Cover image for Unix in a Nutshell, 4th Edition

Book description

As an open operating system, Unix can be improved on by anyone and everyone: individuals, companies, universities, and more. As a result, the very nature of Unix has been altered over the years by numerous extensions formulated in an assortment of versions. Today, Unix encompasses everything from Sun's Solaris to Apple's Mac OS X and more varieties of Linux than you can easily name.

The latest edition of this bestselling reference brings Unix into the 21st century. It's been reworked to keep current with the broader state of Unix in today's world and highlight the strengths of this operating system in all its various flavors.

Detailing all Unix commands and options, the informative guide provides generous descriptions and examples that put those commands in context. Here are some of the new features you'll find in Unix in a Nutshell, Fourth Edition:

  • Solaris 10, the latest version of the SVR4-based operating system, GNU/Linux, and Mac OS X

  • Bash shell (along with the 1988 and 1993 versions of ksh)

  • tsch shell (instead of the original Berkeley csh)

  • Package management programs, used for program installation on popular GNU/Linux systems, Solaris and Mac OS X

  • GNU Emacs Version 21

  • Introduction to source code management systems

  • Concurrent versions system

  • Subversion version control system

  • GDB debugger

As Unix has progressed, certain commands that were once critical have fallen into disuse. To that end, the book has also dropped material that is no longer relevant, keeping it taut and current.

If you're a Unix user or programmer, you'll recognize the value of this complete, up-to-date Unix reference. With chapter overviews, specific examples, and detailed command.

