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Book description

Open Sources 2.0 is a collection of insightful and thought-provoking essays from today's technology leaders that continues painting the evolutionary picture that developed in the 1999 book Open Sources: Voices from the Revolution .

These essays explore open source's impact on the software industry and reveal how open source concepts are infiltrating other areas of commerce and society. The essays appeal to a broad audience: the software developer will find thoughtful reflections on practices and methodology from leading open source developers like Jeremy Allison and Ben Laurie, while the business executive will find analyses of business strategies from the likes of Sleepycat co-founder and CEO Michael Olson and Open Source Business Conference founder Matt Asay.

From China, Europe, India, and Brazil we get essays that describe the developing world's efforts to join the technology forefront and use open source to take control of its high tech destiny. For anyone with a strong interest in technology trends, these essays are a must-read.

The enduring significance of open source goes well beyond high technology, however. At the heart of the new paradigm is network-enabled distributed collaboration: the growing impact of this model on all forms of online collaboration is fundamentally challenging our modern notion of community.

What does the future hold? Veteran open source commentators Tim O'Reilly and Doc Searls offer their perspectives, as do leading open source scholars Steven Weber and Sonali Shah. Andrew Hessel traces the migration of open source ideas from computer technology to biotechnology, and Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger and Slashdot co-founder Jeff Bates provide frontline views of functioning, flourishing online collaborative communities.

The power of collaboration, enabled by the internet and open source software, is changing the world in ways we can only begin to imagine.Open Sources 2.0 further develops the evolutionary picture that emerged in the original Open Sources and expounds on the transformative open source philosophy.

"This is a wonderful collection of thoughts and examples by great minds from the free software movement, and is a must have for anyone who follows free software development and project histories."

