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100 MORE Things Every Designer Needs to Know About People

Book Description

Thousands of designers, marketers, and product managers have come to rely on Susan Weinschenk’s original 100 Things Every Designer Needs To Know About People as a “go-to book” for practical advice on how to use the latest findings in psychology and neuroscience to directly inform and improve their designs, brands, and products. Research hasn’t stopped since the book was written, and new design challenges have emerged.

Weinschenk’s new book, 100 MORE Things Every Designer Needs To Know About People applies the latest research in psychology, neuroscience, brain research, and social psychology to the design of technology products, including websites, apps, wearables, and artificial intelligence. Weinschenk combines real science and research citations with practical examples to make her 100 MORE Things engaging, persuasive, easy to read, accessible, and useful. 100 MORE Things Every Designer Needs to Know About People is not just another “design guidelines” book because it explains the WHY behind the guidelines, providing concrete examples and prescriptions that can be easily and instantly applied.

Table of Contents

  1. Title Page
  2. Copyright Page
  3. Acknowledgements
  4. Dedication
  5. About the Author
  6. Contents
  7. The Designer As Behavioral Scientist
  8. How People See
    1. 1 People Prefer Curved Shapes
      1. Does the Couch Have Curves?
      2. Does the Balance of the Image Matter?
      3. Curves Stimulate the Brain
    2. 2 People Prefer Symmetry
      1. Show Me your DNA
      2. Is Symmetry Only for Mars (For Men)?
      3. Is There any Advantage to Using Asymmetry?
    3. 3 Some People Have an Extra Color Cone
      1. Back to the Amazing Discovery
      2. Functional Tetrachromats are Rare
    4. 4 Peripheral Vision Determines where Central Vision Should Look
      1. But Isn’t Multitasking a Myth?
      2. A Quick Definition of Central and Peripheral Vision
      3. Eyes Take Lots of Visual Samples at the Same Time
      4. Peripheral Vision Calls the Shots
      5. Two Visions are Better Than One
      6. Don’t Base Every Design Decision on Eye-Tracking Studies
      7. Pay Attention to Peripheral Vision
    5. 5 Peripheral Vision Sees Danger and Processes Emotions Faster
      1. A Test of Fearful Faces
      2. Design with Fear and Danger in Mind
    6. 6 Peripheral Vision is Like a Low-Resolution Image
      1. Peripheral Vision is Blurry
      2. How Peripheral Vision Won a Design Competition
      3. When Less is More
      4. Designing for Both Vision States
      5. A Surprising Guideline for Designing for Screen Size
    7. 7 Emotion vs. Gaze Direction: Emotion Wins
      1. The Influence of Gaze Direction
      2. Is Looking the Same as Taking Action?
    8. 8 Direct Gaze can Backfire
    9. 9 People Decide About a Design in a Split Second
      1. Testing Infographics Instead of Websites
      2. Designing for an Audience
  9. How People Think and Remember
    1. 10 People use Two Kinds of Thinking
      1. System 1 And System 2 Thinking
      2. System 1 is the Normal Mode
      3. The Opposite of “Don’t Make Me Think”
      4. Design for Errors
    2. 11 Some Memories Change Easily
      1. Autobiographical Memories
      2. Strong Emotions Make Strong Memories
      3. Ten Years Later
      4. Can Memories be Erased?
    3. 12 Repetition Strengthens Some Memories
      1. Memorizing Facts
      2. Learning Motor Skills
      3. Sensory Memory
      4. Design and Semantic, Muscle, and Sensory Memory
    4. 13 Music Evokes Memories and Moods
      1. Music and Mood
      2. People Respond in a Similar Way
  10. How People Decide
    1. 14 People Make Decisions with System 1 (Truthiness) Thinking
      1. Repetition Makes People Trust Their Gut
      2. Photo + Information = Truthiness
    2. 15 People Choose What’s Brightest
      1. Exogenous vs. Endogenous Influencers
    3. 16 When Faced with a Complex Decision, People Follow Their Feelings
      1. Logic or Feelings?
      2. Satisfaction and Confidence
      3. What About Giving Time for Deliberation?
      4. Decisions for Designers About Information vs. Feelings
      5. The Big Mistake that Most People Make
    4. 17 The Pupils Dilate During a Difficult Decision
    5. 18 Confidence Triggers Decisions
      1. The Effects of Evidence and Elapsed Time
      2. Can the Decision be Sped Up?
      3. Little Chunks and Lots of Feedback
      4. Get People to Take a Physical Action
    6. 19 The Surprising Effects of Stress on Decision Making
      1. The Complicated Relationship Between Stress and Decision Making
      2. The Interesting Gender Twist
      3. Implications of Stress for Design
