O'Reilly logo
  • Joe Hoggard (CELA) thinks this is interesting:

They have become platforms providing services on which other companies build, central to the operation and control of the network. And as we shall come to see in later chapters, when marketplaces become digital, they become living systems, neither human nor machine, independent of their creators and less and less under anyone’s control.


Cover of WTF?: What's the Future and Why It's Up to Us


In this case, I think "living" simply means dynamic and responsive to change that can result in evolutionary adaptations regardless of whether any human intelligence is guiding it.