--Robin Monks, Free Software Magazine

The list of contributors include

  • Alolita Sharma

  • Andrew Hessel

  • Ben Laurie

  • Boon-Lock Yeo

  • Bruno Souza

  • Chris DiBona

  • Danese Cooper

  • Doc Searls

  • Eugene Kim

  • Gregorio Robles

  • Ian Murdock

  • Jeff Bates

  • Jeremy Allison

  • Jesus M. Gonzalez-Barahona

  • Kim Polese

  • Larry Sanger

  • Louisa Liu

  • Mark Stone

  • Mark Stone

  • Matthew N. Asay

  • Michael Olson

  • Mitchell Baker

  • Pamela Jones

  • Robert Adkins

  • Russ Nelson

  • Sonali K. Shah

  • Stephen R. Walli

  • Steven Weber

  • Sunil Saxena

  • Tim O'Reilly

  • Wendy Seltzer

Table of Contents

  1. Open Sources 2.0
    1. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
    2. Foreword: Source Is Everything
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. List of Contributors
    5. Introduction
    6. I. Open Source: Competition and Evolution
      1. 1. The Mozilla Project: Past and Future
        1. 1.1. Founding of the Mozilla Organization: Obvious for Developers, a Bold Step for Management
          1. 1.1.1. Updating the Codebase
          2. 1.1.2. A Disciplined Methodology
          3. 1.1.3. Building an Open Source Project
        2. 1.2. Young Adulthood—the Mozilla Foundation
          1. 1.2.1. Firefox and Thunderbird
        3. 1.3. The Future
      2. 2. Open Source and Proprietary Software Development
        1. 2.1. Proprietary Versus Open Source?
          1. 2.1.1. The Example Culture
            1. 2.1.1.1. Code reuse? Knowledge reuse!
            2. 2.1.1.2. Speed of development
            3. 2.1.1.3. A particularly difficult codebase
        2. 2.2. Comfort
          1. 2.2.1. But Why So Many of the Same Things?
          2. 2.2.2. Libraries, System Calls, and Widgets
        3. 2.3. Distributed Development
          1. 2.3.1. Understanding Version Control
            1. 2.3.1.1. CVS
            2. 2.3.1.2. Subversion
            3. 2.3.1.3. What About SourceSafe?
            4. 2.3.1.4. The Special Case of BitKeeper
        4. 2.4. Collaborative Development
          1. 2.4.1. IRC/IM/Email
          2. 2.4.2. VoIP
          3. 2.4.3. SourceForge
        5. 2.5. Software Distribution
          1. 2.5.1. Dependencies
          2. 2.5.2. Online Updating/Installation
        6. 2.6. How Proprietary Software Development Has Changed Open Source
          1. 2.6.1. Bugs/Security
          2. 2.6.2. Testing and QA
          3. 2.6.3. Project Scaling
          4. 2.6.4. Control
          5. 2.6.5. Intellectual Property
        7. 2.7. Some Final Words
          1. 2.7.1. Free Things Are Still Cheaper Than Expensive Things
      3. 3. A Tale of Two Standards
        1. 3.1. The POSIX Standard
        2. 3.2. First Implementation Past the Post
        3. 3.3. Future Proofing
        4. 3.4. Wither POSIX?
        5. 3.5. The Win32 (Windows) Standard
        6. 3.6. The Tar Pit: Backward Compatibility
        7. 3.7. World Domination, Fast
        8. 3.8. Wither Win32?
        9. 3.9. Choosing a Standard
      4. 4. Open Source and Security
        1. 4.1. Many Eyes
        2. 4.2. Open Versus Closed Source
          1. 4.2.1. Who Is the Audience?
          2. 4.2.2. Time to Fix
          3. 4.2.3. Visibility of Bugs and Changes
          4. 4.2.4. Review
          5. 4.2.5. Who's the Boss?
        3. 4.3. Digression: Threat Models
        4. 4.4. The Future
        5. 4.5. Interesting Projects
        6. 4.6. Conclusion
      5. 5. Dual Licensing
        1. 5.1. Business and Politics
        2. 5.2. Open Source: Distribution Versus Development
        3. 5.3. A Primer on Intellectual Property
          1. 5.3.1. Ownership
          2. 5.3.2. Licensing
        4. 5.4. Dual Licensing
          1. 5.4.1. Reciprocity
          2. 5.4.2. Warranty
          3. 5.4.3. Competitive Issues
          4. 5.4.4. Ownership
        5. 5.5. Practical Considerations
          1. 5.5.1. Attractive Margins
          2. 5.5.2. Capital
          3. 5.5.3. Choosing Licenses
          4. 5.5.4. Need and Pain
          5. 5.5.5. Measuring the Market
          6. 5.5.6. Piracy
          7. 5.5.7. The Social Contract
        6. 5.6. Trends and the Future
        7. 5.7. Global Development
        8. 5.8. Open Models
        9. 5.9. The Future of Software
      6. 6. Open Source and the Commoditization of Software
        1. 6.1. Commoditization and the IT Industry
        2. 6.2. Decommoditization: The Failure of Open Systems
        3. 6.3. Linux: A Response from the Trenches
        4. 6.4. "So, How Do You Make Money from Free Software?"
        5. 6.5. The First Business Models for Linux
        6. 6.6. Linux Commercialization at a Crossroads
        7. 6.7. Proprietary Linux?
        8. 6.8. What's at Stake?
      7. 7. Open Source and the Commodity Urge: Disruptive Models for a Disruptive Development Process
        1. 7.1. Introduction
        2. 7.2. A Brief History of Software
        3. 7.3. A New Brand of Intellectual Property Protection
        4. 7.4. Open Distribution, Not Source
          1. 7.4.1. The Open Source Weapon
          2. 7.4.2. Proliferating Open Source Beyond the Enterprise
          3. 7.4.3. So, Why Not Freeware?
            1. 7.4.3.1. Don't view. Don't modify. What do you do?
            2. 7.4.3.2. Open source. Open choice. Open wallet.
        5. 7.5. Open Source Business Models
          1. 7.5.1. Both Source (a.k.a. Mixed Source) Model
          2. 7.5.2. Professional Open Source (a.k.a. Services) Model
          3. 7.5.3. Dual-License Model
          4. 7.5.4. ASP Model
          5. 7.5.5. Other Models
            1. 7.5.5.1. Managed source model
            2. 7.5.5.2. Code-level service model
        6. 7.6. Conclusion
      8. 8. Under the Hood: Open Source and Open Standards Business Models in Context
        1. 8.1. Open Standards
        2. 8.2. Open Source Software
        3. 8.3. The Real Business Model
        4. 8.4. Open Source Complements
        5. 8.5. Open Standards Complements
        6. 8.6. Conclusion
      9. 9. Open Source and the Small Entrepreneur
        1. 9.1. Introduction
        2. 9.2. Freemacs and Open Source
