Cover image for Unix Backup and Recovery

Book description

Unix Backup & Recovery provides a complete overview of all facets of Unix backup and recovery, and offers practical, affordable backup and recovery solutions for environments of all sizes and budgets. The book begins with detailed explanations of the native backup utilities available to the Unix administrator, and ends with practical advice on choosing a commercial backup utility. This book:

  • Describes the features, limitations, and syntax of Unix backup and restore utilities,(including dump, tar, cpio, dd, GNUtar, and GNUcpio) for many popular versions of Unix, including AIX, Compaq Unix, HP-UX, IRIX, SCO, Solaris, and Linux

  • Provides instructions for installing and configuring freely available backup systems such as AMANDA

  • Includes ready-to-run shell scripts that automate live backups of Informix, Oracle, and Sybase databases

  • Presents step-by-step recovery procedures for Oracle, Informix, and Sybase

  • Presents step-by-step "bare-metal" disaster recovery procedures for AIX, Compaq Unix, HP-UX, IRIX, Solaris, and Linux

  • Describes the design of "disaster recovery" and "highly available" systems

  • Provides guidance on choosing a commercial backup and recovery system

  • Describes the features and limitations of backup hardware

Table of Contents

  1. Unix Backup and Recovery
    1. Preface
      1. I Wish I Had This Book
      2. Only the Recovery Matters
      3. Products Change
      4. Backing Up Databases Is Not That Hard
      5. Bare-Metal Recovery Is Not That Hard
      6. The Scripts in This Book Actually Work
      7. How This Book is Organized
        1. Part I
        2. Part II
        3. Part III
        4. Part IV
        5. Part V
        6. Part VI
      8. Conventions
      9. How to Contact Us
      10. This Book Was a Team Effort
        1. I Don’t Know It All
        2. How Can I Say Thanks?
    2. I. Introduction
      1. 1. Preparing for the Worst
        1. My Dad Was Right
        2. Developing a Disaster Recovery Plan
        3. Step 1: Define (Un)acceptable Loss
          1. Classify Your Data
          2. Assign a Monetary Value to Your Data
          3. Weigh the Cost
        4. Step 2: Back Up Everything
          1. Exclude Lists Good, Include Lists Bad
          2. Databases
          3. Backups of Your Backups
          4. Metadata
        5. Step 3: Organize Everything
          1. Standardized Server/Disk Layout
          2. Media Organization
          3. Put Electronic Documentation in One Place
        6. Step 4: Protect Against Disasters
          1. Protect the Media and Documentation
            1. On-site vault systems
            2. Off-site storage companies
          2. A Cure for What Ails You . . .
          3. Protect the Business
        7. Step 5: Document What You Have Done
          1. Document in a Portable Format
        8. Step 6: Test, Test, Test
        9. Put It All Together
      2. 2. Backing It All Up
        1. Don’t Skip This Chapter!
          1. Why the Word “Volume” Instead of “Tape”?
        2. Why Should You Read This Book?
          1. You Never Want to Say These Words
          2. Backup Technology Has Evolved
        3. How Serious Is Your Company About Backups?
          1. What Will Lost Data Cost You?
          2. What Will Downtime Cost You?
        4. You Can Find a Balance
          1. Don’t Go Overboard
          2. Get the Coverage That You Need
          3. The Impossible Job That No One Wants
        5. Deciding What to Back Up
          1. Plan for the Worst
          2. Take an Inventory
          3. Are You Backing Up What You Think You’re Backing Up?
          4. Back Up All or Part of the System?
            1. Backing up only selected filesystems
            2. Backing up the entire system
        6. Deciding When to Back Up
          1. Backup Levels
          2. Which Levels Do You Run and When?
            1. Weekly schedule: all full (level 0) backups
            2. Weekly schedule: weekly full, daily level 1s
            3. Weekly schedule: weekly full, daily leveled backups
            4. Weekly schedule: monthly full, daily Tower of Hanoi incrementals
          3. “In the Middle of the Night . . .”
