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  • Logan Smith thinks this is interesting:

Somewhat paradoxically, the algorithm behaves well until the answer is nearly correct. Once f0fc, the error surface flattens, and the estimates wander around. There is a slight possibility that it might accidently fall into the exact correct answer, but simulations suggest that such luck is rare.

From

Cover of Software Receiver Design

Note

This was us! We minimized this risk by introducing the "carrier lock" element that said "well we're close enough now, let's significantly decrease our step size so we don't lose lock".