
      1. 4.1.1 Use cases and categorization of MTC
        1. 4.1.1.1 The general use case of low-rate MTC
        2. 4.1.1.2 Use case: the connected car
        3. 4.1.1.3 Use case: the smart grid
        4. 4.1.1.4 Use case: factory cell automation
        5. 4.1.1.5 Categorization of MTC
      2. 4.1.2 MTC requirements
        1. 4.1.2.1 Massive MTC
        2. 4.1.2.2 Ultra-reliable MTC
    2. 4.2 Fundamental techniques for MTC
      1. 4.2.1 Data and control for short packets
      2. 4.2.2 Non-orthogonal access protocols
    3. 4.3 Massive MTC
      1. 4.3.1 Design principles
      2. 4.3.2 Technology components
        1. 4.3.2.1 Features for low device complexity
        2. 4.3.2.2 Features for service flexibility
        3. 4.3.2.3 Features for coverage extension
        4. 4.3.2.4 Features for long battery lifetime
        5. 4.3.2.5 Features for scalability and capacity
      3. 4.3.3 Summary of mMTC features
    4. 4.4 Ultra-reliable low-latency MTC
      1. 4.4.1 Design principles
      2. 4.4.2 Technology components
        1. 4.4.2.1 Features for reliable low latency
        2. 4.4.2.2 Feature for reliability: availability indication
        3. 4.4.2.3 Features enabled by D2D communications
      3. 4.4.3 Summary of uMTC features
    5. 4.5 Conclusions
    6. References
  15. 5 Device-to-device (D2D) communications
    1. 5.1 D2D: from 4G to 5G
      1. 5.1.1 D2D standardization: 4G LTE D2D
        1. 5.1.1.1 D2D synchronization
        2. 5.1.1.2 D2D communication
        3. 5.1.1.3 D2D discovery
      2. 5.1.2 D2D in 5G: research challenges
    2. 5.2 Radio resource management for mobile broadband D2D
      1. 5.2.1 RRM techniques for mobile broadband D2D
      2. 5.2.2 RRM and system design for D2D
      3. 5.2.3 5G D2D RRM concept: an example
        1. 5.2.3.1 Flexible uplink and downlink TDD concept for D2D
        2. 5.2.3.2 Decentralized and centralized schedulers
        3. 5.2.3.3 Mode selection
        4. 5.2.3.4 Performance analysis
    3. 5.3 Multi-hop D2D communications for proximity and emergency services
      1. 5.3.1 National security and public safety requirements in 3GPP and METIS
      2. 5.3.2 Device discovery without and with network assistance
      3. 5.3.3 Network-assisted multi-hop D2D communications
      4. 5.3.4 Radio resource management for multi-hop D2D
        1. 5.3.4.1 Mode selection for proximity communications
        2. 5.3.4.2 Mode selection for range extension
      5. 5.3.5 Performance of D2D communications in the proximity communications scenario
    4. 5.4 Multi-operator D2D communication
      1. 5.4.1 Multi-operator D2D discovery
      2. 5.4.2 Mode selection for multi-operator D2D
        1. 5.4.2.1 Mode selection algorithm
      3. 5.4.3 Spectrum allocation for multi-operator D2D
        1. 5.4.3.1 Spectrum allocation algorithm
        2. 5.4.3.2 Numerical example
    5. 5.5 Conclusions
    6. References
  16. 6 Millimeter wave communications
    1. 6.1 Spectrum and regulations
    2. 6.2 Channel propagation
    3. 6.3 Hardware technologies for mmW systems
      1. 6.3.1 Device technology
      2. 6.3.2 Antennas
      3. 6.3.3 Beamforming architecture
    4. 6.4 Deployment scenarios
    5. 6.5 Architecture and mobility
      1. 6.5.1 Dual connectivity
      2. 6.5.2 Mobility
        1. 6.5.2.1 Phantom cell
        2. 6.5.2.2 Terminal-specific serving cluster
    6. 6.6 Beamforming
      1. 6.6.1 Beamforming techniques
      2. 6.6.2 Beam finding
        1. 6.6.2.1 Linear beam scan
        2. 6.6.2.2 Tree scan
