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In different-participant design, a single group of participants is allocated randomly to each of the experimental conditions, so that different participants perform in different conditions. Another term used for this experimental design is between-subjects design. An advantage is that there are no ordering or training effects caused by the influence of participants' experience of one set of tasks on their performance in the next, as each participant only ever performs in one condition. A disadvantage is that large numbers of participants are needed so that the effect of any individual differences among participants, such as differences in experience and expertise, is minimized. Randomly allocating the participants and pre-testi...