        7. Deciding How to Back Up
          1. Be Ready for Anything: Ten Types of Disasters
          2. High Availability Versus Disaster Recoverability
          3. Automate Your Backup
          4. Plan for Expansion
          5. Don’t Forget About mtime, atime, and ctime
            1. Backups change atime
            2. The atime can be reset—with a penalty
          6. Keep It Simple, SA
        8. Storing Your Backups
          1. Storage in General
          2. On-Site Storage
            1. 12,000 gold pieces
          3. Off-Site Storage
            1. Choosing an off-site storage vendor
            2. Testing your chosen vendor
            3. Using real-time off-site storage
        9. Testing Your Backups
          1. Test Everything!
          2. Test Often
        10. Monitoring Your Backups
          1. You Can Always Make It Better
          2. “Don’t Fix What Ain’t Broken . . .”
        11. Following Proper Development Procedures
        12. Unrelated Miscellanea
          1. Protect Your Career
            1. Self-preservation: document, document, document
            2. Strategy: make backups an integral part of the installation process
          2. Get the Money Your Backups Need
            1. Be ready . . .
            2. Make a formal presentation
        13. Good Luck
    3. II. Freely Available Filesystem Backup & Recovery Utilities
      1. 3. Native Backup & Recovery Utilities
        1. An Overview
          1. The dump and restore Utilities
          2. The cpio Utility
            1. Why isn’t cpio more popular?
          3. The tar Utility
          4. The dd Utility
          5. Other Utilities
            1. pax
            2. fbackup
        2. Backing Up with the dump Utility
          1. Syntax of the dump Command
          2. The Options to the dump Command
            1. Option: specifying a complete or incremental backup (0-9)
            2. Option: specifying a blocking factor (b)
            3. Option: updating the dumpdates file (u)
            4. Option: notifying your backup operators (n)
            5. Option: specifying density and size ( d and s)
              1. d (density)
              2. s (“tape” size in feet)