        3. 6.6.2.3 Random excitation
    7. 6.7 Physical layer techniques
      1. 6.7.1 Duplex scheme
      2. 6.7.2 Transmission schemes
    8. 6.8 Conclusions
    9. References
  17. 7 The 5G radio-access technologies
    1. 7.1 Access design principles for multi-user communications
      1. 7.1.1 Orthogonal multiple-access systems
        1. 7.1.1.1 Frequency division multiple-access systems
        2. 7.1.1.2 Time division multiple-access systems
        3. 7.1.1.3 Orthogonal frequency division multiple-access systems
      2. 7.1.2 Spread spectrum multiple-access systems
        1. 7.1.2.1 Frequency hop-code division multiple-access systems
        2. 7.1.2.2 Direct sequence-code division multiple-access systems
      3. 7.1.3 Capacity limits of multiple-access methods
        1. 7.1.3.1 The multiple-access channel (uplink)
        2. 7.1.3.2 The broadcast channel (downlink)
    2. 7.2 Multi-carrier with filtering: a new waveform
      1. 7.2.1 Filter-bank based multi-carrier
        1. 7.2.1.1 FBMC: An enabler for a flexible air interface design
        2. 7.2.1.2 Solutions for practical challenges
      2. 7.2.2 Universal filtered OFDM
    3. 7.3 Non-orthogonal schemes for efficient multiple access
      1. 7.3.1 Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA)
      2. 7.3.2 Sparse code multiple access (SCMA)
      3. 7.3.3 Interleave division multiple access (IDMA)
    4. 7.4 Radio access for dense deployments
      1. 7.4.1 OFDM numerology for small-cell deployments
        1. 7.4.1.1 Harmonized OFDM and scalable numerology
        2. 7.4.1.2 OFDM time numerology
        3. 7.4.1.3 OFDM frequency numerology
      2. 7.4.2 Small-cell sub-frame structure
        1. 7.4.2.1 Main design principles for small-cell optimized sub-frame structure
        2. 7.4.2.2 Control part design principles
        3. 7.4.2.3 Sub-frame structure properties and achieved gains
        4. 7.4.2.4 Self-backhauling and multi-antenna aspects
    5. 7.5 Radio access for V2X communication
      1. 7.5.1 Medium access control for nodes on the move
    6. 7.6 Radio access for massive machine-type communication
      1. 7.6.1 The massive access problem
        1. 7.6.1.1 LTE / LTE-A RACH limitations
        2. 7.6.1.2 Signaling/control overhead for mMTC
        3. 7.6.1.3 KPIs and methodology for 5G performance
      2. 7.6.2 Extending access reservation
      3. 7.6.3 Direct random access
    7. 7.7 Conclusions
    8. References
  18. 8 Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems
    1. 8.1 Introduction
      1. 8.1.1 MIMO in LTE
    2. 8.2 Theoretical background
      1. 8.2.1 Single user MIMO
      2. 8.2.2 Multi-user MIMO
        1. 8.2.2.1 Uplink channel
        2. 8.2.2.2 Downlink channel
      3. 8.2.3 Capacity of massive MIMO: a summary
    3. 8.3 Pilot design for massive MIMO
      1. 8.3.1 The pilot-data trade-off and impact of CSI
        1. 8.1.1.1 Impact of channel state information errors on the throughput of massive MIMO systems
      2. 8.3.2 Techniques to mitigate pilot contamination
        1. 8.3.2.1 Pilot power control based on open loop path loss compensation
        2. 8.3.2.2 Coded random access in massive MIMO systems
        3. Uplink
        4. Downlink
    4. 8.4 Resource allocation and transceiver algorithms for massive MIMO
      1. 8.4.1 Decentralized coordinated transceiver design for massive MIMO
        1. 8.4.1.1 System model
        2. 8.4.1.2 Performance results
      2. 8.4.2 Interference clustering and user grouping
        1. 8.4.2.1 Performance results
