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A guest post by Jeff Potts, the Chief Community Officer at Alfresco where he is responsible for developer evangelism and community outreach, and he is a committer on the Apache Chemistry project and has written CMIS and Apache Chemistry in Action by Manning Publications.

Most of the content in a company is completely unstructured. Just think about the documents you collaborate on with the rest of your team throughout the day. They might include things like proposals, architecture diagrams, presentations, and the like.

The worst case is when all of those files are scattered across file shares and employee hard drives. More often, the files live in some sort of content repository. You might hear these repositories referred to as a Document Management (DM) system or an Enterprise Content Management (ECM) system. No matter what you call it, they are purpose-built for making it easier for your company to get a handle on its file-based content.

When file-based content lives in a repository, it is a lot easier for employees to work with productively. It can be tagged, version-controlled, searched, and secured. It can be routed through a business process. Even better, developers can write content-centric applications that help workers collaborate and manage content.

Here’s the problem for developers, though: There is a lot of repository software out there. Most large companies have more than one up-and-running in their organization, and every one of them has their own API. It’s rare that these systems exist in a vacuum. They often need to feed and consume business processes and that takes code. So if you are an enterprise developer, and you are trying to integrate some of your systems with your ECM repositories, you’ve got multiple APIs you need to learn. Or, if you are a software vendor, and you are trying to build a solution that requires a rich content repository as a back-end, you either have to choose a specific back-end to support, or you have to write adapters to support a handful of repositories.

The solution to this problem is called Content Management Interoperability Services (CMIS). It’s an industry-wide specification managed by OASIS. It describes a domain language, a query language, and multiple protocols for working with a content repository. With CMIS, developers write against the CMIS API instead of learning each repository’s proprietary API, and their applications will work with any CMIS-compliant repository.

The first version of the specification became official in May of 2010. The most recent version, 1.1, became official this past May.

Several developers have been busy writing client libraries, server-side libraries, and tools related to CMIS. Many of these are collected as part of an umbrella open source project known as Apache Chemistry. The most active Apache Chemistry sub-project is OpenCMIS. It includes a Java client library (including Android), multiple servers for testing purposes, and some developer tools, such as a Java Swing-based repository browser called OpenCMIS Workbench. Apache Chemistry also includes libraries for Python, .NET, PHP, and Objective-C.

Getting Started with CMIS

The tools and libraries at Apache Chemistry are a great way to get started with CMIS. For example, I’ve got the Apache Chemistry InMemory Repository deployed to a local Tomcat server. I can fire up OpenCMIS Workbench and connect to the server using its service URL, http://localhost:8081/inmemory/browser. Once I do that, I can navigate the repository’s folder hierarchy, inspecting or performing actions against objects along the way.

The OpenCMIS Workbench has a built-in Groovy console. One of the examples that ships with the Workbench is “Execute a Query”. Here’s what it looks like without the imports:

The Apache Chemistry OpenCMIS InMemory Repository ships with some sample data so when I execute the Groovy script, I’ll see something like:

So that query returned three properties: cmis:objectId, cmis:name, and cmis:contentStreamLength, of every object in the repository that is of type cmis:document. We could have restricted the query further with a where clause that tested specific property values or even the full-text content of the files.

By changing the service URL you can connect the OpenCMIS Workbench to any CMIS-compliant server and that query will work the same for each one.

Doing Something Useful: Importing Files

Querying is fine, but what if we want to create new objects in the CMIS repository? I’m going to walk you through an example that uses the OpenCMIS client library for Java to upload some files from my local machine to a CMIS repository. In my case, that repository is Alfresco 4.2.c Community Edition running locally, but this code should work with any CMIS-compliant server from vendors like IBM, EMC, Microsoft, Nuxeo, and so on. I’ll include the relevant snippets, but if you want to follow along, the full source code for this example lives here. I use that example to show the same code working against Alfresco in the cloud and Alfresco on-premise. If you are running against on-premise only or some other CMIS server, it has a few dependencies that won’t be relevant to you. is a runnable Java class. The main method simply calls doExample(). That method grabs a session, gets a handle to the destination folder for the files on the local machine, and then, for each file in the local machine’s directory, it creates a hashmap of metadata values, then uploads each file and its associated metadata to the repository. Let’s look at each of these pieces in turn.

Get a Session

The first thing you need is a session. I have a getCmisSession() method that knows how to get one, and it looks like this:

As you can see, establishing a session is as simple as providing the username, password, binding, and service URL. The binding is the protocol we’re going to use to talk to the server. In CMIS 1.0, usually the best choice is the Atom Pub binding because it is faster than the Web Services binding, the only other alternative. CMIS 1.1 adds a browser binding that is based on HTML forms and JSON, but I won’t cover that here.

The other parameter that gets set is the service URL. This is server-specific. For Alfresco 4.x or higher, the CMIS 1.0 Atom Pub URL is http://localhost:8080/alfresco/cmisatom.

The last thing the method does is return a session for a specific repository. CMIS servers can serve more than one repository. In Alfresco’s case, there is only ever one, so it is safe to return the first one in the list.

Get the Target Folder

Okay, we’ve got a session with the CMIS server’s repository. The repository is a hierarchical tree of objects (folders and documents) similar to a local file system. The class is configured with a parent folder path and the name of a new folder that should be created in that parent folder. So the first thing we need to do is get a reference to the parent folder. My example getParentFolder() method just grabs the folder by path, like this:

Now, given the parent folder and the name of a new folder, the createFolder() method attempts to create the new folder to hold our files:

The folder is either going to already exist, in which case we’ll just grab it and return it, or it will need to be created. We can test the existence of the folder by trying to fetch it by path, and if it throws a CmisObjectNotFoundException, we’ll create it.