            6. Do I have to use the s and d options?
            7. Option: specifying a backup device file ( f )
            8. Option: displaying which filesystems need to be backed up (W and w)
            9. Other options: interesting options for Solaris’s ufsdump utility
          3. What a dump Backup Looks Like
            1. dump records an index on the volume
            2. Using the index to create a table of contents
          4. Automating Your dump Backups: The hostdump.sh Utility
            1. Including or excluding special-case filesystems
            2. Handling systems bigger than a single volume
        3. Restoring with the restore Utility
          1. Is the Backup Volume Readable?
          2. Blocking Factor
          3. Byte-Order Differences
          4. Different Versions of dump
          5. Syntax of the restore Command
          6. The Options to the restore Command
            1. Determining the type of restore
            2. Determining how the restore behaves
            3. Option: creating a dump volume table of contents (t)
            4. Option: performing a complete (recursive) filesystem restore (r)
            5. Option: restoring files by name (x)
            6. Option: restoring files interactively (i)
            7. Option: restoring files to another location
            8. Option: requesting verbose output (v)
            9. Option: skipping files (s)
            10. Option: specifying a blocking factor ( b )
            11. Option: specifying a backup drive or file ( f )
            12. Option: specifying no query during restore ( y)
        4. Limitations of dump and restore
        5. Features to Check For
        6. Backing Up and Restoring with the cpio Utility
          1. Syntax of cpio When Backing Up
          2. The Options to the cpio Command
            1. Option: specifying the output mode (o)
            2. Option: restoring access times (a)
            3. Option: specifying the ASCII format (c)
            4. Option: requesting verbose output (v)
            5. Option: specifying a blocking factor of 5120 (B)
            6. Option: specifying an I/O block size (C)
            7. Option: Specifying an output device or file (O)
            8. Backing up to a remote device (piping to an rsh command)
          3. Restoring with cpio
            1. Different versions of cpio
            2. Byte-order problems
            3. Wrong header type
            4. Strange block size
            5. Full or partial restore, or table of contents only?
          4. cpio’s Restore Options
          5. Telling cpio Which Device to Use
          6. Examples of a cpio Restore
            1. Listing the files on a cpio volume
            2. Doing an entire filesystem restore
            3. Doing a pattern-match restore
            4. Renaming files interactively
            5. Other useful options
            6. Restoring to a different directory
          7. Using cpio’s “Directory Copy” Feature
        7. Backing Up and Restoring with the tar Utility
          1. Syntax of tar when Backing Up
          2. The Options to the tar Command
            1. Listing files on standard input
          3. Syntax of tar When Restoring
            1. Restoring selected parts of the archive
            2. Tricking tar into using wildcards during a restore
            3. Changing ownership, permissions, etc. during a restore
          4. Some Other Neat Things About tar
            1. Finding everything that’s under the directory
            2. Using tar to move a directory
            3. Restoring to an alternate location
        8. Backing Up and Restoring with the dd Utility
          1. Basic dd Options
            1. Option: specifying the input file
            2. Option: specifying the output file
            3. Option: specifying the block size
            4. Option: specifying the input and output block sizes separately
            5. Option: specifying the number of records to read
          2. Using dd to Copy a File or Raw Device
          3. Using dd to Convert Data
            1. Converting data to go into another command
            2. Converting data that is in the wrong format
          4. Using dd and rsh (or ssh) as a Conduit Between Systems
            1. Reading a backup on a remote device
            2. Writing a backup to a remote device
            3. If you are not able to use rsh
          5. Using dd to Determine the Block Size of a Tape
          6. Using dd to Figure out the Backup Format
        9. Comparing tar, cpio, and dump
        10. How Do I Read This Volume?
          1. Prepare in Advance
          2. Wrong Media Type
          3. Bad or Dirty Drive
          4. Different Drive Types
          5. Wrong Compression Setting/Type
          6. The Little Endian That Couldn’t
          7. Block Size (Tape Volumes Only)
            1. What is a block and why should I care?
            2. Determine the blocking factor
            3. AIX and its 512-byte block size
          8. Unknown Backup Format
          9. Different Backup Format
          10. Damaged Volume
            1. The badtar utility
            2. Reading a “flaky” tape
            3. Send me your tips!
          11. Multiple Partitions on a Tape
          12. If at First You Don’t Succeed . . .
      2. 4. Free Backup Utilities
        1. The hostdump.sh Utility
        2. The infback.sh, oraback.sh, and syback.sh Utilities
        3. A Really Fast tar Utility: star
        4. Recording Configuration Data: The SysAudit Utility
        5. Displaying Host Information: The SysInfo Utility
