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An exception is checked if it is a subclass of RuntimeException or Error.

From

Cover of Java Generics and Collections

Note

The sentence should have been" An exception is NOT checked if it is a subclass of RuntimeException or Error."

RuntimeException and its subclasses are unchecked exceptions. Unchecked exceptions do not need to be declared in a method or constructor's throws clause if they can be thrown by the execution of the method or constructor and propagate outside the method or constructor boundary.