Cover image for The Cathedral & the Bazaar

Book description

Open source provides the competitive advantage in the Internet Age. According to the August Forrester Report, 56 percent of IT managers interviewed at Global 2,500 companies are already using some type of open source software in their infrastructure and another 6 percent will install it in the next two years. This revolutionary model for collaborative software development is being embraced and studied by many of the biggest players in the high-tech industry, from Sun Microsystems to IBM to Intel. The Cathedral & the Bazaar is a must for anyone who cares about the future of the computer industry or the dynamics of the information economy. Already, billions of dollars have been made and lost based on the ideas in this book. Its conclusions will be studied, debated, and implemented for years to come. According to Bob Young, "This is Eric Raymond's great contribution to the success of the open source revolution, to the adoption of Linux-based operating systems, and to the success of open source users and the companies that supply them." The interest in open source software development has grown enormously in the past year. This revised and expanded paperback edition includes new material on open source developments in 1999 and 2000. Raymond's clear and effective writing style accurately describing the benefits of open source software has been key to its success. With major vendors creating acceptance for open source within companies, independent vendors will become the open source story in 2001.

Table of Contents

  1. The Cathedral & the Bazaar
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    2. Dedication
    3. Foreword
    4. Preface: Why You Should Care
      1. Revision Notes for the Second Edition
    5. 1. A Brief History of Hackerdom
      1. Prologue: The Real Programmers
      2. The Early Hackers
      3. The Rise of Unix
      4. The End of Elder Days
      5. The Proprietary-Unix Era
      6. The Early Free Unixes
      7. The Great Web Explosion
    6. 2. The Cathedral and the Bazaar
      1. The Cathedral and the Bazaar
      2. The Mail Must Get Through
      3. The Importance of Having Users
      4. Release Early, Release Often
      5. How Many Eyeballs Tame Complexity
      6. When Is a Rose Not a Rose?
      7. Popclient becomes Fetchmail
      8. Fetchmail Grows Up
      9. A Few More Lessons from Fetchmail
      10. Necessary Preconditions for the Bazaar Style
      11. The Social Context of Open-Source Software
      12. On Management and the Maginot Line
      13. Epilog: Netscape Embraces the Bazaar
    7. 3. Homesteading the Noosphere
      1. An Introductory Contradiction
      2. The Varieties of Hacker Ideology
      3. Promiscuous Theory, Puritan Practice
      4. Ownership and Open Source
      5. Locke and Land Title
      6. The Hacker Milieu as Gift Culture
      7. The Joy of Hacking
      8. The Many Faces of Reputation
      9. Ownership Rights and Reputation Incentives
      10. The Problem of Ego
      11. The Value of Humility
      12. Global Implications of the Reputation-Game Model
      13. How Fine a Gift?
      14. Noospheric Property and the Ethology of Territory
      15. Causes of Conflict
      16. Project Structures and Ownership
      17. Conflict and Conflict Resolution
      18. Acculturation Mechanisms and the Link to Academia
      19. Gift Outcompetes Exchange
      20. Conclusion: From Custom to Customary Law
      21. Questions for Further Research
    8. 4. The Magic Cauldron
      1. Indistinguishable From Magic
      2. Beyond Geeks Bearing Gifts
      3. The Manufacturing Delusion
      4. The Information Wants to be Free Myth
      5. The Inverse Commons
      6. Reasons for Closing Source
      7. Use-Value Funding Models
        1. The Apache Case: Cost-Sharing
        2. The Cisco Case: Risk-Spreading
      8. Why Sale Value is Problematic
      9. Indirect Sale-Value Models
        1. Loss-Leader/Market Positioner
        2. Widget Frosting
        3. Give Away the Recipe, Open a Restaurant
        4. Accessorizing
        5. Free the Future, Sell the Present
        6. Free the Software, Sell the Brand
        7. Free the Software, Sell the Content
      10. When to be Open, When to be Closed
        1. What Are the Payoffs?
        2. How Do They Interact?
        3. Doom: A Case Study
        4. Knowing When to Let Go
      11. Open Source as a Strategic Weapon
        1. Cost-sharing as a competitive weapon
        2. Resetting the competition
        3. Growing the pond
        4. Preventing a choke hold
      12. Open Source and Strategic Business Risk
      13. The Business Ecology of Open Source
      14. Coping with Success
      15. Open R&D and the Reinvention of Patronage
      16. Getting There From Here
      17. Conclusion: Life after the Revolution
      18. Afterword: Why Closing a Drivers Loses Its Vendor Money
    9. 5. Revenge of the Hackers
      1. Revenge of the Hackers
      2. Beyond Brooks's Law
      3. Memes and Mythmaking
      4. The Road to Mountain View
      5. The Origins of Open Source
        1. Forget Bottom-Up; Work on Top-Down
        2. Linux is Our Best Demonstration Case
        3. Capture the Fortune 500
        4. Co-opt the Prestige Media that Serve the Fortune 500
        5. Educate Hackers in Guerrilla Marketing Tactics
        6. Use the Open Source Certification Mark to Keep Things Pure
      6. The Accidental Revolutionary
      7. Phases of the Campaign
      8. The Facts on the Ground
      9. Into the Future
    10. 6. Afterword: Beyond Software?
    11. A. How to Become a Hacker
      1. Why This Document?
      2. What Is a Hacker?
      3. The Hacker Attitude
      4. Basic Hacking Skills
      5. Status in the Hacker Culture
      6. The Hacker/Nerd Connection
      7. Points For Style
      8. Other Resources
      9. Frequently Asked Questions
    12. B. Statistical Trends in the Fetchmail Project's Growth
    13. C. Notes, Bibliography, and Acknowledgements
      1. A Brief History of Hackerdom
        1. Notes
          1. Note 1
          2. Note 2
          3. Note 3
      2. The Cathedral and the Bazaar
        1. Notes
          1. Note 4
          2. Note 5
          3. Note 6
          4. Note 7
          5. Note 8
          6. Note 9
          7. Note 10
          8. Note 11
          9. Note 12
          10. Note 13
        2. Bibliography
        3. Acknowledgements
      3. Homesteading the Noosphere
        1. Notes
          1. Note 14
          2. Note 15
          3. Note 16
          4. Note 17
          5. Note 18
          6. Note 19
          7. Note 20
          8. Note 21
          9. Note 22
          10. Note 23
          11. Note 24
          12. Note 25
        2. Bibliography
          1. Note 26
          2. Note 27
          3. Note 28
          4. Note 29
          5. Note 30
        3. Acknowledgements
      4. The Magic Cauldron
        1. Notes
          1. Note 31
          2. Note 32
          3. Note 33
          4. Note 34
          5. Note 35
        2. Bibliography
          1. Note 36
          2. Note 37
          3. Note 38
        3. Acknowledgements
      5. For Further Reading:
    14. Index
    15. Colophon
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