Table of Contents

  1. Unix in a Nutshell, 4th Edition
    1. Preface
      1. Audience
      2. Scope of This Book
      3. Conventions
      4. Using Code Examples
      5. Safari® Enabled
      6. How to Contact Us
      7. Acknowledgments
    2. I. Commands and Shells
      1. 1. Introduction
        1. 1.1. Unix in the 21st Century
        2. 1.2. Obtaining Compilers
          1. 1.2.1. Solaris
          2. 1.2.2. GNU/Linux
          3. 1.2.3. Mac OS X
        3. 1.3. Building Software
        4. 1.4. What's in the Quick Reference
        5. 1.5. Beginner's Guide
          1. 1.5.1. Communication
          2. 1.5.2. Comparisons
          3. 1.5.3. File Management
          4. 1.5.4. Miscellaneous
          5. 1.5.5. Printing (BSD Commands)
          6. 1.5.6. Printing (System V Commands)
          7. 1.5.7. Programming
          8. 1.5.8. Searching
          9. 1.5.9. Shells
          10. 1.5.10. Shell Programming
          11. 1.5.11. Storage
          12. 1.5.12. System Status
          13. 1.5.13. Text Processing
        6. 1.6. Solaris: Standard Compliant Programs
      2. 2. Unix Commands
        1. 2.1. Introduction
          1. 2.1.1. Finding Commands on Solaris
          2. 2.1.2. Finding Commands on GNU/Linux and Mac OS X
        2. 2.2. Alphabetical Summary of Common Commands
          1. aclocal
          2. apropos
          3. ar
          4. as
          5. at
          6. atq
          7. atrm
          8. autoconf
          9. autoheader
          10. automake
          11. awk
          12. banner
          13. basename
          14. bash
          15. batch
          16. bc
          17. biff
          18. bison
          19. bzip2
          20. cal
          21. calendar
          22. cancel
          23. cat
          24. cc
          25. cd
          26. chgrp
          27. chmod
          28. chown
          29. cksum
          30. clear
          31. cmp
          32. comm
          33. cp
          34. cpio
          35. crontab
          36. csh
          37. csplit
          38. ctags
          39. curl
          40. cut
          41. date
          42. dc
          43. dd
          44. df
          45. diff
          46. diff3
          47. dig
          48. dirname
          49. dos2unix
          50. du
          51. echo
          52. ed
          53. egrep
          54. eject
          55. emacs
          56. env
          57. etags
          58. evim
          59. ex
          60. expand
          61. expr
          62. factor
          63. false
          64. fdformat
          65. fgrep
          66. file
          67. find
          68. finger
          69. flex
          70. fmt
          71. ftp
          72. g++
          73. gcc
          74. gcore
          75. gdb
          76. getconf
          77. getopts
          78. gettext
          79. ghostscript
          80. gprof
          81. grep
          82. groff
          83. groups
          84. gs
          85. gunzip
          86. gzcat
          87. gzip
          88. head
          89. hexdump
          90. hostname
          91. iconv
          92. id
          93. info
          94. join
          95. kill
          96. ksh
          97. ld
          98. ldd
          99. less
          100. lex
          101. link
          102. ln
          103. locale
          104. locate
          105. logger
          106. login
          107. logname
          108. look
          109. lp
          110. lpq
          111. lpr
          112. lprm
          113. lpstat
          114. ls
          115. m4
          116. mail
          117. mailx
          118. make
          119. man
          120. mesg
          121. mkdir
          122. mkisofs
          123. mktemp
          124. more
          125. mount
          126. msgfmt
          127. mv
          128. nawk
          129. nice
          130. nl
          131. nm
          132. nohup
          133. nroff
          134. od
          135. passwd
          136. paste
          137. patch
          138. pathchk
          139. pax
          140. perl
          141. pr
          142. printenv
          143. printf
          144. ps
          145. pwd
          146. python
          147. r Commands
          148. rcs
          149. reset
          150. rm
          151. rmdir
          152. rsync
          153. samba
          154. scp
          155. screen
          156. script
          157. sdiff
          158. sed
          159. sftp
          160. sh
          161. size
          162. sleep
          163. soelim
          164. sort
          165. spell
          166. split
          167. ssh
          168. ssh-add
          169. ssh-agent
          170. ssh-keygen
          171. strings
          172. strip
          173. stty
          174. su
          175. tail
          176. talk
          177. tar
          178. tcsh
          179. tee
          180. telnet
          181. test
          182. time
          183. touch
          184. tr
          185. troff
          186. true
          187. tset
          188. tty
          189. type
          190. umask
          191. uname
          192. umount
          193. unexpand
          194. uniq
          195. units
          196. unix2dos
          197. unzip
          198. uptime
          199. users
          200. uudecode
          201. vi
          202. view
          203. vim
          204. vimdiff
          205. w
          206. wait
          207. wc
          208. whatis
          209. which
          210. who
          211. whoami
          212. xargs