        6. Performing Remote Detections: The queso Utility
        7. Mapping Your Network: The nmap Utility
        8. AMANDA
          1. AMANDA Features
          2. Future Capabilities of AMANDA
          3. AMANDA Resources
          4. Installing AMANDA
            1. Install related packages
            2. Perform preliminary setup
            3. Configure the AMANDA build
            4. Build and install AMANDA
          5. Configuring AMANDA
            1. Decide on a tape server
            2. Decide which tape devices to use
            3. Decide whether to use compression
            4. Decide where the holding space will be
            5. Compute your dump cycle
            6. Copy and edit the default configuration file
            7. Configure the holding disk
            8. Configure tape devices and label tapes
            9. Configure backup clients
            10. Test and debug setup
          6. Operating AMANDA
            1. Run amdump
            2. Read AMANDA’s reports
            3. Monitor tape and holding disk status
            4. Adding tapes at a particular position in the cycle
            5. Miscellaneous operational notes
          7. Advanced AMANDA Configuration
            1. Adjust the backup cycle
            2. Adjust parallelism
            3. Monitor for possible improvements
            4. Excluding files
          8. Restoring with AMANDA
            1. Configuring and using amrecover
            2. Using amrestore
            3. Restoring without AMANDA
    4. III. Commercial Filesystem Backup & Recovery Utilities
      1. 5. Commercial Backup Utilities
        1. What to Look For
        2. Full Support of Your Platforms
          1. Should You Back Up Device Files?
          2. Does It Support DCE/DFS?
        3. Backup of Raw Partitions
        4. Backup of Very Large Filesystems and Files
        5. Simultaneous Backup of Many Clients to One Drive
          1. File-Level Parallelism
          2. Block-Level Parallelism
        6. Simultaneous Backup of One Client to Many Drives
          1. The Do-It-Yourself Plan
          2. A Much Better Method
        7. Data Requiring Special Treatment
          1. Network-Mounted Filesystems
          2. Custom User Scripts
          3. Unix Databases
          4. Windows 2000 Databases
        8. Storage Management Features
          1. Archiving
          2. Hierarchical Storage Management
        9. Reduction in Network Traffic
          1. Keep Backup Traffic at the Subnet Level
          2. Use Client-Side Compression
          3. Incorporate Throttling
          4. Storage Area Networks
          5. Serverless Backup
          6. SANs Are Here to Stay
        10. Support of a Standard or Custom Backup Format
          1. Native Backup Formats
            1. The dump utility
            2. The tar and cpio utilities
          2. Custom Backup Formats
            1. SIDF: a compromise?
          3. A Reality Check
        11. Ease of Administration
        12. Security
          1. Sockets or rsh?
            1. Encryption?
        13. Ease of Recovery
        14. Protection of the Backup Index
        15. Robustness
        16. Automation
        17. Volume Verification
        18. Cost
        19. Vendor
        20. Conclusions
      2. 6. High Availability
        1. What Is High Availability?
          1. Overview
          2. How Is HA Different from Fault-Tolerant Solutions?
          3. How Is HA Different from Mirroring?
          4. Can HA Be Handled Across a LAN/WAN?
          5. Why Would I Need an HA Solution?
        2. HA Building Blocks
          1. Volume Management
          2. Journaling Filesystem
            1. Checkpoints
            2. Rolling forward
        3. Commercial HA Solutions
          1. Currently Available HA Products
          2. Designing, Installing, and Maintaining an HA System
            1. Configuring your system
            2. Testing and monitoring your system
        4. The Impact of an HA Solution
          1. What Are the Pros and Cons of HA?
          2. What Does an HA Solution Cost?
          3. How Can I Protect My Off-the-Shelf Software?
          4. Can I Build an HA Solution Myself?
          5. My HA System Is Set Up, Now What?
    5. IV. Bare-Metal Backup & Recovery Methods
      1. 7. SunOS/Solaris
        1. What About Fire?
        2. Homegrown Bare-Metal Recovery
          1. What Is the Boot Block?
          2. On What Platforms Will This Procedure Work?
          3. Before Disaster Strikes
          4. After a Disaster
          5. Am I Crazy?
        3. Recovering a SunOS/Solaris System
          1. Preparing for Disaster
          2. Disaster Strikes!
          3. Recovering from the Disaster
      2. 8. Linux
        1. How It Works
          1. Back Up the Important Metadata
          2. Back Up the Operating System with a Native Utility
          3. Boot the System from Alternate Media
            1. Intel Linux
            2. Sparc Linux
            3. Alpha Linux
          4. Partition and Format the New Root Drive
          5. Restore the Operating System to the New Root Disk
          6. Restore the Boot Block Information
        2. A Sample Bare-Metal Recovery
          1. Performing the Backup
          2. Perform the Recovery
            1. Boot the system
            2. Restore the partition information
            3. Partition the new root drive
            4. Change the partition types
            5. Make a filesystem on the root drive
            6. Restore the operating system
            7. Restore the master boot record
