O'Reilly logo

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

3D User Interfaces

Book Description

The Complete, Up-To-Date Guide to Building Great 3D User Interfaces for Any Application

3D interaction is suddenly everywhere. But simply using 3D input or displays isn’t enough: 3D interfaces must be carefully designed for optimal user experience. 3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice, Second Edition is today’s most comprehensive primary reference to building state-of-the-art 3D user interfaces and interactions. Five pioneering researchers and practitioners cover the full spectrum of emerging applications, techniques, and best practices. The authors combine theoretical foundations, analysis of leading devices, and empirically validated design guidelines. This edition adds two new chapters on human factors and general human-computer interaction—indispensable foundational knowledge for building any 3D user interface. It also demonstrates advanced concepts at work through two running case studies: a first-person VR game and a mobile augmented reality application.

Coverage Includes

  • 3D user interfaces: evolution, elements, and roadmaps

  • Key applications: virtual and augmented reality (VR, AR), mobile/wearable devices

  • What 3D UI designers should know about human sensory systems and cognition ergonomics

  • How proven human-computer interaction techniques apply to 3D UIs

  • 3D UI output hardware for visual, auditory, and haptic/ tactile systems

  • Obtaining 3D position, orientation, and motion data for users in physical space

  • 3D object selection and manipulation

  • Navigation and wayfinding techniques for moving through virtual and physical spaces

  • Changing application state with system control techniques, issuing commands, and enabling other forms of user input

  • Strategies for choosing, developing, and evaluating 3D user interfaces

  • Utilizing 2D, “magic,” “natural,” multimodal, and two-handed interaction

  • The future of 3D user interfaces: open research problems and emerging technologies

  • Table of Contents

    1. About This E-Book
    2. Title Page
    3. Copyright Page
    4. Dedication Page
    5. Contents at a glance
    6. Contents
    7. Foreword to the Second Edition
    8. Foreword to the First Edition
    9. Preface to the Second Edition
    10. Preface to the First Edition
    11. Acknowledgments
    12. About the Authors
    13. Part I: Foundations of 3D User Interfaces
      1. 1 Introduction to 3D User Interfaces
        1. 1.1 What Are 3D User Interfaces?
        2. 1.2 Why 3D User Interfaces?
        3. 1.3 Terminology
        4. 1.4 Application Areas
        5. 1.5 Conclusion
      2. 2 3D User Interfaces: History and Roadmap
        1. 2.1 History of 3D UIs
        2. 2.2 Roadmap to 3D UIs
        3. 2.3 Scope of this Book
        4. 2.4 Introduction to Case Studies
        5. 2.5 Conclusion
    14. Part II: Human Factors and Human-Computer Interaction Basics
      1. 3 Human Factors Fundamentals
        1. 3.1 Introduction
        2. 3.2 Information Processing
        3. 3.3 Perception
        4. 3.4 Cognition
        5. 3.5 Physical Ergonomics
        6. 3.6 Guidelines
        7. 3.7 Conclusion
        8. Recommended Reading
      2. 4 General Principles of Human–Computer Interaction
        1. 4.1 Introduction
        2. 4.2 Understanding the User Experience
        3. 4.3 Design Principles and Guidelines
        4. 4.4 Engineering the User Experience
        5. 4.5 Conclusion
        6. Recommended Reading
    15. Part III: Hardware Technologies for 3D User Interfaces
      1. 5 3D User Interface Output Hardware
        1. 5.1 Introduction
        2. 5.2 Visual Displays
        3. 5.3 Auditory Displays
        4. 5.4 Haptic Displays
        5. 5.5 Characterizing Displays by Level of Fidelity
        6. 5.6 Design Guidelines: Choosing Output Devices for 3D User Interfaces
        7. 5.7 Case Studies
        8. 5.8 Conclusion
        9. Recommended Reading
      2. 6 3D User Interface Input Hardware
        1. 6.1 Introduction
        2. 6.2 Traditional Input Devices
        3. 6.3 3D Spatial Input Devices
        4. 6.4 Complementary Input for 3D User Interfaces
        5. 6.5 Special-Purpose Input Devices
        6. 6.6 Do It Yourself (DIY) Input Devices
        7. 6.7 Choosing Input Devices for 3D User Interfaces
        8. 6.8 Case Studies
        9. 6.9 Conclusion
        10. Recommended Reading
    16. Part IV: 3D Interaction Techniques
      1. 7 Selection and Manipulation
        1. 7.1 Introduction
        2. 7.2 3D Manipulation Tasks
        3. 7.3 Classifications for 3D Manipulation
        4. 7.4 Grasping Metaphors
        5. 7.5 Pointing Metaphors
        6. 7.6 Surface Metaphors
        7. 7.7 Indirect Metaphors
        8. 7.8 Bimanual Metaphors
        9. 7.9 Hybrid Metaphors
        10. 7.10 Other Aspects of 3D Manipulation
        11. 7.11 Design Guidelines
        12. 7.12 Case Studies
        13. 7.13 Conclusion
        14. Recommended Reading
      2. 8 Travel
        1. 8.1 Introduction
        2. 8.2 3D Travel Tasks
        3. 8.3 Classifications for 3D Travel
        4. 8.4 Walking Metaphors
        5. 8.5 Steering Metaphors
        6. 8.6 Selection-Based Travel Metaphors
        7. 8.7 Manipulation-Based Travel Metaphors
        8. 8.8 Other Aspects of Travel Techniques
        9. 8.9 Wayfinding in 3D Environments
        10. 8.10 Design Guidelines
        11. 8.11 Case Studies
        12. 8.12 Conclusion
        13. Recommended Reading
      3. 9 System Control
        1. 9.1 Introduction
        2. 9.2 System Control Issues
        3. 9.3 Classification
        4. 9.4 Physical Controllers
        5. 9.5 Graphical Menus
        6. 9.6 Voice Commands
        7. 9.7 Gestural Commands
        8. 9.8 Tools
        9. 9.9 Multimodal Techniques
        10. 9.10 Design Guidelines
        11. 9.11 Case Studies
        12. 9.12 Conclusion
        13. Recommended Reading
    17. Part V: Designing and Developing 3D User Interfaces
      1. 10 Strategies in Designing and Developing 3D User Interfaces
        1. 10.1 Introduction
        2. 10.2 Designing for Humans
        3. 10.3 Inventing 3D User Interfaces
        4. 10.4 Design Guidelines
        5. 10.5 Case Studies
        6. 10.6 Conclusion
        7. Recommended Reading
      2. 11 Evaluation of 3D User Interfaces
        1. 11.1 Introduction
        2. 11.2 Evaluation Methods for 3D UIs
        3. 11.3 Evaluation Metrics for 3D UIs
        4. 11.4 Characteristics of 3D UI Evaluations
        5. 11.5 Classification of Evaluation Methods
        6. 11.6 Three Multimethod Approaches
        7. 11.7 Guidelines for 3D UI Evaluation
        8. 11.8 Case Studies
        9. 11.9 Conclusion
        10. Recommended Reading
        11. Acknowledgment
    18. Part VI: THE FUTURE OF 3D INTERFACES
      1. 12 The Future of 3D User Interfaces
        1. 12.1 User Experience with 3D Displays
        2. 12.2 3D UI Design
        3. 12.3 3D UI Development and Evaluation
        4. 12.4 3D UIs in the Real World
        5. 12.5 Applications of 3D UIs
    19. Bibliography
    20. Index