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The length scale of interest for the structural characterization of a surface or interface and thin film depends on the application and industry. Consider surface topography (i.e., roughness) as an example: The characteristic lateral length scale (parallel to the surface) of interest for measuring surface roughness to improve adhesion via interface mechanical interlocking is 0.1–1 µm; to reduce surface scatter in polymer wave guides it is <0.1 µm; (comparable to the wavelength of the optical signal); and to improve lubrication characteristics of thin organic films for magnetic disk applications it is < 100 nm. Similarly, the characteristic...