          213. xgettext
          214. yacc
          215. zcat
          216. zip
          217. zipinfo
        3. 2.3. Alphabetical Summary of Solaris Commands
          1. cde
          2. cdrw
          3. chkey
          4. decrypt
          5. digest
          6. dircmp
          7. dis
          8. encrypt
          9. enhance
          10. filesync
          11. gpatch
          12. keylogin
          13. keylogout
          14. line
          15. listusers
          16. mac
          17. mount
          18. nawk
          19. openwin
          20. page
          21. ps
          22. rksh
          23. setpgrp
          24. sotruss
          25. timex
          26. truss
          27. umount
          28. vacation
          29. volcheck
          30. whocalls
        4. 2.4. Alphabetical Summary of GNU/Linux Commands
          1. aspell
          2. cdda2wav
          3. cdparanoia
          4. cdrdao
          5. cdrecord
          6. dir
          7. dircolors
          8. dvdrecord
          9. gawk
          10. gettextize
          11. igawk
          12. ispell
          13. ltrace
          14. lynx
          15. mac2unix
          16. md5sum
          17. mount
          18. mutt
          19. ooffice
          20. pdksh
          21. ps
          22. rename
          23. seq
          24. sha1sum
          25. shred
          26. skill
          27. slocate
          28. splint
          29. strace
          30. umount
          31. watch
          32. wget
          33. xmlto
        5. 2.5. Alphabetical Summary of Mac OS X Commands
          1. apply
          2. chflags
          3. chfn
          4. chpass
          5. chsh
          6. defaults
          7. developer
          8. ditto
          9. lam
          10. leave
          11. mount
          12. nano
          13. open-x11
          14. pbcopy
          15. pbpaste
          16. pico
          17. ps
          18. pstopdf
          19. pythonw
          20. say
          21. shar
          22. shlock
          23. srm
          24. umount
        6. 2.6. Alphabetical Summary of Java Commands
          1. appletviewer
          2. apt
          3. jar
          4. jarsigner
          5. java
          6. javac
          7. javadoc
          8. javah
          9. javap
          10. jdb
          11. keytool
          12. rmic
          13. rmid
          14. rmiregistry
      3. 3. The Unix Shell: An Overview
        1. 3.1. Introduction to the Shell
        2. 3.2. Purpose of the Shell
          1. 3.2.1. Interactive Use
          2. 3.2.2. Customization of Your Unix Session
          3. 3.2.3. Programming
        3. 3.3. Shell Flavors
          1. 3.3.1. Which Shell Do I Want?
        4. 3.4. Shell Source Code URLs
        5. 3.5. Common Features
        6. 3.6. Differing Features
      4. 4. The Bash and Korn Shells
        1. 4.1. Overview of Features
        2. 4.2. Invoking the Shell
          1. 4.2.1. Options
            1. 4.2.1.1. Common options
            2. 4.2.1.2. Bash options
          2. 4.2.2. Arguments
        3. 4.3. Syntax
          1. 4.3.1. Special Files
          2. 4.3.2. Filename Metacharacters
            1. 4.3.2.1. Examples
          3. 4.3.3. Quoting
            1. 4.3.3.1. Examples
          4. 4.3.4. Command Forms
            1. 4.3.4.1. Examples
          5. 4.3.5. Redirection Forms
            1. 4.3.5.1. Simple redirection
            2. 4.3.5.2. Redirection using file descriptors
            3. 4.3.5.3. Multiple redirection
            4. 4.3.5.4. Examples
          6. 4.3.6. Coprocesses
            1. 4.3.6.1. Examples
        4. 4.4. Functions
        5. 4.5. Variables
          1. 4.5.1. Variable Substitution
            1. 4.5.1.1. Examples
          2. 4.5.2. Built-in Shell Variables
          3. 4.5.3. Other Shell Variables
          4. 4.5.4. Arrays
          5. 4.5.5. Discipline Functions (ksh93 Only)
          6. 4.5.6. Special Prompt Strings
        6. 4.6. Arithmetic Expressions
          1. 4.6.1. Operators
          2. 4.6.2. Built-in Mathematical Functions (ksh93 Only)
          3. 4.6.3. Examples
        7. 4.7. Command History
          1. 4.7.1. Line-Edit Mode
            1. 4.7.1.1. Common editing keystrokes
          2. 4.7.2. The fc and hist Commands
            1. 4.7.2.1. Examples
          3. 4.7.3. Programmable Completion (Bash Only)
            1. 4.7.3.1. Examples
        8. 4.8. Job Control
        9. 4.9. Command Execution
        10. 4.10. Restricted Shells
        11. 4.11. Built-in Commands (Bash and Korn Shells)
          1. !
          2. #
          3. #!shell
          4. :
          5. .
          6. [[ ]]
          7. name ()
          8. alias
          9. autoload
          10. bind
          11. bg
          12. break
          13. builtin
          14. builtin
          15. caller
          16. case
          17. cd
          18. command
          19. compgen
          20. complete
          21. continue
          22. declare
          23. dirs
          24. disown
          25. disown
          26. do
          27. done
          28. echo
          29. echo
          30. enable
          31. esac
          32. eval
          33. exec
          34. exit
          35. export
          36. false
          37. fc
          38. fc
          39. fg
          40. fi
          41. for
          42. for
          43. function
          44. functions
          45. getconf
          46. getopts
          47. hash
          48. hash
          49. help
          50. hist
          51. history
          52. history