    7. 20 People Make Decisions at Certain Calendar Events
    8. 21 People Make Decisions Based on Specific Memories
      1. And the Answer Is...
    9. 22 Brain Activity Predicts Decisions Before They’re Consciously Made
      1. Not Just for Motor Movement
  11. How People Read and Interpret Information
    1. 23 If Text is Hard to Read, the Material is Easier to Learn
      1. The Interesting Twist of Disfluency
      2. So, What’s a Designer to do About Fonts?
    2. 24 Nouns Spur Action More Than Verbs Spur Action
      1. To Vote? Or to be a Voter?
      2. Invoking a Group Identity
    3. 25 Homophones Can Prime Behavior
      1. Priming with Homophones
      2. People Subvocalize When Reading
      3. Suppressing Homophone Activation
      4. The Cognitive Load Gotcha
      5. Embedded Homophones Have the Same Priming Effect
      6. Homophone Activation is Unconscious
      7. An Ethical Dilemma?
    4. 26 People Read Only 60 Percent of an Online Article
      1. Clicking Doesn’t Mean Reading
      2. Sharing Doesn’t Equal Reading
    5. 27 Reading Online May not be Reading
      1. Neuroplasticity and Reading
      2. Skimming and Scanning vs. Reading
      3. Designing for Skimming and Scanning is Best Practice, Right?
      4. It’s not Reading
      5. Designing for Skimming and Scanning
      6. Reading is Changing = Brains are Changing
    6. 28 The Multisensory Experience of Physical Books is Important to Reading
      1. The Multisensory Experience of Physical Books
      2. The Navigation and Mental Map of a Book
      3. Limited Navigation Impairs Comprehension
      4. Screens are Harder on the Eyes
      5. Will People Just Get Used to it?
      6. The Role of the Designer
    7. 29 People are Ready to Move on From “Old” Media
      1. Video and Audio Alternatives
      2. Any Visual Plus Audio
      3. There are Other Choices
  12. How People are Influenced by Stories
    1. 30 The Brain is More Active with Stories
      1. And with Emotional Chemicals, Too
      2. Stories and Your Product
      3. Stories and the Design Process
    2. 31 Dramatic Arc Stories Change Brain Chemicals
      1. Common Stories and Plots
      2. The Seven Plots
    3. 32 Stories Focus Attention
      1. Tension in Storyboards
    4. 33 People’S Self-Stories Affect Their Behavior
    5. 34 Small Steps Can Change Self-Stories
      1. A Crack in the Self-Story
      2. The Crack Widens
      3. Encouraging a new Self-Story
    6. 35 A Public Commitment Leads to Stronger Self-Stories
      1. Surveys, Reviews, and Testimonials
    7. 36 Change the Story and you Will Change the Behavior
      1. Let People Discover a New Story
  13. How People Relate to Other People and to Technology
    1. 37 Emotions are Contagious
      1. Mimicry and Emotions
      2. Flaws in the Facebook Contagion Study
    2. 38 People Don’t Like Video Ads
      1. People Don’t Like Brand Logos
    3. 39 Joy and Surprise Grab and Hold Attention in Video Ads
    4. 40 Surprise, But Not Shock, Encourages Sharing
      1. Extroversion, Egocentricity, and Sharing
    5. 41 Oxytocin is the Bonding Chemical
      1. The Bonding Chemical
      2. Synchronous Behavior and Cooperation
      3. Designing for Synchronous Interactions
    6. 42 When People Feel Connected, They Work Harder
      1. The Social Facilitation Effect
    7. 43 Devices with Alerts Lower Cognitive Performance
      1. Pavlovian Conditioned Responses
    8. 44 Cell Phones Nearby Negatively Affect Person-to-Person Communication
      1. Establishing Project Relationships
    9. 45 People Trust Machines That Have Some Human-Like Characteristics
      1. Anthropomorphism and Trust
      2. Beware of the Uncanny Valley
    10. 46 People can Feel Empathy for Machines
  14. How Creativity Influences Design
    1. 47 Everyone can be Creative
      1. Myths About Creativity
    2. 48 Creativity Starts with the Executive Attention Network
      1. Brain Networks, not Structures
      2. The Executive Attention Network
      3. Ask the Right Question
    3. 49 To Be Creative, Engage the Brain’s Default Network
      1. The Brain Isn’t Really at Rest
      2. The Default Network’s Role in Creativity
    4. 50 Induce an “Aha” Moment
      1. The Monitor
      2. Three Networks Working Together
    5. 51 Daydreaming Encourages Creativity
      1. Productive vs. Pathological
      2. Getting Over the Bad Rap of Daydreaming
    6. 52 Sleeping Encourages Creativity
      1. Boost Your Creativity by at Least 33 Percent
      2. Listening to Brain Waves in Sleeping Rats
      3. Consolidating Information During Sleep
      4. The Connection Between Sleep and Creativity
    7. 53 Noise and Music Increase Creativity
      1. Quiet Isn’t Necessarily a Good Thing