Look at the Map that is getting set up to hold the properties of the folder. The minimum required properties that need to be passed in are the type of folder to be created (“cmis:folder”) and the name of the folder to create. You might choose to extend your server’s content model with your own folder types. In this example, the out-of-the-box “cmis:folder” type is fine.

Set Up the Properties For Each New Document

Just like when the folder was created, every file we upload to the repository will have its own set of metadata. To make it interesting, though, we’ll provide more than just the type of document we want to create and the name of the document. In my example, I’m using a content model we created for the CMIS & Apache Chemistry in Action book. It contains several types. One of which is called “cmisbook:image”. The image type has attributes you’d expect that would be part of an image, like height, width, focal length, camera make, ISO speed, etc. In fact, if you use the OpenCMIS Workbench, you can inspect the type definition for cmisbook:image. Here’s a screenshot:


Two of the properties I’m going to work with in this example are the latitude and longitude. Alfresco will automatically extract metadata like this when you add files to the repository. In fact, Alfresco already has a “geographic aspect” out-of-the-box that can be used to extract and store lat and long. But we wanted this content model to work with any CMIS repository and not all repositories support aspects (CMIS 1.1 calls these “secondary types”) so the content model used in the book defines lat and long on the cmisbook:image type.

Because not all repositories know how to extract metadata, we’re going to use Apache Tika to do it in our client app.

The getProperties() method does this work. It returns a Map of properties that consists of the type of the object we want to create (“cmisbook:image”), the name of the object (the file name being uploaded), and the latitude and longitude. Here’s what that code looks like:

Now we have everything we need to upload the file to the repository: a session, the target folder, and a map of properties for each object being uploaded. All that’s left to do is upload the file.

Upload the File

The first thing the createDocument() method does is to make sure that we have a Map with the minimal set of metadata, which is the object type and the name. It’s conceivable that things didn’t go well in the getProperties() method, and if that is the case, this bit of code makes sure everything is in place:

Next we use the file and the object factory on the CMIS session to set up a ContentStream object:

And finally, the file can be uploaded.

Similar to the folder creating logic earlier, it could be that the document already exists, so we use the same find-or-create pattern here.

When I run this locally using a folder that contains five pics I snapped in Berlin, the output looks like this:

Now Run Against Another Vendor’s Repo

What’s kind of cool, and what I think really demonstrates the great thing about CMIS, is that you can run this class against any CMIS repository, virtually unchanged. To demonstrate this, I’ll fire up the Apache Chemistry InMemory Repository we ship with the source code that accompanies the book because it is already configured with a custom content model that includes “cmisbook:image”. As the name suggests, this repository is a reference CMIS server available from Apache Chemistry that runs entirely in-memory.

To run the class against the Apache Chemistry InMemory Repository, we have to change the service URL and the content type ID, like this:

And when I run the class, my photos get uploaded to a completely different repository implementation.

Readers who spend their days enjoying standardized SQL that works across databases or the benefits of ORM tools that abstract their code from any specific relational database will no doubt be unimpressed by this feat. But I promise you that those of us who have to work with ECM repositories like SharePoint, Documentum, FileNet, and Alfresco, sometimes all on the same project, are rejoicing.

That’s It!

That’s a simple example, I know, but it illustrates fetching objects, creating new objects, including those of custom types, setting metadata, and handling exceptions all through an industry-standard API.

The next time you need to integrate with an ECM repository, CMIS should definitely be on your radar. I’ve created a list of CMIS resources to help you get started. If you are ready to jump in with both feet, I invite you to learn more by reading CMIS & Apache Chemistry in Action!

See below for more CMIS and Apache Chemistry resources from Safari Books Online.

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CMIS and Apache Chemistry in Action is a comprehensive guide to the CMIS standard and related ECM concepts. In it, you’ll find clear teaching and instantly useful examples for building content-centric client and server-side applications that run against any CMIS-compliant repository. In fact, using the CMIS Workbench and the InMemory Repository from Apache Chemistry, you’ll have running code talking to a real CMIS server by the end of chapter 1.
Alfresco 3 Business Solutions practical and easy to use guide which, instead of teaching you just how to use Alfresco, teaches you how to live Alfresco. It will guide you through implementing real world solutions through real world scenarios. Each ECM problem is treated as a separate case study and has its own chapter, enabling you to uncover the practical aspects of an ECM implementation. Read Using the Apache chemistry API for more on Apache Chemistry.
Activiti in Action: Executable Business Processes in BPMN 2.0 introduces developers to business process modeling with Activiti. You’ll start by exploring BPMN 2.0 from a developer’s perspective. Then, you’ll quickly move to examples that show you how to implement processes with Activiti. You’ll dive into key areas of process modeling, including workflow, ESB usage, process monitoring, event handling, business rule engines, and document management integration. Read Using CMIS to store and retrieve documents for more on CMIS.

About the author

jeffpotts Jeff Potts is the Chief Community Officer at Alfresco where he is responsible for developer evangelism and community outreach. He has 20 years of content management and collaboration experience, much of which came from implementing ECM solutions (both proprietary and open source). Jeff is a committer on the Apache Chemistry project–he maintains cmislib, the Python client library for CMIS. Jeff has written two content management-related books: Alfresco Developer Guide (Packt, 2008), the first developer-focused book on Alfresco, and CMIS and Apache Chemistry in Action (Manning, 2013), which he co-authored with Jay Brown and Florian Mueller. Jeff regularly speaks on Alfresco, ECM, and CMIS at conferences such as Red Hat Summit/JBoss World, OSCON, JavaONE, and Devoxx. You can follow Jeff on his blog,, and on Twitter at @jeffpotts01.

Tags: Apache Chemistry, CMIS, Document Management, Enterprise Content Management, Groovy, OASIS, OpenCMIS, Python,

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