          53. if
          54. integer
          55. jobs
          56. kill
          57. let
          58. local
          59. login
          60. logout
          61. nameref
          62. nohup
          63. popd
          64. print
          65. printf
          66. pwd
          67. pushd
          68. r
          69. read
          70. readonly
          71. redirect
          72. return
          73. select
          74. set
          75. shopt
          76. shift
          77. sleep
          78. source
          79. stop
          80. suspend
          81. test
          82. time
          83. times
          84. times
          85. trap
          86. true
          87. type
          88. type
          89. typeset
          90. ulimit
          91. umask
          92. unalias
          93. unset
          94. until
          95. wait
          96. whence
          97. while
          98. filename
      5. 5. tcsh: An Extended C Shell
        1. 5.1. Overview of Features
        2. 5.2. Invoking the Shell
          1. 5.2.1. Options
          2. 5.2.2. Arguments
        3. 5.3. Syntax
          1. 5.3.1. Special Files
          2. 5.3.2. Filename Metacharacters
            1. 5.3.2.1. Examples
          3. 5.3.3. Quoting
            1. 5.3.3.1. Examples
          4. 5.3.4. Command Forms
            1. 5.3.4.1. Examples
          5. 5.3.5. Redirection Forms
            1. 5.3.5.1. Simple redirection
            2. 5.3.5.2. Multiple redirection
            3. 5.3.5.3. Examples
        4. 5.4. Variables
          1. 5.4.1. Variable Substitution
            1. 5.4.1.1. Examples
          2. 5.4.2. Variable Modifiers
            1. 5.4.2.1. Examples using pathname modifiers
            2. 5.4.2.2. Examples using quoting modifiers
          3. 5.4.3. Predefined Shell Variables
          4. 5.4.4. Formatting for the Prompt Variable
          5. 5.4.5. Sample .tcshrc File
          6. 5.4.6. Environment Variables
        5. 5.5. Expressions
          1. 5.5.1. Operators
            1. 5.5.1.1. Assignment operators
            2. 5.5.1.2. Arithmetic operators
            3. 5.5.1.3. Bitwise and logical operators
            4. 5.5.1.4. Comparison operators
            5. 5.5.1.5. File inquiry operators
          2. 5.5.2. Examples
        6. 5.6. Command History
          1. 5.6.1. Command Substitution
          2. 5.6.2. Command Substitution Examples
          3. 5.6.3. Word Substitution
          4. 5.6.4. Word Substitution Examples
          5. 5.6.5. History Modifiers
            1. 5.6.5.1. Printing, substitution, and quoting
            2. 5.6.5.2. Truncation
          6. 5.6.6. History Modifier Examples
          7. 5.6.7. Special Aliases
            1. 5.6.7.1. Examples
        7. 5.7. Command-Line Manipulation
          1. 5.7.1. Completion
          2. 5.7.2. Related Shell Variables
          3. 5.7.3. Related Command-Line Editor Commands
          4. 5.7.4. Related Shell Built-ins
          5. 5.7.5. Command-Line Editing
            1. 5.7.5.1. Emacs mode
            2. 5.7.5.2. vi mode
        8. 5.8. Job Control
        9. 5.9. Built-in Commands
          1. @
          2. #
          3. #!
          4. :
          5. alias
          6. alloc
          7. bg
          8. bindkey
          9. break
          10. breaksw
          11. built-ins
          12. bye
          13. case
          14. cd
          15. chdir
          16. complete
          17. continue
          18. default
          19. dirs
          20. echo
          21. echotc
          22. else
          23. end
          24. endif
          25. endsw
          26. eval
          27. exec
          28. exit
          29. fg
          30. filetest
          31. foreach
          32. glob
          33. goto
          34. hashstat
          35. history
          36. hup
          37. if
          38. jobs
          39. kill
          40. limit
          41. log
          42. login
          43. logout
          44. ls-F
          45. newgrp
          46. nice
          47. nohup
          48. notify
          49. onintr
          50. popd
          51. printenv
          52. pushd
          53. rehash
          54. repeat
          55. sched
          56. set
          57. setenv
          58. settc
          59. setty
          60. shift
          61. source
          62. stop
          63. suspend
          64. switch
          65. telltc
          66. termname
          67. time
          68. umask
          69. unalias
          70. uncomplete
          71. unhash
          72. unlimit
          73. unset
          74. unsetenv
          75. wait
          76. watchlog
          77. where
          78. which
          79. while
      6. 6. Package Management
        1. 6.1. Linux Package Management
        2. 6.2. The Red Hat Package Manager
          1. 6.2.1. RPM Package Concepts
          2. 6.2.2. The rpm Command
            1. 6.2.2.1. General options
            2. 6.2.2.2. Install, upgrade, and freshen options
            3. 6.2.2.3. Query options
            4. 6.2.2.4. Uninstall options
            5. 6.2.2.5. Verify options
            6. 6.2.2.6. Database rebuild options
            7. 6.2.2.7. Signature check options
            8. 6.2.2.8. Miscellaneous options
            9. 6.2.2.9. FTP/HTTP options
          3. 6.2.3. RPM Examples
          4. 6.2.4. The rpmbuild Command
            1. 6.2.4.1. rpmbuild options
        3. 6.3. Yum: Yellowdog Updater Modified
          1. 6.3.1. The yum Command
            1. 6.3.1.1. General options
          2. 6.3.2. Yum Command Summary
