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The Goldstein-Strauss approach was widespread in the 1950s and 1960s. Thousands of children were identified as having “minimal brain dysfunction” by the use of a checklist, which included things such as academic difficulty, aggression, and “acting-out.”6 If a student exhibited 9 out of 37 possible symptoms, they received treatment, which typically meant they spent hours a day doing perceptual tasks such as connecting dots and learning how to distinguish between a foreground and background. Although a systematic review of 81 studies concluded that these techniques were useless,


Cover of Ungifted


Points to the term "learning disabilities" coined in 1963 by a professor of education. No mentions in this quotation and history of medical doctors. Speaks to psychologists and other school professionals as identifying these students.