At Popforms, we love hearing how amazing teams work and how great leaders help those amazing teams be even better. That’s why we were so excited when Dave Zwieback, VP of Engineering at Next Big Sound, offered to share an inside “the way we work” post with us. Here is part one of his two-part piece on how his team iterates on the idea of successful work, and here is part two for when you’re ready! — KateS
With epidemically low employee engagement, being highly effective and happy at work is an exception, not the norm. Why are we failing to engage at work? Why are healthy, high performance teams so rare?
At least part of the answer to these troubling questions lies in the fact that most companies are organized in inflexible, hierarchical, command-and-control silos. These organizational structures are arguably ill-suited even to the assembly lines where they originated over a century ago, let alone today’s knowledge workforce. Even more surprisingly, of the many companies that have adopted a modern, iterative approach to product development (known as “Lean” or “Agile”), only a few take the same iterative approach to their organizations.
At Next Big Sound, we are committed to iterating not only on our products but also on the way that we work.
Our fundamental approach is rooted in openness. We want everyone to be directly involved in deciding to work in a particular way, and able to easily learn the history and the rationale behind past decisions. We continuously ask “Why?” and never settle for “I don’t know” or, worse, “Because we’ve always done it this way.”
Organizations are complex systems that exhibit surprising, emergent behaviors. We can’t predict the future–no one really knows if changing the organization in a specific way will have the intended results, in the same way that no one knows if adding a new feature will help make software successful. (Though we do know a thing or two about who might enter the Billboard 200 next year). However, we are an organization that’s willing to quickly experiment with various ways of working and adjust based on what we’ve learned.
This is a story of the evolution of the way that we work at Next Big Sound, a record of the things we’ve tried and tweaked over the last year.
Since July 2013, we’ve been iteratively building a healthier, more flexible, high-performance organization, a place where highly engaged and happier folks could do some of the best work of their lives.
We’re far from done, and this account is also meant to provide the necessary context and encouragement for everyone to continue asking “Is there a better way to do it?”
July 2013: Creating product-focused, self-organized teams
In the spring of 2013, we were working in several product teams and a “core” team which was responsible for infrastructure, storage, and our API. The idea was that each of these teams would have all (human) resources necessary to do the work planned for each product. In reality, though, it wasn’t always clear what teams were (or should be) working on, and there was sometimes a lack of focus with multiple projects going on at the same time within each team.
To address some of these issues, the entire company gathered to discuss a proposal of working in a different way.
First, we agreed to do away with strictly product-focused teams, and instead introduced project-focused teams. We defined a “project” as 2-4 weeks of focused work, and agreed that there would only be one project at a time per team. We also encouraged everyone to keep the teams small, in order to minimize communication overhead and maximize speed, and independent, in order to minimize external dependencies.
Before the start of the project, each team would scope the work and define a clear and measurable outcome. At the project’s completion, we would show everyone the progress during a “demo day”. Teams would also conduct retrospectives to learn what we did well or could do better.
We also outlined the role of management as simply “to provide clear business goals, and to help teams maximize productivity, minimize distraction, and to remove roadblocks”. You might notice that, by omission, the role of management was (and still is) not to tell people what to do, or how to do it.
Instead of top-down management, teams would self-organize and self-manage, with everyone was encouraged to take on the team lead role. (In fact, as of today, everyone at the company has served as a team lead on at least one project). At the time, the role of team leads was loosely defined, with the main focus on ensuring communication within a team and the rest of the company. We offered some loose guidelines, but each team had the choice to follow, not follow, or amend them.
Over the previous four years, and several versions of our flagship product, we accumulated significant amounts of technical debt, with an aging storage system nearing capacity, and two similar but not quite the same versions of our analytics dashboard in production. With that in mind, we agreed to have at least one “non-project” team to pay down technical debt and fix bugs at all times.
At the time, we thought that the most significant difference from prior iterations is that teams will now self-organize to complete specific projects. That is, people can join or ask others to join a team at any time, not just at the beginning of a project.