      3. 9. Compaq Tru64 Unix
        1. Compaq’s btcreate Utility
          1. The btcreate Command
          2. Using the Bootable Tape
        2. Homegrown Bare-Metal Recovery
          1. Before Disaster Strikes
          2. After Disaster
      4. 10. HP-UX
        1. HP’s make_recovery Utility
          1. make_recovery Requirements
          2. Ignite-UX Issues
          3. Using Ignite-UX’s make_recovery Command
            1. Including user data in the make_recovery tape
            2. make_recovery output
            3. Recovery procedure
        2. The copyutil Utility
          1. copyutil Requirements
          2. copyutil Issues
          3. Using copyutil
        3. Using dump and restore
          1. Preparing the System for Recovery
          2. Recovering the System
            1. Postinstallation recovery tasks
      5. 11. IRIX
        1. SGI’s Backup and Restore Utilities
          1. Standard Backup Commands
          2. Making Bootable Tapes
            1. Two tape drives
            2. One tape drive
            3. CD-ROM and tape drive
        2. System Recovery with Backup Tape
          1. Older SGI Systems
            1. Newer SGI systems
        3. Homegrown Bare-Metal Recovery
      6. 12. AIX
        1. IBM’s mksysb Utility
          1. How mksysb Works
          2. Using mksysb
            1. Getting ready
            2. Starting mksysb
            3. mksysb to a remote tape drive
            4. Checking and restoring data from a mksysb image
        2. IBM’s Sysback/6000 Utility
          1. Features
          2. Installing Sysback
          3. Overview of Sysback Menu Options
          4. Backing Up Your System
            1. Choosing the backup type
            2. Backing up to a file
            3. Deciding on other backup options
          5. Verifying and Listing Backup Content
          6. Restoring Data
        3. System Cloning
          1. AIX 3.2.x Operating System
          2. AIX 4.x Operating System
    6. V. Database Backup & Recovery
      1. 13. Backing Up Databases
        1. Can It Be Done?
        2. Confusion: The Mysteries of Database Architecture
        3. The Muck Stops Here: Databases in Plain English
        4. What’s the Big Deal?
        5. Database Structure
          1. The Power User’s View: Logical Elements of a Database
            1. Instance
            2. Database
            3. Table
            4. Index
            5. BLOB space
            6. Object
            7. Row
            8. Attribute
          2. The DBA’s View: Physical Elements of a Database Environment
            1. Page
            2. Datafile
            3. Extents
            4. Fragment
            5. Tablespace
            6. Dataspace
            7. Partition
            8. Master database
            9. Transaction
            10. Rollback log
            11. Transaction log
            12. Checkpoint
        6. An Overview of a Page Change
        7. What Can Happen to an RDBMS?
        8. Backing Up an RDBMS
          1. Physical and Logical Backups
          2. Get Every Instance
          3. Transaction Log Dumps Are Not Incremental Backups
          4. Do-It-Yourself: Creating Your Own Backup Utility
            1. Intermediary disk
            2. Dedicated backup drive
            3. Shell scripts
          5. Calling a Professional
          6. The Big Three
            1. Informix
            2. Oracle
            3. Sybase
        9. Restoring an RDBMS
          1. Loss of Any Nondata Disk
          2. Loss of a Data Disk
          3. Online Partial Restores
        10. Documentation and Testing
        11. Unique Database Requirements
      2. 14. Informix Backup & Recovery
        1. Informix Architecture
          1. Power User’s View
            1. Instance
            2. Database
            3. Table or index
          2. DBA’s View
            1. BLOB space
            2. Chunk
            3. Page
            4. Extent
            5. tblspace
            6. Tablespace
            7. dbspace
            8. Fragment
            9. sysmaster database
            10. Transaction
            11. LRU queue
            12. Physical log
            13. Logical log
            14. Checkpoint
            15. Fast recovery
          3. I’m Confused by All the Logging!
            1. How bad (and good) things happen
            2. Could this be better?
        2. Automating Informix Startup: The dbstart.informix.sh Script
          1. The inftab File
          2. Installing the dbstart.informix.sh Script
            1. Install the files
            2. Edit the inftab file
            3. Edit the dbstart.informix.sh script
            4. Change the startup files
          3. Make a Fake oninit Command
        3. Protect the Physical Log, Logical Log, and sysmaster
          1. Recommendation: Put the Physical Log in Its Own dbspace
          2. Recommendation: Put the Logical Log in Its Own dbspace
          3. Recommendation: Mirror Essential dbspaces
          4. Recommendation: Leave Room for the Logs
            1. Back up your logical logs
            2. Long transactions
        4. Which Backup Utility Should I Use?
          1. A Quick History of onarchive, onbar, and ontape
            1. I was there
            2. Don’t use onarchive
          2. Pick a Utility, but Not Any Utility
        5. Physical Backups Without a Storage Manager: ontape
          1. Configuring ontape
          2. Tape or Disk?
            1. What’s wrong with tape?
            2. Backing up to disk can help
            3. Is it OK to back up to disk?