      2. Debunking the Mozart Effect
      3. Music and the Default Network
    8. 54 People are More Creative Within Some Constraints
      1. Some Constraints Enhance Creativity
    9. 55 The right Kind of Collaboration Increases Creativity
      1. Doing Brainstorming the Right Way
      2. Brainwriting as an Antidote to Anchoring
    10. 56 Being a Perfectionist can Ruin Creative Work
      1. Fear of Failure
  15. How People’s Bodies Affect Design
    1. 57 People Think and Feel with Their Bodies
      1. Catching a Fly Ball
      2. The Proof is With the Robots
    2. 58 People Naturally Gesture
      1. Gesturing to Manipulate a Device
      2. Natural Gestures Versus Forced Gestures
    3. 59 People have Physical Limitations Of Movement
      1. Augmented and Virtual Reality
    4. 60 Thumbs can Reach Only so Far
      1. The Myth of One-Handed Use
      2. There is No “Ow” Zone
      3. The “Top-Left” Standard Must Go
    5. 61 Distance From the Screen is Critical
      1. It’S Distance, not Resolution
  16. How People Shop and Buy
    1. 62 People Don’t Separate Shopping Online from Shopping in a Store
      1. Going Omnichannel
    2. 63 People Spend Less when They use Cash
      1. The Lower the Transparency, the More People Spend
    3. 64 People Commit to Purchases Because of Cognitive Dissonance
      1. Post-Purchase Cognitive Dissonance
      2. Cognitive Dissonance and Ratings and Reviews
    4. 65 Cognitive Dissonance Makes People Buy
      1. Creating or Highlighting a Problem
    5. 66 People are Affected by Arbitrary Numbers
      1. People Anchor on Numbers
      2. Number Order Effects
    6. 67 Online Shopping Increases Anticipation
      1. Excitement and Anticipation
      2. It’s all About Unpredictability and Anticipation
      3. Anticipation and Online Shopping
      4. Instant Gratification Isn’t Always the Answer
      5. Why Free Overnight Shipping may not be the Answer
  17. How Generations, Geography, and Gender Influence Design
    1. 68 Everyone Uses Smartphones for News and Important Life Events
    2. 69 Generational Differences in Smartphone Use Depend on the Activity
    3. 70 If the Task Takes Less than 5 Minutes, People Will Use Their Smartphones
    4. 71 Not Everyone with a Cell Phone Has a Smartphone
      1. Sharing Phones
    5. 72 In Many Countries, Women Lack Online Access
    6. 73 Gamers are All Ages and All Genders
    7. 74 What People Find Visually Appealing Depends on Age, Gender, and Geography
    8. 75 People Want Fewer Choices as They Get Older
    9. 76 The Mental Model of “Online” and “Offline” is Different for Different Generations
    10. 77 Over Half of the People Over Age 65 in the US use the Internet
      1. Not a Real Surprise
      2. No Gender Differences for use in the US
    11. 78 People Over 40 Have Presbyopia
    12. 79 The Color Blue Fades With Age
    13. 80 Nearly 100 Million People Over Age 65 Have Hearing Problems
    14. 81 Motor Skills don’T Decline Until the Mid-60s
    15. 82 Older People May not Have Answers to Those Security Questions
      1. I Don’t Have Answers to Any of the Questions
    16. 83 As People Age, They Become Less Confident About Their Own Memories
    17. 84 Generation Z Will Account for 40 Percent of all Consumers in 2020
    18. 85 More Than One-Third of 1-Year-Olds can use a Touch Screen
    19. 86 When Toddlers Laugh, they Learn More
  18. How People Interact with Interfaces and Devices
    1. 87 People Want to Skim and Scan Videos
    2. 88 People Interact with Carousels
      1. But Wait, there’s More
    3. 89 People Scroll
    4. 90 People Can’t Even Talk to the Car While Driving
    5. 91 People Don’t Always Engage more When you’ve Used “Gamification”
    6. 92 Games can Improve Perceptual Learning
      1. Video Games can Increase Perceptual Learning
      2. Even Adults can Create New Neuron Structures
      3. Strategy Games Increase Cognitive Flexibility
      4. Cognitive Flexibility is Trainable
    7. 93 People Need Fewer Choices
      1. Removing Unnecessary Choices
      2. Going Beyond Personalization
      3. Here’s Your Coffee you didn’t Order
    8. 94 People Want Devices to Monitor Their Health
    9. 95 People will Increasingly have Devices Implanted to Monitor and Intervene in Their Health
    10. 96 People can Control Technology with Their Brains
      1. Mind Reading?
    11. 97 People will Adapt to Multi-Modal Interfaces
      1. Silly or Smart?
    12. 98 People will Embrace Mixed Reality
      1. Interacting with Mixed Reality
    13. 99 Over 645 Million People Have Visual or Auditory Impairments
    14. 100 People Process Sensory Data Unconsciously
      1. People Can Best Process Big Data Unconsciously
      2. A Sensory Room
  19. References
  20. Index