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16mm Film Cutting

Book Description

The film editor can make or break a film. What ends up on the cutting room floor, and why? 16mm Film Cutting is a step-by-step guide to film cutting which shows you how to achieve professional results.

The practical side of the editor's job is clearly described and illustrated; breaking down rushes and making a simple join, identifying shots, first assembly, avoiding errors, preparing special effects, instructing the labs, compiling sound tracks and all the other stages in producing the final film.

16mm Film Cutting is an indispensable aid to editors and assistants working in all areas of 16mm film production.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Film Running Times
  7. Introduction
  8. The Job of Cutting
    1. Importance of cutting
    2. What do you cut?
  9. Cutting with Safety and Economy
    1. Matching original to cutting copy
    2. A chance to save money
  10. Cutting Films Shot with Sound
    1. Cutting programme-synchronised sound
    2. Completing the soundtrack
  11. Cutting Films Shot without Sound
  12. Motorised Editing Machines
    1. Machines for sound and picture
    2. Cutting sound and picture
  13. Upright and Table Editing Machines
    1. Upright machines: Moviola
    2. Table machines: Steenbeck
  14. Multi-Track Equipment
  15. Synchronisers: Types and Uses
    1. Gang synchronisers
  16. Synchronisers: Accessories
    1. Sound attachments for synchronisers
    2. Picture synchronisers
    3. Synchroniser accessories and attachments
  17. Joining Film: Temporary Splices
    1. Temporary joins: tape splices
  18. Joining Films: Permanent Splices
    1. Welded splices
  19. Animated Viewers
    1. Function of the viewer in cutting
  20. Sundry Cutting Room Equipment
    1. Wall cuts racks
    2. Rewind arms
    3. Film horse
  21. Cutting Room Accessories
    1. Split spools and film cores
  22. Planning Picture Sequences
    1. Definitions
    2. Camera viewpoint
  23. Identifying and Printing Takes
    1. Printing selected takes
    2. False economies
  24. Identifying Sound Takes
    1. Using information provided
  25. The Film in the Camera
    1. Processing originals
    2. Reversal and negative films
  26. Copying the Original
    1. Grading
    2. Cinex strips
  27. Cutting Copies
    1. Cutting copies of 16 mm colour films
    2. Copies on panchromatic stock
    3. Black and white 16 mm films
  28. Edge Numbers and Film Footage
    1. Final stage of cutting
    2. Edge numbers
    3. Film footage
  29. Locating Scenes and Takes
    1. Logging rushes
    2. Minimising paperwork
  30. Breaking Down Rushes
    1. Separating scenes and takes
    2. Identifying the takes
  31. Joining With Tape
    1. Making the join
    2. When not to use tape
  32. Joining with Cement
    1. Strong splice
  33. Film Leader
    1. Academy leaders
  34. Making A First Assembly
    1. Backing tape joins
  35. Continuity Cutting
    1. Choice of cutting point
    2. Practical advantages of tape joins
  36. Cutting A Simple Sequence
    1. Matching action cuts
  37. Avoiding Continuity Errors
    1. Cutaways
    2. Jump cuts
  38. Optical Effects: Dissolves
    1. Optical overlaps
  39. Single Roll Optical Effects
    1. Identifying an optical
    2. Quality of duplicate master materials
  40. Ordering Single Roll Optical Dupes
    1. Length of dupes
  41. Optical Effects: Fades and Freezes
    1. Freeze frames
  42. Extending and Fine Cutting the Action
    1. Stretch printing
    2. Recutting the first assembly
  43. Changing and Patching Cutting Copies
    1. Repairing cutting copy damage
  44. Augmenting Original Film
    1. Ordering stock footage
  45. Negative Cutting: Principle
    1. Cutting by numbers
  46. Negative Cutting: Checkerboard
    1. Starting a checkerboard assembly
  47. Negative Cutting: Where and When
    1. Matching edge numbers step by step
    2. Joining picture and leader
    3. Checking numbers before making a cut
  48. Negative Cutting: Optical Effects
    1. Overlapping checkerboard dissolves
    2. Marking centre points
  49. Negative Cutting: A/B Rolls, Cueing
    1. Optical cue sheets
  50. Negative Cutting: Completing
    1. Checking neg cut rolls
    2. Additional C and D rolls
  51. Superimposed Titles
    1. Reversal originals
    2. Negative originals
  52. Ordering Superimposed Titles
    1. Coloured lettering for titles
  53. Synchronised Sound: Double System
    1. Double system shooting
  54. Synchronised Sound: Single System
    1. Magnetic stripe sound advance
  55. Cutting with Wild Sound
    1. Cutting with separate tracks
    2. Wild tracks used with synch sound
  56. Planning A Complete Soundtrack
    1. Breaking down sound
  57. Preparing Sound Effects Tracks
    1. Matching sound and picture
  58. Preparing Background Sounds
    1. Joining spacing and magnetic
  59. Sync Points
    1. Marking sync
    2. "Laying" spot effects
  60. Matching Sound and Picture
    1. Adjusting out of sync sounds
    2. Cutting to music
  61. Cutting Sound and Avoiding Clicks
    1. Demagnetising joins and joiners
  62. Background Sound Loops
    1. Preparing a sound loop
  63. Synchronised Sound and Picture
    1. Synchronising rushes
  64. Finding and Maintaining Synchronism
    1. Intercutting sync and mute takes
  65. Narration: Pre Recording, Matching
    1. Pre-recording commentary
  66. Narration: Recording During A Dub
    1. Dubbing procedure
  67. Dubbing: Procedure
    1. Dubbing cue sheets
  68. Dubbing: Practice
    1. M & E premix
  69. Combined Prints: Magnetic or Optical
    1. Magnetic stripe and optical sound compared
    2. Sound advance
  70. Combined Prints: Optical Sound
    1. Comopt copies: advancing sound for printing
  71. Preparing the First Show Copy
    1. Grading answer prints
    2. Automatic grading
  72. Prints Out of Sync
    1. Sound out of sync
    2. Tracing the source of faults
  73. Picture Faults
    1. Prints from out of synch A & B rolls
    2. Other print faults
  74. Faults Difficult to Remedy
    1. Edge fogging
    2. Complaining to a laboratory
  75. Safeguarding Original: Dupe Masters
    1. Making multiple copies
    2. Colour reversal internegative
    3. Advantages and disadvantages of dupe masters
  76. The Original: Neg and Pos Dupes
    1. Dupes from Ektachrome originals
    2. Dupes from black and white originals
  77. Moving from Gauge to Gauge
    1. 35 mm reduced to 16 mm
    2. 16 mm enlarged to 35 mm
    3. 16 mm reduced to super 8 mm
    4. Conclusion
  78. Recording Film on Video
    1. Videos from 16 mm negatives
  79. Electronic Film Conforming
  80. Further Reading
  81. Glossary