            4. Doesn’t Informix try to rewind the tape?
            5. The two-gigabyte file size limit
              1. Use expect to swap tapes
              2. Use a storage manager and onbar
          3. Backing Up the Instance
          4. Backing Up the Logical Logs
            1. Backing up logical logs continuously
            2. Backing up logical logs manually
            3. Electing no backup of logical logs
          5. Automating Archives with ontape: the infback.sh Utility
            1. Why automating ontape is difficult
            2. How infback.sh works
            3. When infback.sh runs
            4. If infback.sh is called with no arguments
            5. If infback.sh is called with arguments specifying backup parameters
            6. If infback.sh is called with at as the first argument
            7. The backup begins
            8. Installing infback.sh and its configuration files
            9. Editing the infback.sh configuration files
              1. Editing infback.conf
              2. Editing infback.sh
            10. Centralized configuration
            11. Scheduling backups
          6. Why Automating Continuous Backups Is Difficult
          7. Automating Continuous Backups: the rclogs.sh Utility
            1. Installing rclogs.sh and its configuration files
            2. Editing rclogs.sh and its configuration files
            3. Testing the rclogs.sh program
            4. Scheduling backups
          8. Using the Scripts Together
        6. Physical Backups with a Storage Manager: onbar
          1. Configuring onbar
          2. Configuring the Storage Manager
          3. Performing Backups
            1. Backing up the whole instance
            2. Backing up part of the instance
            3. Backing up the logical logs
        7. Recovering Informix
          1. Step 1: Does oninit Work?
          2. Step 2: Is the onconfig File Missing?
          3. Step 3: Restore or Re-create the onconfig File
          4. Step 4: Is There an Inaccessible or Critical Chunk?
          5. Step 5: Repair or Replace the Missing Chunk
          6. Step 6: Performing a Cold Restore
            1. Make sure you need this step
            2. Restoring with ontape
            3. Restoring with onbar
          7. Step 7: Are There Errors in the Online Log?
          8. Step 8: Is There an Inaccessible Noncritical Chunk?
          9. Step 9: Is There a Corrupted Noncritical Chunk?
            1. You might not need a restore
          10. Step 10: Perform a dbspace Restore
          11. Step 11: Are There Wrong Values in the onconfig File?
          12. Step 12: Change the Bad Values in the onconfig File
          13. Step 13: Ensuring That the Instance Will Restart
          14. Step 14: Taking the Instance Offline
          15. Step 15: Confirming That dbspaces and Chunks Are Online
          16. Step 16: Recovering a Deleted Table or Database
          17. Step 17: Performing a Point-in-Time Restore
          18. Step 18: Is Everything OK?
          19. Step 19: Making a Backup
        8. Logical Backups
          1. The Constraints for onunload
          2. Making an Export: onunload Syntax
            1. Specifying the device parameters
            2. Specifying the database and table to unload
          3. Restoring from a Logical Backup
            1. Specifying the device parameters
            2. Specifying the database and/or table to unload
            3. Specifying the create options
      3. 15. Oracle Backup & Recovery
        1. Oracle Architecture
          1. Power User’s View
            1. Instance
            2. Database
            3. Table
            4. Index
            5. BLOB datatypes
            6. Object
            7. Row
            8. Attribute
          2. DBA’s View
            1. Blocks
            2. Extents
            3. Segment
            4. Datafile
            5. Tablespace
            6. Partition
            7. Control file
            8. Transaction
            9. Rollback segment
            10. Checkpoint
            11. Redolog
        2. Physical Backups Without a Storage Manager
          1. Cold Backup
          2. Hot Backup
          3. Inside a Hot Backup
          4. Automating Backups: The oraback.sh Script
            1. Installing oraback.sh
            2. Configuring and customizing oraback.sh
            3. Deciding what or if to back up
            4. Deciding where and how to back up
            5. If it’s a hot backup
            6. After all datafiles are backed up
            7. If it’s a cold backup
            8. Special cases
            9. Customizing backups of an instance
            10. Testing oraback.sh
            11. Using oraback.sh
        3. Physical Backups with a Storage Manager
          1. Vendor-Supplied Storage Managers
          2. Oracle Storage Managers
            1. Sample rman scripts
            2. The rman.sh Script
            3. The database.full.rman command file (level-0 backup)
            4. The archivelog.full.rman command file (level-0 archive logs)
            5. The database.inc.rman command file (level-1 backups)
            6. The archivelog.inc.rman command file (level-1 archive logs)
          3. Difficulties with rman
        4. Managing the Archived Redologs
        5. Recovering Oracle
          1. Using This Recovery Guide
            1. Restore or recover?
          2. Step 1: Try Startup Mount
          3. Step 2: Are All Control Files Missing?
          4. Step 3: Replace Missing Control File
            1. “But I don’t have a good control file!”
