O'Reilly logo
  • Volodymyr Buiel thinks this is interesting:

All programming languages rest on abstractions, libraries, frameworks and virtual machines. These abstractions, in turn, may rely on other abstractions, libraries, frameworks and virtual machines. The most apt metaphor is this: the world is carried on the back of a giant turtle. The turtle stands on the back of another giant turtle. And that turtle, in turn, is standing on the back of yet another turtle.

It's turtles all the way down.

From

Cover of Functional Python Programming - Second Edition

Note

All PLs rest on VMs? That seems really wrong to me.