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100 Things: Every Designer Needs to Know About People

Book Description

If you want to design intuitive and engaging web sites, apps, print materials or products, then you need to know the psychology that underlies people's behavior. 100 Things Every Designer Needs to Know About People explores both the foundational and the latest research in the psychology of the conscious mind and applies it to design. What grabs and holds attention on a page or screen? What is more important, peripheral vision or central vision? How much information is too much at one time? How do you motivate people to continue on to the next step? What line length should you use if you want people to read text on or offline? What about color? Imagery? Does font type really matter? These are just a few of the questions that the book answers.

This book is not just a set of guidelines, but a deep dive into what makes people tick. Dr. Weinschenk shares the psychology research and shows lots of examples so that you can design intuitive and engaging print, web, applications and products that match the way people think, work, and play.

Table of Contents

  1. Title Page
  2. Copyright Page
  3. Acknowledgements
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. The Psychology of Design
  7. How People See
    1. 1. What You See isn’t What Your Brain Gets
    2. 2. Peripheral Vision is Used More Than Central Vision to Get the Gist of What You See
    3. 3. People Identify Objects by Recognizing Patterns
    4. 4. There’s a Special Part of the Brain Just for Recognizing Faces
    5. 5. People Imagine Objects Tilted and at a Slight Angle Above
    6. 6. People Scan Screens Based on Past Experience and Expectations
    7. 7. People See Cues that Tell Them What to Do With an Object
    8. 8. People can Miss Changes in their Visual Fields
    9. 9. People Believe that Things that are Close Together Belong Together
    10. 10. Red and Blue Together are Hard on the Eyes
    11. 11. Nine Percent of Men and One-Half Percent of Women are Color-Blind
    12. 12. The Meanings of Colors Vary by Culture
  8. How People Read
    1. 13. It’s a Myth that Capital Letters are Inherently Hard to Read
    2. 14. Reading and Comprehending are Two Different Things
    3. 15. Pattern Recognition Helps People Identify Letters in Different Fonts
    4. 16. Font Size Matters
    5. 17. Reading a Computer Screen is Harder than Reading Paper
    6. 18. People Read Faster with a Longer Line Length, but they Prefer a Shorter Line Length
  9. How People Remember
    1. 19. Short-Term Memory is Limited
    2. 20. People Remember Only Four Items at Once
    3. 21. People Have to Use Information to Make It Stick
    4. 22. It’s Easier to Recognize Information than Recall It
    5. 23. Memory Takes a Lot of Mental Resources
    6. 24. People Reconstruct Memories Each Time they Remember Them
    7. 25. It’s a Good Thing that People Forget
    8. 26. The Most Vivid Memories are Wrong
  10. How People Think
    1. 27. People Process Information Better in Bite-Sized Chunks
    2. 28. Some Types of Mental Processing are More Challenging than Others
    3. 29. Minds Wander 30 Percent of the Time
    4. 30. The More Uncertain People are, the More they Defend their Ideas
    5. 31. People Create Mental Models
    6. 32. People Interact with Conceptual Models
    7. 33. People Process Information Best in Story Form
    8. 34. People Learn Best from Examples
    9. 35. People are Driven to Create Categories
    10. 36. Time is Relative
    11. 37. There are Four Ways to be Creative
    12. 38. People can be in a Flow State
    13. 39. Culture Affects How People Think
  11. How People Focus Their Attention
    1. 40. Attention is Selective
    2. 41. People Filter Information
    3. 42. Well-Practiced Skills don’t Require Conscious Attention
    4. 43. Expectations of Frequency Affect Attention
    5. 44. Sustained Attention Lasts About Ten Minutes
    6. 45. People Pay Attention Only to Salient Cues
    7. 46. People can’t Actually Multitask
    8. 47. Danger, Food, Sex, Movement, Faces, and Stories Get the Most Attention
    9. 48. Loud Noises Startle and Get Attention
    10. 49. For People to Pay Attention to Something, they Must First Perceive It
  12. What Motivates People
    1. 50. People are More Motivated as they Get Closer to a Goal
    2. 51. Variable Rewards are Powerful
    3. 52. Dopamine Makes People Addicted to Seeking Information
    4. 53. Unpredictability Keeps People Searching
    5. 54. People are More Motivated by Intrinsic Rewards than Extrinsic Rewards
    6. 55. People are Motivated by Progress, Mastery, and Control
    7. 56. People’s Ability to Delay Gratification (or Not) Starts Young
    8. 57. People are Inherently Lazy
    9. 58. People Will Look for Shortcuts Only if the Shortcuts are Easy
    10. 59. People Assume it’s You, Not the Situation
    11. 60. Forming a Habit Takes a Long Time and Requires Small Steps
    12. 61. People are More Motivated to Compete When there are Fewer Competitors
    13. 62. People are Motivated by Autonomy
  13. People are Social Animals
    1. 63. The “Strong Tie” Group Size Limit is 150 People
    2. 64. People are Hard-Wired for Imitation and Empathy
    3. 65. Doing Things Together Bonds People Together
    4. 66. People Expect Online Interactions to Follow Social Rules
    5. 67. People Lie to Differing Degrees Depending on the Media
    6. 68. Speakers’ Brains and Listeners’ Brains Sync Up During Communication
    7. 69. The Brain Responds Uniquely to People You Know Personally
    8. 70. Laughter Bonds People Together
    9. 71. People can Tell When a smile is Real or Fake More Accurately with Video
  14. How People Feel
    1. 72. Seven Basic Emotions are Universal
    2. 73. Emotions are Tied to Muscle Movement and Vice Versa
    3. 74. Anecdotes Persuade More than Data
    4. 75. Smells Evoke Emotions and Memories
    5. 76. People are Programmed to Enjoy Surprises
    6. 77. People are Happier When They’re Busy
    7. 78. Pastoral Scenes Make People Happy
    8. 79. People Use Look and Feel as their First Indicator of Trust
    9. 80. Listening to Music Releases Dopamine in the Brain
    10. 81. The More Difficult Something is to Achieve, the More People Like It
    11. 82. People Overestimate Reactions to Future Events
    12. 83. People Feel More Positive Before and After an Event than During It
    13. 84. People Want What is Familiar When They’re Sad or Scared
  15. People Make Mistakes
    1. 85. People Will Always Make Mistakes; There is No Fail-Safe Product
    2. 86. People Make Errors When they are Under Stress
    3. 87. Not All Mistakes are Bad
    4. 88. People Make Predictable Types of Errors
    5. 89. People Use Different Error Strategies
  16. How People Decide
    1. 90. People Make Most Decisions Unconsciously
    2. 91. The Unconscious Knows First
    3. 92. People Want More Choices and Information than they can Process
    4. 93. People Think Choice Equals Control
    5. 94. People May Care about Time More than They Care about Money
    6. 95. Mood Influences the Decision-Making Process
    7. 96. Group Decision Making can be Faulty
    8. 97. People are Swayed by a Dominant Personality
    9. 98. When People are Uncertain, They Let Others Decide What to Do
    10. 99. People Think Others are More Easily Influenced than they are Themselves
    11. 100. People Value a Product More Highly When it’s Physically in Front of Them
  17. References
  18. Index
  19. Media