          5. Step 4: Are All Datafiles and Redologs OK?
          6. Step 5: Recover Damaged Datafiles or Redologs
          7. Step 6: Is There a create controlfile Script?
          8. Step 7: Run the create controlfile Script
          9. Step 8: Restore Control Files and Prepare the Database for Recovery
            1. But I didn’t mirror my control files or my online redologs
          10. Step 9: Recover the Database
            1. Attempt to recover database normally
            2. Attempt to recover database using backup control file
            3. Apply all archived redologs
            4. Apply online redologs if they are available
            5. Alter database open resetlogs
          11. Step 10: Does “alter database open” Work?
            1. Damaged datafile
            2. Damaged log group
            3. Damaged rollback segment
            4. Before going any farther . . .
            5. How media recovery works
          12. Step 11: Damaged System File?
          13. Step 12: Restore All Datafiles in the SYSTEM Tablespace
          14. Step 13: Damaged Nonsystem Datafile?
          15. Step 14: Take Damaged Datafile Offline
          16. Step 15: Were Any Datafiles Taken Offline?
          17. Step 16: Bring Datafile(s) Back Online
            1. Restore the damaged datafiles
            2. Datafile recovery
            3. Tablespace recovery
            4. Database recovery
          18. Step 17: Is There a Damaged Log Group?
          19. Step 18: Are Any Rollback Segments Unavailable?
          20. Step 19: Does the Database Need to Be at Least Partially Up ASAP?
          21. Step 20: Recover Tablespace Containing Unavailable Rollback Segment
            1. That was too easy!
          22. Step 21: Comment Out Rollback Segment Line(s) in the init.ora File
          23. Step 22: Is the Current Online Log Damaged?
          24. Step 23: Recover All Database Files from Backup
          25. Step 24: alter database open resetlogs
          26. Step 25: Is an Active Online Redolog Damaged?
          27. Step 26: Perform a Checkpoint
          28. Step 27: Is an Inactive Online Redolog Damaged?
          29. Step 28: Drop/Add a Damaged, INACTIVE Log Group
          30. Step 29: Were Any Rollback SegmentLines Changed in init.ora?
          31. Step 30: Return Offline Rollback Segments to Normal Condition
          32. You’re Done!
        6. Logical Backups
          1. Performing a Logical Backup
          2. Recovering with a Logical Backup
        7. A Broken Record
      4. 16. Sybase Backup & Recovery
        1. Sybase Architecture
          1. The Power User’s View
            1. Server
            2. Database
            3. Table
            4. Index
            5. Object
            6. Row
            7. Attribute
          2. The DBA’s View
            1. Page
            2. Extent
            3. Segment
            4. Datafile
            5. Partition
            6. Configuration file
            7. Transaction
            8. Transaction log
            9. Stored procedure
            10. Checkpoint
            11. Interface(s) file
            12. Backup server
            13. Dump device
          3. Protecting Your Database
            1. About transaction logs
            2. Database consistency checker: the dbcc utility
            3. Checks for backups
        2. Physical Backups Without a Storage Manager
          1. Performing a Cold Backup
          2. Performing a Hot Backup
            1. What to back up
            2. Where to write the backup
            3. How to back up
            4. A sample dump command
          3. Automating Hot Backups: the syback.sh Script
            1. How syback.sh works
            2. Installing syback.sh
            3. Configuring and customizing syback.sh
            4. crontab entries
        3. Physical Backups with a Storage Manager
        4. Recovering Sybase
          1. Restoring from a Cold Backup
          2. Restoring from a Hot Backup
          3. Using the Recovery Procedure
          4. Step 1: Runfile OK?
          5. Step 2: Restore or Re-create Runfile
          6. Step 3: Able to Get Shared Memory?
          7. Step 4: Free Up Shared Memory or Reconfigure Memory in Configuration File
          8. Step 5: Able to Connect to Data Server?
          9. Step 6: Check Interface File
          10. Step 7: Master Database Initialized?
          11. Step 8: Master Device/File Missing?
          12. Step 9: Restoring Generic Master Database
          13. Step 10: Recent Dump of Master Database?
          14. Step 11: Restore Master from Dump
          15. Step 12: Update Number of Devices in the Configuration
          16. Step 13: Restore System Tables Using disk reinit and disk refit
            1. disk reinit
            2. disk refit
            3. Review sysusages/sysdatabases/sysdevices/syslogins/sysloginroles
          17. Step 14: sybsystemprocs Available?
          18. Step 15: Problem with Data Devices?
          19. Step 16: Replace Device/Disk File
          20. Step 17: Restore Base sybsystemprocs from sybsystemprocs Script