In retrospect, the more important change that we agreed to try was a new method of working that we later started calling “self-selection”. A year later, it is still a cornerstone of the way that we work at Next Big Sound: you get to pick what you work on, whom you work with, and where you work.
This is not a startup “perk”, or a recruiting tactic; it is rooted in a deeply held belief that everyone should have the autonomy to work in the most engaged way that makes them happiest and thus most productive.
After a brief discussion, we dove right in, self-organizing project teams and selecting team leads. Watching folks self-select into projects was both nerve-racking (Will it actually work? Will people select the difficult, unglamorous, but critical projects aimed at paying down our technical debt? Will it all devolve into chaos?), and yet proceeded in a remarkably matter-of-fact fashion.
August 2013: Arrival of the BugBusters
With a month of working in this new way under our belt, everyone in the company met to discuss what we’ve learned and to see how we might improve. While initial results were very positive – the sharpened focus and the self-selecting teams were working well – we decided we needed to do three things: shorten the length of projects (now called “iterations”); clarify the mechanics of an iteration; and reduce interruptions.
Interestingly, most of the teams had chosen one month as the length of the first iteration. A month is practically an eternity in startup time; accurately planning such a significant amount of work is difficult in any organization. Most teams had experienced significant changes in scope of iterations, which either unexpectedly ballooned or had to be reduced before completion. As a result, we decided to limit the length of iterations to two weeks, a practice that we stuck with until April of 2014.
There was also some confusion about the mechanics of iterations, which we clarified by specifying things like when iteration scopes should be defined, and where they should be documented; and when retrospectives should be conducted. Given the fact that iterations were now fixed length, it became possible to start and end all iterations on the same day (typically every other Wednesday), which became company-wide demo day.
We also noticed that there was a non-trivial amount of work required to fix bugs or data import issues, and address systems/ops-related alerts or outages. We wanted to keep these interruptions to a minimum, so we introduced an evolution of the “non-project” team idea: a 1-week BugBusters engineer rotation, which started each Wednesday at noon.
The BugBuster was tasked with incident management, i.e., triage of any issue or bug that might arise during the rotation. The BugBuster was not expected to be able to fix every issue, and would ask for help as necessary. Things that couldn’t be fixed quickly (e.g., within about a day) would become projects and go through the normal prioritization and self-selection processes.
BugBusters was perhaps the most impactful change that we introduced at this time, especially because engineers could now choose to do an entire hack week before or after their rotation in recognition of the community service aspect of BugBusters, and work on whatever they wanted at Next Big Sound.
This currently adds up to about four weeks of individual hack time per year for each engineer (with an additional two weeks of company-wide hack days). It’s also worth noting that although we recognized the critical nature of BugBusters, we did not mandate that there must have always been an engineer on rotation or that every engineer must have participated in BugBusters.
Instead, we chose to treat BugBusters as one of the projects up for self-selection, something that we had to clarify and “tune up” a few months later. Still, the BugBusters rotation (also fondly called “HackBusters”) is alive and well today, and is responsible for some of the continued innovation at Next Big Sound. Some of the projects that came out of hack weeks included Tunebot, explorations of Zipf Law for Facebook Page Likes, an Next Big Sound Charts iPhone App, and countless product experiments and improvements.
In Part 2 of this article, we’ll cover what happens when seemingly important projects don’t get selected, and our discovery of the importance of BugBusters to self-selection. We’ll also delve into our attempts to improve the way that we communicated, and finally the adjustments we made to the length of iterations.
Dave Zwieback has been managing large-scale mission-critical infrastructure and teams for 18 years. He is the VP of Engineering at Next Big Sound. He was previously the head of infrastructure at Knewton, managed UNIX Engineering at D.E. Shaw & Co. and enterprise monitoring tools at Morgan Stanley, and also ran an infrastructure architecture consultancy for 7 years.