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21st Century C

Cover of 21st Century C by Ben Klemens Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. 21st Century C
  2. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
  3. A Note Regarding Supplemental Files
  4. Preface
    1. C Is Punk Rock
    2. Q & A (Or, the Parameters of the Book)
    3. Standards: So Many to Choose From
      1. The POSIX Standard
    4. Some Logistics
      1. Conventions Used in This Book
      2. Using Code Examples
      3. Safari® Books Online
      4. How to Contact Us
      5. Acknowledgments
  5. I. The Environment
    1. 1. Set Yourself Up for Easy Compilation
      1. Use a Package Manager
      2. Compiling C with Windows
      3. Which Way to the Library?
      4. Using Makefiles
      5. Using Libraries from Source
      6. Using Libraries from Source (Even if Your Sysadmin Doesn’t Want You To)
      7. Compiling C Programs via Here Document
    2. 2. Debug, Test, Document
      1. Using a Debugger
      2. Using Valgrind to Check for Errors
      3. Unit Testing
      4. Interweaving Documentation
      5. Error Checking
    3. 3. Packaging Your Project
      1. The Shell
      2. Makefiles vs. Shell Scripts
      3. Packaging Your Code with Autotools
    4. 4. Version Control
      1. Changes via diff
      2. Git’s Objects
      3. Trees and Their Branches
      4. Remote Repositories
    5. 5. Playing Nice with Others
      1. The Process
      2. Python Host
  6. II. The Language
    1. 6. Your Pal the Pointer
      1. Automatic, Static, and Manual Memory
      2. Persistent State Variables
      3. Pointers Without malloc
    2. 7. C Syntax You Can Ignore
      1. Don’t Bother Explicitly Returning from main
      2. Let Declarations Flow
      3. Cast Less
      4. Enums and Strings
      5. Labels, gotos, switches, and breaks
      6. Deprecate Float
    3. 8. Obstacles and Opportunity
      1. Cultivate Robust and Flourishing Macros
      2. Linkage with static and extern
      3. The const Keyword
    4. 9. Text
      1. Making String Handling Less Painful with asprintf
      2. A Pæan to strtok
      3. Unicode
    5. 10. Better Structures
      1. Compound Literals
      2. Variadic Macros
      3. Safely Terminated Lists
      4. Foreach
      5. Vectorize a Function
      6. Designated Initializers
      7. Initialize Arrays and Structs with Zeros
      8. Typedefs Save the Day
      9. Return Multiple Items from a Function
      10. Flexible Function Inputs
      11. The Void Pointer and the Structures It Points To
    6. 11. Object-Oriented Programming in C
      1. What You Don’t Get (and Why You Won’t Miss It)
      2. Extending Structures and Dictionaries
      3. Functions in Your Structs
      4. Count References
    7. 12. Libraries
      1. GLib
      2. POSIX
      3. The GNU Scientific Library
      4. SQLite
      5. libxml and cURL
  7. Epilogue
  8. Glossary
  9. Bibliography
  10. Index
  11. About the Author
  12. Colophon
  13. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
  14. Copyright

Chapter 3. Packaging Your Project

If you’ve read this far, then you have met the tools that solve the core problems for dealing with C code, like debugging and documenting it. If you’re eager to get going with C code itself, then feel free to skip ahead to Part II. This chapter and the next will cover some heavy-duty tools intended for collaboration and distribution to others: package-building tools and a revision-control system. Along the way, there will be many digressions about how you can use these tools to write better even when working solo.

In the present day, Autotools, a system for autogenerating the perfect makefile for a given system, is central to how code is distributed. You’ve already met it in Using Libraries from Source, where you used it to quickly install the GNU Scientific Library. Even if you’ve never dealt with it directly, it is probably how the people who maintain your package-management system produced just the right build for your computer.

But you’ll have trouble following what Autotools is doing unless you have a good idea of how a makefile works, so we need to cover those in a little more detail first. But to a first approximation, makefiles are organized sets of shell commands, so you’ll need to get to know the various facilities the shell offers for automating your work. The path is long, but at the end you will be able to:

  • Use the shell to automate work.

  • Use makefiles to organize all those tasks you have the shell doing.

  • Use Autotools to let users autogenerate ...

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