    5. 8.5 Fundamentals of baseband and RF implementations in massive MIMO
      1. 8.5.1 Basic forms of massive MIMO implementation
      2. 8.5.2 Hybrid fixed BF with CSI-based precoding (FBCP)
        1. 8.5.2.1 Performance of FBCP
      3. 8.5.3 Hybrid beamforming for interference clustering and user grouping
        1. 8.5.3.1 Performance of hybrid BF for interference mitigation
    6. 8.6 Channel models
    7. 8.7 Conclusions
    8. References
  19. 9 Coordinated multi-point transmission in 5G
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 JT CoMP enablers
      1. 9.2.1 Channel prediction
      2. 9.2.2 Clustering and interference floor shaping
      3. 9.2.3 User scheduling and precoding
      4. 9.2.4 Interference mitigation framework
      5. 9.2.5 JT CoMP in 5G
    3. 9.3 JT CoMP in conjunction with ultra-dense networks
    4. 9.4 Distributed cooperative transmission
      1. 9.4.1 Decentralized precoding/filtering design with local CSI
        1. 9.4.1.1 Performance
      2. 9.4.2 Interference alignment
        1. 9.4.2.1 Multi-user inter-cell interference alignment
        2. 9.4.2.2 Performance
    5. 9.5 JT CoMP with advanced receivers
      1. 9.5.1 Dynamic clustering for JT CoMP with multiple antenna UEs
        1. 9.5.1.1 Performance of dynamic clustering
      2. 9.5.2 Network-assisted interference cancellation
    6. 9.6 Conclusions
    7. References
  20. 10 Relaying and wireless network coding
    1. 10.1 The role of relaying and network coding in 5G wireless networks
      1. 10.1.1 The revival of relaying
      2. 10.1.2 From 4G to 5G
      3. 10.1.3 New relaying techniques for 5G
      4. 10.1.4 Key applications in 5G
    2. 10.2 Multi-flow wireless backhauling
      1. 10.2.1 Coordinated direct and relay (CDR) transmission
      2. 10.2.2 Four-way relaying (FWR)
      3. 10.2.3 Wireless-emulated wire (WEW) for backhaul
    3. 10.3 Highly flexible multi-flow relaying
      1. 10.3.1 Basic idea of multi-flow relaying
      2. 10.3.2 Achieving high throughput for 5G
      3. 10.3.3 Performance evaluation
    4. 10.4 Buffer-aided relaying
      1. 10.4.1 Why buffers?
      2. 10.4.2 Relay selection
      3. 10.4.3 Handling inter-relay interference
      4. 10.4.4 Extensions
    5. 10.5 Conclusions
    6. References
  21. 11 Interference management, mobility management, and dynamic reconfiguration
    1. 11.1 Network deployment types
      1. 11.1.1 Ultra-dense network or densification
      2. 11.1.2 Moving networks
      3. 11.1.3 Heterogeneous networks
    2. 11.2 Interference management in 5G
      1. 11.2.1 Interference management in UDNs
        1. 11.2.1.1 Performance of UDNs using dynamic TDD
      2. 11.2.2 Interference management for moving relay nodes
        1. 11.2.2.1 Performance of moving relay nodes
      3. 11.2.3 Interference cancelation
    3. 11.3 Mobility management in 5G
      1. 11.3.1 User equipment-controlled versus network-controlled handover
      2. 11.3.2 Mobility management in heterogeneous 5G networks
        1. 11.3.2.1 Fingerprints coverage for multi-RAT and multi-layer environments
        2. 11.3.2.2 D2D-aware handover
        3. 11.3.2.3 Handover for moving relay nodes
      3. 11.3.3 Context awareness for mobility management
        1. 11.3.3.1 Exploitation of location information for mobility management
    4. 11.4 Dynamic network reconfiguration in 5G
      1. 11.4.1 Energy savings through control/user plane decoupling
      2. 11.4.2 Flexible network deployment based on moving networks
