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3D Displays

Book Description

This book addresses electrical engineers, physicists, designers of flat panel displays (FDPs), students and also scientists from other disciplines interested in understanding the various 3D technologies. A timely guide is provided to the present status of development in 3D display technologies, ready to be commercialized as well as to future technologies.

Having presented the physiology of 3D perception, the book progresses to a detailed discussion of the five 3D technologies: stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays; integral imaging; holography and volumetric displays, and:

  • Introduces spatial and temporal multiplex for the two views needed for stereoscopic and autostereoscopic displays;

  • Outlines dominant components such as retarders for stereoscopic displays, and fixed as well as adjustable lenticular lenses and parallax barriers for auto- stereoscopic displays;

  • Examines the high speed required for 240 Hz frames provided by parallel addressing and the recently proposed interleaved image processing;

  • Explains integral imaging, a true 3D system, based on the known lenticulars which is explored up to the level of a 3D video projector using real and virtual images;

  • Renders holographic 3D easier to understand by using phasors known from electrical engineering and optics leading up to digital computer generated holograms;

  • Shows volumetric displays to be limited by the number of stacked FPDs; and,

  • Presents algorithms stemming from computer science to assess 3D image quality and to allow for bandwidth saving transmission of 3D TV signals.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Wiley–SID Series in Display Technology
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. Series Preface
  8. Introduction
  9. Chapter 1: The Physiology of 3D Perception
    1. 1.1 Binocular Viewing or Human Stereopsis
    2. 1.2 The Mismatch of Accommodation and Disparity and the Depths of Focus and of Field
    3. 1.3 Distance Scaling of Disparity
    4. 1.4 Interocular Crosstalk
    5. 1.5 Psychological Effects for Depth Perception
    6. 1.6 High-Level Cognitive Factor
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. Optical Society of America (OSA)
    9. References
  10. Chapter 2: Stereoscopic Displays
    1. 2.1 Stereoscopic Displays with Area Multiplexing
    2. 2.2 Combined Area and Time Division Multiplex for 3D Displays
    3. 2.3 Stereoscopic Time Sequential Displays
    4. 2.4 Special Solutions for Stereoscopic Displays
    5. 2.5 Stereoscopic Projectors
    6. 2.6 Interleaved, Simultaneous, and Progressive Addressing of AMOLEDs and AMLCDs
    7. 2.7 Photo-Induced Alignment for Retarders and Beam Splitters
    8. Acknowledgments
    9. References
  11. Chapter 3: Autostereoscopic Displays
    1. 3.1 Spatially Multiplexed Multiview Autostereoscopic Displays with Lenticular Lenses
    2. 3.2 Spatially Multiplexed Multiview Autostereoscopic Displays with Switchable Lenticular Lenses
    3. 3.3 Autostereoscopic Displays with Fixed and Switchable Parallax Barriers
    4. 3.4 Time Sequential Autostereoscopic Displays and Directional Backlights
    5. 3.5 Depth-Fused 3D Displays
    6. 3.6 Single and Multiview 3D Displays with a Light Guide
    7. 3.7 Test of 3D Displays and Medical Applications
    8. Acknowledgments
    9. References
  12. Chapter 4: Assessment of Quality of 3D Displays
    1. 4.1 Introduction and Overview
    2. 4.2 Retrieving Quality Data from Given Images
    3. 4.3 Algorithms Based on Objective Measures Providing Disparity or Depth Maps
    4. 4.4 An Algorithm Based on Subjective Measures
    5. 4.5 The Kanade–Lucas–Toman (KLT) Feature Tracking Algorithm
    6. 4.6 Special Approaches for 2D to 3D Conversion
    7. 4.7 Reconstruction of 3D Images from Disparity Maps Pertaining to Monoscopic 2D or 3D Originals
    8. Acknowledgments
    9. References
  13. Chapter 5: Integral Imaging
    1. 5.1 The Basis of Integral Imaging
    2. 5.2 Enhancement of Depth, Viewing Angle, and Resolution of 3D Integral Images
    3. 5.3 Integral Videography
    4. 5.4 Convertible 2D/3D Integral Imaging
    5. Acknowledgments
    6. References
  14. Chapter 6: Holography for 3D Displays
    1. 6.1 Introduction and Overview
    2. 6.2 Recording a Hologram and Reconstruction of the Original 3D Image
    3. 6.3 A Holographic Screen
    4. 6.4 Digital Holography Based on the Fourier Transform
    5. 6.5 A Holographic Laser Projector
    6. Acknowledgments
    7. References
  15. Chapter 7: Volumetric 3D Displays
    1. 7.1 The Nature of Volumetric Displays
    2. 7.2 Accessing and Activating Voxels in Static Volumetric Displays
    3. 7.3 Swept Volume or Mechanical 3D Displays
    4. Acknowledgments
    5. References
  16. Chapter 8: A Shot at the Assessment of 3D Technologies
  17. Index