            1. check-update
            2. clean
            3. generate-rss
            4. groupinfo
            5. groupinstall
            6. grouplist
            7. groupremove
            8. groupupdate
            9. info
            10. install
            11. list
            12. localinstall
            13. localupdate
            14. makecache
            15. provides
            16. remove
            17. search
            18. update
            19. upgrade
            20. whatprovides
        4. 6.4. up2date: Red Hat Update Agent
          1. 6.4.1. Options
        5. 6.5. The Debian Package Manager
          1. 6.5.1. Files
          2. 6.5.2. Package Priorities
          3. 6.5.3. Package and Selection States
          4. 6.5.4. Package Flags
          5. 6.5.5. Scripts
          6. 6.5.6. Debian Package Manager Command Summary
            1. apt-cache
            2. apt-cdrom
            3. apt-config
            4. apt-extracttemplates
            5. apt-ftparchive
            6. apt-get
            7. apt-sortpkgs
            8. aptitude
            9. dpkg
            10. dpkg-deb
            11. dpkg-query
            12. dpkg-split
            13. dselect
            14. synaptic
        6. 6.6. Mac OS X Package Management
          1. 6.6.1. Fink and Fink Commander
          2. 6.6.2. The GNU Mac OS X Public Archive
          3. 6.6.3. Building from Source
        7. 6.7. Solaris Package Management
          1. 6.7.1. Solaris Package Management Command Summary
            1. installf
            2. pkgadd
            3. pkgadm
            4. pkgask
            5. pkgchk
            6. pkginfo
            7. pkgmk
            8. pkgparam
            9. pkgproto
            10. pkgrm
            11. removef
    3. II. Text Editing and Processing
      1. 7. Pattern Matching
        1. 7.1. Filenames Versus Patterns
        2. 7.2. Metacharacters
          1. 7.2.1. Search Patterns
          2. 7.2.2. Replacement Patterns
        3. 7.3. Metacharacters, Listed by Unix Program
        4. 7.4. Examples of Searching
          1. 7.4.1. Examples of Searching and Replacing
      2. 8. The Emacs Editor
        1. 8.1. Conceptual Overview
          1. 8.1.1. Modes
          2. 8.1.2. Buffer and Window
          3. 8.1.3. Point and Mark
          4. 8.1.4. Kill and Yank
          5. 8.1.5. Notes on the Tables
          6. 8.1.6. Absolutely Essential Commands
        2. 8.2. Command-Line Syntax
        3. 8.3. Summary of Commands by Group
          1. 8.3.1. File-Handling Commands
          2. 8.3.2. Cursor-Movement Commands
          3. 8.3.3. Deletion Commands
          4. 8.3.4. Paragraphs and Regions
          5. 8.3.5. Stopping and Undoing Commands
          6. 8.3.6. Transposition Commands
          7. 8.3.7. Search Commands
          8. 8.3.8. Capitalization Commands
          9. 8.3.9. Word-Abbreviation Commands
          10. 8.3.10. Buffer-Manipulation Commands
          11. 8.3.11. Window Commands
          12. 8.3.12. Special Shell Characters
          13. 8.3.13. Indentation Commands
          14. 8.3.14. Centering Commands
          15. 8.3.15. Macro Commands
          16. 8.3.16. Basic Indentation Commands
          17. 8.3.17. Detail Information Help Commands
          18. 8.3.18. Help Commands
        4. 8.4. Summary of Commands by Key
          1. 8.4.1. Control-Key Sequences
          2. 8.4.2. Meta-Key Sequences
        5. 8.5. Summary of Commands by Name
      3. 9. The vi, ex, and vim Editors
        1. 9.1. Conceptual Overview
        2. 9.2. Command-Line Syntax
          1. 9.2.1. Command-Line Options
        3. 9.3. Review of vi Operations
          1. 9.3.1. Command Mode
          2. 9.3.2. Insert Mode
          3. 9.3.3. Syntax of vi Commands
            1. 9.3.3.1. Examples
            2. 9.3.3.2. Visual mode (vim only)
          4. 9.3.4. Status-Line Commands
        4. 9.4. vi Commands
          1. 9.4.1. Movement Commands
            1. 9.4.1.1. Character
            2. 9.4.1.2. Text
            3. 9.4.1.3. Lines
            4. 9.4.1.4. Screens
            5. 9.4.1.5. Searches
            6. 9.4.1.6. Line numbering
            7. 9.4.1.7. Marks
          2. 9.4.2. Insert Commands
          3. 9.4.3. Edit Commands
            1. 9.4.3.1. Changing and deleting text
            2. 9.4.3.2. Copying and moving
          4. 9.4.4. Saving and Exiting
          5. 9.4.5. Accessing Multiple Files
          6. 9.4.6. Window Commands (vim)
          7. 9.4.7. Interacting with the System
          8. 9.4.8. Macros
          9. 9.4.9. Miscellaneous Commands
        5. 9.5. vi Configuration
          1. 9.5.1. The :set Command
          2. 9.5.2. Options Used by :set
          3. 9.5.3. Example .exrc File
        6. 9.6. ex Basics
          1. 9.6.1. Syntax of ex Commands
          2. 9.6.2. Addresses
          3. 9.6.3. Address Symbols
          4. 9.6.4. Options
        7. 9.7. Alphabetical Summary of ex Commands
          1. abbreviate
          2. append
          3. args
          4. bdelete
          5. buffer
          6. buffers
          7. cd
          8. center
          9. change
          10. close
          11. copy
          12. delete
          13. edit
          14. file
          15. fold
          16. foldclose
          17. foldopen
          18. global
          19. hide
          20. insert
          21. join
          22. jumps
          23. k
          24. left
          25. list
          26. map
          27. mark
          28. marks
          29. mkexrc
          30. move
          31. new
          32. next