    5. 11.5 Conclusions
    6. References
  22. 12 Spectrum
    1. 12.1 Introduction
      1. 12.1.1 Spectrum for 4G
      2. 12.1.2 Spectrum challenges in 5G
    2. 12.2 5G spectrum landscape and requirements
      1. 12.2.1 Bandwidth requirements
    3. 12.3 Spectrum access modes and sharing scenarios
    4. 12.4 5G spectrum technologies
      1. 12.4.1 Spectrum toolbox
      2. 12.4.2 Main technology components
    5. 12.5 Value of spectrum for 5G: a techno-economic perspective
    6. 12.6 Conclusions
      1. Spectrum requirements
      2. Types of spectrum
      3. Licensing
    7. References
  23. 13 The 5G wireless propagation channel models
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Modeling requirements and scenarios
      1. 13.2.1 Channel model requirements
        1. 13.2.1.1 Spectrum
        2. 13.2.1.2 Antenna
        3. 13.2.1.3 System
        4. 13.2.1.4 Additional requirements
        5. 13.2.1.5 Summary of channel model requirements
      2. 13.2.2 Propagation scenarios
    3. 13.3 The METIS channel models
      1. 13.3.1 Map-based model
        1. 13.3.1.1 General description
        2. 13.3.1.2 Creation of the environment
        3. 13.3.1.3 Determination of propagation pathways
        4. 13.3.1.4 Determination of propagation channel matrices
          1. Diffracted pathways by Berg recursive model
          2. Scattering and blocking objects
        5. 13.3.1.5 Composing radio channel transfer function
      2. 13.3.2 Stochastic model
        1. 13.3.2.1 Path loss
        2. 13.3.2.2 Large-scale parameters based on sum-of-sinusoids
        3. 13.3.2.3 mm-Wave parameterization
        4. 13.3.2.4 Direct sampling of Laplacian shape
        5. 13.3.2.5 Dynamic modeling and spherical waves
    4. 13.4 Conclusions
    5. References
  24. 14 Simulation methodology
    1. 14.1 Evaluation methodology
      1. 14.1.1 Performance indicators
        1. 14.1.1.1 User throughput
        2. 14.1.1.2 Application data rate
        3. 14.1.1.3 Cell throughput
        4. 14.1.1.4 Spectral efficiency
        5. 14.1.1.5 Traffic volume
        6. 14.1.1.6 Error rate
        7. 14.1.1.7 Delay
        8. 14.1.1.8 Network energy performance
        9. 14.1.1.9 Cost
      2. 14.1.2 Channel simplifications
        1. 14.1.2.1 Small-scale modeling
        2. 14.1.2.2 Large-scale modeling when base station is on the rooftop level
        3. 14.1.2.3 Large-scale modeling when base station is much below the mean building height
    2. 14.2 Calibration
      1. 14.2.1 Link-level calibration
        1. 14.2.1.1 Calibration step 1 – OFDM modulation
        2. 14.2.1.2 Calibration step 2 – channel coding
        3. 14.2.1.3 Calibration step 3 – SIMO configuration
        4. 14.2.1.4 Calibration step 4 – MIMO configuration for transmit diversity
        5. 14.2.1.5 Calibration step 5 – MIMO configuration for spatial multiplexing
        6. 14.2.1.6 Calibration step 6 – uplink
        7. 14.2.1.7 Calibration step 7 – 3GPP minimum requirements
        8. 14.2.1.8 Calibration step 8 – multi-link-level calibration
      2. 14.2.2 System-level calibration
        1. 14.2.2.1 Calibration phase 1 – LTE technology
        2. 14.2.2.2 Calibration phase 2 – LTE-Advanced with basic deployment
    3. 14.3 New challenges in the 5G modeling
      1. 14.3.1 Real scenarios
      2. 14.3.2 New waveforms
      3. 14.3.3 Massive MIMO
      4. 14.3.4 Higher frequency bands
      5. 14.3.5 Device-to-device link
      6. 14.3.6 Moving networks
    4. 14.4 Conclusions
    5. References
  25. Index