          21. Step 18: Recent Dump of Database?
          22. Step 19: Restore from Dump
          23. Step 20: Is tempdb Available?
          24. Step 21: Model Database Available?
          25. Step 22: Re-create Generic Model Database
          26. Step 23: All Databases Online?
          27. Step 24: Contact Sybase Support
          28. Step 25: Reapply Any Additional Scripts or bcps
          29. Step 26: Review Against Hardcopies
          30. Step 27: Dump all Restored Databases
        5. Logical Backups
          1. Performing a Logical Backup
          2. Performing a Logical Restore
        6. An Ounce of Prevention . . .
          1. Starting Out
          2. Day to Day
          3. After Major Changes
    7. VI. Backup & Recovery Potpourri
      1. 17. ClearCase Backup & Recovery
        1. ClearCase Architecture
          1. VOBs and Views
          2. Registry
          3. License Server
          4. Useful Terms
          5. Registry Backup and Recovery Procedures
            1. Registry backups
            2. Registry recovery
        2. VOB Backup and Recovery Procedures
          1. VOB Backup Strategies
            1. Standard strategy
            2. Snapshot strategy
            3. Other strategies
              1. Disk backup.
              2. Mirrors.
          2. Other VOB Backup Issues
            1. Remote storage pools
            2. Incremental backup
            3. MultiSite backup
          3. VOB Recovery
            1. General approach
            2. Restore using the “standard” or mirror backup scenarios
            3. Restore using the “snapshot” backup scenario
            4. MultiSite recovery
            5. Conclusion
        3. View Backup and Recovery Procedures
          1. View Backup Strategies
          2. View Recovery
        4. Summary
      2. 18. Backup Hardware
        1. Choosing on a Backup Drive
          1. Reliability
          2. Transfer Speed
          3. Time-to-Data
          4. Capacity
          5. Cost
          6. Summary
        2. Using Backup Hardware
          1. Hardware Data Compression
          2. Density Versus Compression
          3. Changing Compression and Densities
          4. How Often Should I Change My Media?
          5. Cartridge Care
          6. Drive Care
          7. Nearline and Offline Storage
        3. Tape Drives
          1. Linear Versus Helical Scan
            1. Helical scan
            2. Linear
            3. How important is it to keep a tape drive streaming?
          2. Cartridges Versus Cassettes
          3. Tape Drive Technologies
            1. 3480/3490/3490E drives
            2. 8-mm drives
            3. AIT drive
            4. Ampex DST drive
            5. DDS drive
            6. The DLT drive
            7. Exabyte Mammoth drive
            8. IBM Magstar MP (3570) drive
            9. IBM Magstar 3590 drive
            10. LTO drive
            11. Metrum line of drives
            12. Plasmon LMS NCTP drive
            13. Sony DTF drive
            14. The Storagetek 9840 (Eagle) drive
            15. The Storagetek Redwood SD-3 drive
            16. The Tandberg MLR 1-3 drive
        4. Optical Drives
          1. Optical Recording Methods
            1. WORM recording methods
            2. Magneto-optical recording method
            3. Phase change recording method
            4. Dye polymer recording method
          2. CD Recording Formats
            1. CD-R recorders
            2. CD-RW recorders
            3. Read compatibility
          3. DVD Recording Formats
            1. DVD-RAM format
            2. DVD-R format
            3. DVD-RW format
            4. DVD+RW format
            5. DVD read compatibility
            6. A Rewritable DVD comparison
          4. Magneto-Optical Recording Formats
          5. For More Information
        5. Automated Backup Hardware
        6. Vendors
          1. Stackers and Autoloaders
          2. Large Libraries and Silos
            1. Optical jukeboxes
        7. Hardware Comparison
      3. 19. Miscellanea
        1. Volatile Filesystems
          1. Missing or Corrupted Files
          2. Referential Integrity Problems
          3. Corrupted or Unreadable Backup
          4. Torture-Testing Backup Programs
            1. Other warnings
            2. Conclusions
          5. Using Snapshots to Back Up a Volatile Filesystem
            1. How do snapshots work?
            2. Available snapshot software
            3. What I’d like to see
        2. Demystifying dump
          1. Dumpster Diving
            1. Pass I
            2. Pass IIa
            3. Pass IIb
            4. Pass IIc
            5. Pre-Pass III
            6. Pass III
            7. Pass IV
            8. Post-Pass IV
            9. Summary of dump steps
          2. Answers to Our Questions
            1. Question 1
            2. Question 2
            3. Question 3
            4. Question 4
            5. Question 5
          3. A Final Analysis of dump
        3. Gigabit Ethernet
        4. Disk Recovery Companies
        5. Yesterday
        6. Trust Me About the Backups
    8. Index
    9. Colophon