          33. nohlsearch
          34. number
          35. only
          36. open
          37. preserve
          38. previous
          39. print
          40. put
          41. qall
          42. quit
          43. read
          44. read
          45. recover
          46. redo
          47. resize
          48. rewind
          49. right
          50. sbnext
          51. sbuffer
          52. set
          53. shell
          54. snext
          55. source
          56. split
          57. sprevious
          58. stop
          59. substitute
          60. suspend
          61. sview
          62. t
          63. tag
          64. tags
          65. unabbreviate
          66. undo
          67. unhide
          68. unmap
          69. v
          70. version
          71. view
          72. visual
          73. visual
          74. vsplit
          75. wall
          76. wnext
          77. write
          78. write
          79. wq
          80. wqall
          81. X
          82. xit
          83. yank
          84. z
          85. &
          86. @
          87. =
          88. !
          89. < >
          90. ~
          91. address
          92. ENTER
      4. 10. The sed Editor
        1. 10.1. Conceptual Overview
          1. 10.1.1. Typical Uses of sed
          2. 10.1.2. sed Operation
        2. 10.2. Command-Line Syntax
          1. 10.2.1. Standard Options
          2. 10.2.2. GNU sed Options
        3. 10.3. Syntax of sed Commands
          1. 10.3.1. Pattern Addressing
          2. 10.3.2. Examples
          3. 10.3.3. GNU sed Regular Expression Extensions
        4. 10.4. Group Summary of sed Commands
          1. 10.4.1. Basic Editing
          2. 10.4.2. Line Information
          3. 10.4.3. Input/Output Processing
          4. 10.4.4. Yanking and Putting
          5. 10.4.5. Branching Commands
          6. 10.4.6. Multiline Input Processing
        5. 10.5. Alphabetical Summary of sed Commands
          1. #
          2. :
          3. =
          4. a
          5. b
          6. c
          7. d
          8. D
          9. e
          10. g
          11. G
          12. h
          13. H
          14. i
          15. l
          16. n
          17. N
          18. p
          19. P
          20. q
          21. Q
          22. r
          23. R
          24. s
          25. t
          26. T
          27. v
          28. w
          29. W
          30. x
          31. y
      5. 11. The awk Programming Language
        1. 11.1. Conceptual Overview
        2. 11.2. Command-Line Syntax
          1. 11.2.1. Standard Options
          2. 11.2.2. Important gawk Options
        3. 11.3. Patterns and Procedures
          1. 11.3.1. Patterns
          2. 11.3.2. Procedures
          3. 11.3.3. Simple Pattern-Action Examples
        4. 11.4. Built-in Variables
        5. 11.5. Operators
        6. 11.6. Variable and Array Assignment
          1. 11.6.1. Escape Sequences
          2. 11.6.2. Octal and Hexadecimal Constants in gawk
        7. 11.7. User-Defined Functions
        8. 11.8. Gawk-Specific Features
          1. 11.8.1. Coprocesses and Sockets
          2. 11.8.2. Profiling
          3. 11.8.3. File Inclusion
          4. 11.8.4. Internationalization
        9. 11.9. Implementation Limits
        10. 11.10. Group Listing of awk Functions and Commands
        11. 11.11. Alphabetical Summary of awk Functions and Commands
          1. #
          2. and
          3. asort
          4. asorti
          5. atan2
          6. bindtextdomain
          7. break
          8. close
          9. compl
          10. continue
          11. cos
          12. dcgettext
          13. dcngettext
          14. delete
          15. do
          16. exit
          17. exp
          18. extension
          19. fflush
          20. for
          21. for
          22. function
          23. gensub
          24. getline
          25. gsub
          26. if
          27. index
          28. int
          29. length
          30. log
          31. lshift
          32. match
          33. mktime
          34. next
          35. nextfile
          36. or
          37. print
          38. printf
          39. rand
          40. return
          41. rshift
          42. sin
          43. split
          44. sprintf
          45. sqrt
          46. srand
          47. strftime
          48. strtonum
          49. sub
          50. substr
          51. system
          52. systime
          53. tolower
          54. toupper
          55. while
          56. xor
        12. 11.12. Output Redirections
          1. 11.12.1. printf Formats
        13. 11.13. Source Code
    4. III. Software Development
      1. 12. Source Code Management: An Overview
        1. 12.1. Introduction and Terminology
        2. 12.2. Usage Models
        3. 12.3. Unix Source Code Management Systems
        4. 12.4. Other Source Code Management Systems
      2. 13. The Revision Control System
        1. 13.1. Overview of Commands
        2. 13.2. Basic Operation
        3. 13.3. General RCS Specifications
          1. 13.3.1. Keyword Substitution
          2. 13.3.2. Keywords
          3. 13.3.3. Example Values
          4. 13.3.4. Revision Numbering
          5. 13.3.5. Specifying the Date
          6. 13.3.6. Specifying States
          7. 13.3.7. Standard Options and Environment Variables
        4. 13.4. Alphabetical Summary of Commands
          1. ci
          2. co
          3. ident
          4. merge
          5. rcs
          6. rcsclean
          7. rcsdiff
          8. rcsfreeze
