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21st Century C

Cover of 21st Century C by Ben Klemens Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. 21st Century C
  2. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
  3. A Note Regarding Supplemental Files
  4. Preface
    1. C Is Punk Rock
    2. Q & A (Or, the Parameters of the Book)
    3. Standards: So Many to Choose From
      1. The POSIX Standard
    4. Some Logistics
      1. Conventions Used in This Book
      2. Using Code Examples
      3. Safari® Books Online
      4. How to Contact Us
      5. Acknowledgments
  5. I. The Environment
    1. 1. Set Yourself Up for Easy Compilation
      1. Use a Package Manager
      2. Compiling C with Windows
      3. Which Way to the Library?
      4. Using Makefiles
      5. Using Libraries from Source
      6. Using Libraries from Source (Even if Your Sysadmin Doesn’t Want You To)
      7. Compiling C Programs via Here Document
    2. 2. Debug, Test, Document
      1. Using a Debugger
      2. Using Valgrind to Check for Errors
      3. Unit Testing
      4. Interweaving Documentation
      5. Error Checking
    3. 3. Packaging Your Project
      1. The Shell
      2. Makefiles vs. Shell Scripts
      3. Packaging Your Code with Autotools
    4. 4. Version Control
      1. Changes via diff
      2. Git’s Objects
      3. Trees and Their Branches
      4. Remote Repositories
    5. 5. Playing Nice with Others
      1. The Process
      2. Python Host
  6. II. The Language
    1. 6. Your Pal the Pointer
      1. Automatic, Static, and Manual Memory
      2. Persistent State Variables
      3. Pointers Without malloc
    2. 7. C Syntax You Can Ignore
      1. Don’t Bother Explicitly Returning from main
      2. Let Declarations Flow
      3. Cast Less
      4. Enums and Strings
      5. Labels, gotos, switches, and breaks
      6. Deprecate Float
    3. 8. Obstacles and Opportunity
      1. Cultivate Robust and Flourishing Macros
      2. Linkage with static and extern
      3. The const Keyword
    4. 9. Text
      1. Making String Handling Less Painful with asprintf
      2. A Pæan to strtok
      3. Unicode
    5. 10. Better Structures
      1. Compound Literals
      2. Variadic Macros
      3. Safely Terminated Lists
      4. Foreach
      5. Vectorize a Function
      6. Designated Initializers
      7. Initialize Arrays and Structs with Zeros
      8. Typedefs Save the Day
      9. Return Multiple Items from a Function
      10. Flexible Function Inputs
      11. The Void Pointer and the Structures It Points To
    6. 11. Object-Oriented Programming in C
      1. What You Don’t Get (and Why You Won’t Miss It)
      2. Extending Structures and Dictionaries
      3. Functions in Your Structs
      4. Count References
    7. 12. Libraries
      1. GLib
      2. POSIX
      3. The GNU Scientific Library
      4. SQLite
      5. libxml and cURL
  7. Epilogue
  8. Glossary
  9. Bibliography
  10. Index
  11. About the Author
  12. Colophon
  13. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
  14. Copyright
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Chapter 11. Object-Oriented Programming in C

We favor the simple expression of the complex thought.  ...  We are for flat forms  Because they destroy illusion and reveal truth.

Le Tigre, “Slideshow at Free University”

Here is the common format for the typical library, in C or in any other language:

  • A small set of data structures that represent key aspects of the field the library addresses.

  • A set of functions (often referred to as interface functions) that manipulate those data structures.

An XML library, for example, would have a structure representing an XML document and perhaps views of the document, plus lots of functions for going between the data structure and the XML file on disk, querying the structure for elements, et cetera. A database library would have a structure representing the state of communications with the database, and perhaps structures representing tables, plus lots of functions for talking to the database and dissecting the data it sends.

This is an eminently sensible way to organize a program or a library. It is the means by which an author can represent concepts with nouns and verbs that are appropriate to the problem at hand.

The first fun exercise in object-oriented programming (OOP) is defining the term, and although I won’t waste time (and invite flame wars) by giving a precise definition, the preceding description of an object-oriented library should give you a feel for what we are going after: a few central data structures, each with a set of functions that ...

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