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Ethereum tackles the security issue caused by stale blocks using something known as ghost protocol. Ethereum uses a modified version of the actual ghost protocol. The ghost protocol covers up the security issue by simply adding the stale blocks into the main blockchain, thereby increasing the overall difficulty of the blockchain, as overall difficulty of the blockchain also includes the sum of difficulties of the stale blocks. But how are stale blocks inserted into the main blockchain without transactions conflicting? Well, any block can specify 0 or more stales. To incentivize miners to include stale blocks, the miners are rewarded for including stale blocks. And also, the miners of the stale blocks are rewarded. The transactions in ...


Cover of Building Blockchain Projects


Definition of uncle blocks