          9. rcsmerge
          10. rlog
      3. 14. The Concurrent Versions System
        1. 14.1. Conceptual Overview
          1. 14.1.1. CVS Wrappers
          2. 14.1.2. Stickiness
        2. 14.2. Command-Line Syntax and Options
          1. 14.2.1. cvs Options
          2. 14.2.2. Common Subcommand Options
        3. 14.3. Dot Files
        4. 14.4. Environment Variables
          1. 14.4.1. Client Environment Variables
          2. 14.4.2. Server Environment Variables
        5. 14.5. Keywords and Keyword Modes
        6. 14.6. Dates
          1. 14.6.1. Legal Date Formats
            1. 14.6.1.1. ISO 8601
            2. 14.6.1.2. RFC 822 and RFC 1123
          2. 14.6.2. Legal Date Keywords
          3. 14.6.3. Time Zones
        7. 14.7. CVSROOT Variables
          1. 14.7.1. Environment Variables in CVSROOT Files
          2. 14.7.2. Internal Variables in CVSROOT Files
          3. 14.7.3. Shell Variables in CVSROOT Files
        8. 14.8. Alphabetical Summary of Commands
          1. add
          2. admin
          3. annotate
          4. checkout
          5. commit
          6. diff
          7. edit
          8. editors
          9. export
          10. history
          11. import
          12. init
          13. kserver
          14. log
          15. login
          16. logout
          17. pserver
          18. rannotate
          19. rdiff
          20. release
          21. remove
          22. rlog
          23. rtag
          24. server
          25. status
          26. tag
          27. unedit
          28. update
          29. version
          30. watch
          31. watchers
      4. 15. The Subversion Version Control System
        1. 15.1. Conceptual Overview
          1. 15.1.1. Basic Version Control Operations
          2. 15.1.2. Building a Better CVS
          3. 15.1.3. Converting a Repository from CVS to Subversion
          4. 15.1.4. Special File Properties
        2. 15.2. Obtaining Subversion
          1. 15.2.1. Subversion Releases
          2. 15.2.2. A View Down the Road
          3. 15.2.3. Source Code
        3. 15.3. Using Subversion: A Quick Tour
        4. 15.4. The Subversion Command Line Client: svn
          1. 15.4.1. svn Options
          2. 15.4.2. svn Subcommands
            1. add
            2. blame
            3. cat
            4. checkout
            5. cleanup
            6. commit
            7. copy
            8. delete
            9. diff
            10. export
            11. help
            12. import
            13. info
            14. list
            15. log
            16. merge
            17. mkdir
            18. move
            19. propdel
            20. propedit
            21. propget
            22. proplist
            23. propset
            24. resolved
            25. revert
            26. status
            27. switch
            28. update
        5. 15.5. Repository Administration: svnadmin
          1. 15.5.1. svnadmin Options
          2. 15.5.2. svnadmin Subcommands
            1. create
            2. deltify
            3. dump
            4. help
            5. hotcopy
            6. list-dblogs
            7. list-unused-dblogs
            8. load
            9. lstxns
            10. recover
            11. rmtxns
            12. setlog
            13. verify
        6. 15.6. Examining the Repository: svnlook
          1. 15.6.1. svnlook Options
          2. 15.6.2. svnlook Subcommands
            1. author
            2. cat
            3. changed
            4. date
            5. diff
            6. dirs-changed
            7. help
            8. history
            9. info
            10. log
            11. propget
            12. proplist
            13. tree
            14. uuid
            15. youngest
        7. 15.7. Providing Remote Access: svnserve
          1. 15.7.1. svnserve Options
        8. 15.8. Other Subversion Components
          1. svndumpfilter
          2. svnversion
      5. 16. The GNU make Utility
        1. 16.1. Conceptual Overview
        2. 16.2. Command-Line Syntax
          1. 16.2.1. Options
        3. 16.3. Makefile Lines
          1. 16.3.1. Special Dependencies
          2. 16.3.2. Conditional Input
        4. 16.4. Macros
          1. 16.4.1. Creating and Using Macros
            1. 16.4.1.1. Defining macros
            2. 16.4.1.2. Macro values
            3. 16.4.1.3. Exporting macros
            4. 16.4.1.4. Overriding command-line macros
          2. 16.4.2. Internal Macros
          3. 16.4.3. Macro Modifiers
          4. 16.4.4. Macros with Special Handling
          5. 16.4.5. Text Manipulation with Macros and Functions
        5. 16.5. Special Target Names
        6. 16.6. Writing Command Lines
      6. 17. The GDB Debugger
        1. 17.1. Conceptual Overview
          1. 17.1.1. Source Code Locations
        2. 17.2. Command-Line Syntax
        3. 17.3. Initialization Files
          1. 17.3.1. The .gdbinit File
          2. 17.3.2. The .inputrc File
        4. 17.4. GDB Expressions
          1. 17.4.1. The Value History
          2. 17.4.2. Convenience Variables and Machine Registers
          3. 17.4.3. Special Expressions
        5. 17.5. The GDB Text User Interface
        6. 17.6. Group Listing of GDB Commands
          1. 17.6.1. Aliases for Other Commands
          2. 17.6.2. Breakpoints
          3. 17.6.3. Examining Data
          4. 17.6.4. Controlling and Examining Files
          5. 17.6.5. Running a Program
          6. 17.6.6. Examining the Stack
          7. 17.6.7. Status Inquiries
          8. 17.6.8. Support Facilities
          9. 17.6.9. Text User Interface Commands
          10. 17.6.10. Frequently Used Commands
        7. 17.7. Summary of set and show Commands
          1. annotate
          2. architecture
          3. args
          4. auto-solib-add
          5. auto-solib-limit
          6. backtrace
          7. breakpoint
          8. can-use-hw-watchpoints
          9. case-sensitive
          10. coerce-float-to-double
          11. commands
          12. complaints
          13. confirm
          14. convenience
          15. copying
          16. cp-abi
          17. debug-file-directory
          18. demangle-style
          19. directories
          20. disassembly-flavor
          21. editing
          22. environment
          23. exec-done-display
          24. extension-language
          25. follow-fork-mode
          26. gnutarget
          27. height
          28. history
          29. input-radix
          30. language
          31. listsize
          32. logging
          33. max-user-call-depth
          34. opaque-type-resolution
          35. osabi
          36. output-radix
          37. overload-resolution
          38. pagination
          39. paths
          40. print
          41. prompt
          42. radix
          43. scheduler-locking
          44. solib-absolute-prefix
          45. solib-search-path
          46. step-mode
          47. stop-on-solib-events
          48. symbol-reloading
          49. trust-readonly-sections
          50. tui
          51. values
          52. variable
          53. verbose
          54. version
          55. warranty
          56. watchdog
          57. width
          58. write
        8. 17.8. Summary of the info Command
        9. 17.9. Alphabetical Summary of GDB Commands
          1. add-symbol-file
          2. advance
          3. apropos
          4. attach
          5. awatch
          6. backtrace
          7. break
          8. call
          9. catch
          10. cd
          11. clear
          12. commands
          13. complete
          14. condition
          15. continue
          16. core-file
          17. define
          18. delete
          19. detach
          20. directory
          21. disable
          22. disassemble
          23. display
          24. document
          25. dont-repeat
          26. down
          27. down-silently
          28. echo
          29. edit
          30. else
          31. enable
          32. end
          33. exec-file
          34. fg
          35. file
          36. finish
          37. focus
          38. forward-search
          39. frame
          40. generate-core-file
          41. handle
          42. hbreak
          43. help
          44. if
          45. ignore
          46. inspect
          47. info
          48. jump
          49. kill
          50. layout
          51. list
          52. macro
          53. make
          54. mem
          55. next
          56. nexti
          57. nosharedlibrary
          58. output
          59. path
          60. print
          61. print-object
          62. printf
          63. ptype
          64. pwd
          65. quit
          66. rbreak
          67. refresh
          68. return
          69. reverse-search
          70. run
          71. rwatch
          72. search
          73. section
          74. select-frame
          75. set
          76. sharedlibrary
          77. shell
          78. show
          79. signal
          80. silent
          81. source
          82. step
          83. stepi
          84. symbol-file
          85. tbreak
          86. tcatch
          87. thbreak
          88. thread
          89. tty
          90. tui
          91. undisplay
          92. unset
          93. until
          94. up
          95. up-silently
          96. update
          97. watch
          98. whatis
          99. where
          100. while
          101. winheight
          102. x
      7. 18. Writing Manual Pages
        1. 18.1. Introduction
        2. 18.2. Overview of nroff/troff
          1. 18.2.1. Command-Line Invocation
            1. 18.2.1.1. Example
          2. 18.2.2. Conceptual Overview
            1. 18.2.2.1. Requests and macros
            2. 18.2.2.2. Specifying measurements
            3. 18.2.2.3. Requests that cause a line break
            4. 18.2.2.4. Embedded formatting controls
          3. 18.2.3. Outline of Useful Requests
          4. 18.2.4. Useful Escape Sequences
          5. 18.2.5. Special Characters
        3. 18.3. Alphabetical Summary of man Macros
          1. .B
          2. .BI
          3. .BR
          4. .DT
          5. .HP
          6. .I
          7. .IB
          8. .IP
          9. .IR
          10. .LP
          11. .P
          12. .PD
          13. .PP
          14. .RB
          15. .RE
          16. .RI
          17. .RS
          18. .SB
          19. .SH
          20. .SM
          21. .SS
          22. .TH
          23. .TP
        4. 18.4. Predefined Strings
        5. 18.5. Internal Names
        6. 18.6. Sample Document
    5. IV. References
      1. A. ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1) Character Set
      2. B. Bibliography
        1. Unix Descriptions and Programmer's Manuals
        2. Unix Internals
        3. System and Network Administration
        4. Programming with the Unix Mindset
        5. Programming Languages
        6. TCP/IP Networking
        7. Software Development
        8. Emacs
        9. Standards
        10. O'Reilly Books
    6. Index
    7. Colophon