        3. 9.3. Freemacs and Business
        4. 9.4. Packet Drivers
        5. 9.5. Packet Driver Income
        6. 9.6. Qmail
        7. 9.7. Open Source Economics
        8. 9.8. Where Do We Go from Here?
        9. 9.9. For Further Reading
      10. 10. Why Open Source Needs Copyright Politics
        1. 10.1. From Movable Type to MovableType
        2. 10.2. Copyright in Code
        3. 10.3. Secondary Liability
        4. 10.4. Anticircumvention
        5. 10.5. The Threat to Research
        6. 10.6. Technology Mandates
        7. 10.7. What About That Media Server?
      11. 11. Libre Software in Europe
        1. 11.1. Brief Summary of an Already Long History
        2. 11.2. The Development Community
        3. 11.3. The Organization of the Community
        4. 11.4. Libre Software in the Private Sector
        5. 11.5. Public Administrations and Libre Software
          1. 11.5.1. Actions by the European Commission
          2. 11.5.2. National Initiatives
          3. 11.5.3. Other Initiatives in the Public Sector
        6. 11.6. Legal Issues
          1. 11.6.1. EU Directives with Negative Impact
          2. 11.6.2. Libre Software Licenses in Europe
        7. 11.7. Libre Software in Education
        8. 11.8. Research on Libre Software
        9. 11.9. The Future Is Hard to Read....
      12. 12. OSS in India
        1. 12.1. Business
          1. 12.1.1. Domestic Market
          2. 12.1.2. Outsourcing and OSS
        2. 12.2. Government
        3. 12.3. Challenges in Local Adoption of OSS
          1. 12.3.1. Support
          2. 12.3.2. Piracy
          3. 12.3.3. Localization
          4. 12.3.4. Culture
          5. 12.3.5. Software Patents
        4. 12.4. OSS in Education
        5. 12.5. Conclusion
      13. 13. When China Dances with OSS
        1. 13.1. What OSS Was and Is in China
          1. 13.1.1. What OSS Means in China
          2. 13.1.2. Status of OSS in China
          3. 13.1.3. OSS Business Models in China
        2. 13.2. SWOT Analysis of OSS in China
          1. 13.2.1. Strengths
          2. 13.2.2. Opportunities
            1. 13.2.2.1. The market for embedded software outside the conventional desktop or server opportunities
            2. 13.2.2.2. Delivering innovations and unique end-user values on top of available OSS—values not currently served by the presently available software.
        3. 13.3. Where OSS Is Going for China and Beyond
      14. 14. How Much Freedom Do You Want?
        1. 14.1. Livre Versus Gratis
        2. 14.2. Background for Freedom: The Market
        3. 14.3. Developing the Software Livre Movement
        4. 14.4. Not About Price, but About Choice
        5. 14.5. Choice Requires More Than Free Software
        6. 14.6. How Java Technology Can Help
        7. 14.7. Java Provides the Other Side of the Choice
        8. 14.8. Walking the Path
        9. 14.9. What to Do?
        10. 14.10. We Are Getting There
        11. 14.11. References
    7. II. Beyond Open Source: Collaboration and Community
      1. 15. Making a New World
      2. 16. The Open Source Paradigm Shift
        1. 16.1. Software as Commodity
        2. 16.2. Network-Enabled Collaboration
        3. 16.3. Customizability and Software-as-Service
        4. 16.4. Building the Internet Operating System
        5. 16.5. Conclusion
      3. 17. Extending Open Source Principles Beyond Software Development
        1. 17.1. How Did It Happen and How Does It Work?
        2. 17.2. Working as a Group
        3. 17.3. Dealing with the Disrupters
        4. 17.4. The Difference Between Doing Legal Research in Public and Writing Software in Public
        5. 17.5. Why and When It Works
      4. 18. Open Source Biology
        1. 18.1. The Rise of Modern Biotechnology
        2. 18.2. Intellectual Property and Growing Challenges
        3. 18.3. Open Source Biology
        4. 18.4. Synthetic Biology and Genomic Programming
        5. 18.5. The Risk of Biological Hacking
        6. 18.6. Future Trends in Open Source Biology
      5. 19. Everything Is Known
        1. 19.1. The PACT Project
        2. 19.2. The World Trade Center Recovery Effort
        3. 19.3. Facilitating Emergent Collaboration
        4. 19.4. Acknowledgments
        5. 19.5. References
      6. 20. The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir
        1. 20.1. Some Recent Press Reports
        2. 20.2. Nupedia
        3. 20.3. The Origins of Wikipedia
        4. 20.4. Wikipedia's First Few Months
          1. 20.4.1. Why Wikipedia started working
        5. 20.5. A Series of Controversies
          1. 20.5.1. The governance challenge
        6. 20.6. My Resignation and Final Few Months with the Project
        7. 20.7. Final Attempts to Save Nupedia
        8. 20.8. Conclusions
      7. 21. Open Beyond Software
        1. 21.1. Sports Equipment Innovation by Users and Their Communities
          1. 21.1.1. The User Innovation Process in Three Sports
            1. 21.1.1.1. Discovery through use
            2. 21.1.1.2. Communities: cooperation among users
            3. 21.1.1.3. Commercialization
          2. 21.1.2. How Important Is Community-Based Innovation in These Sports?
            1. 21.1.2.1. Product origins: first-of-type innovations
            2. 21.1.2.2. Major improvement innovations
        2. 21.2. Community-Based Innovation and Development: An Even Broader Phenomenon
          1. 21.2.1. The Automobile
          2. 21.2.2. The Personal Computer
          3. 21.2.3. User Firms in the 18th Century Iron Industry
          4. 21.2.4. Amateur Astronomy
        3. 21.3. Reframing: Where Does Innovation Come From?
          1. 21.3.1. Building and Preserving the Intellectual Commons
          2. 21.3.2. Firm Strategy
        4. 21.4. Conclusion
        5. 21.5. References
      8. 22. Patterns of Governance in Open Source
        1. 22.1. The Empirical Problem Set: What Are We Aiming At?
        2. 22.2. The Theoretical Problem: How Is Knowledge Distributed?
        3. 22.3. Design Principles for a Referee Function
          1. 22.3.1. Weighting of Contributions
          2. 22.3.2. Evaluating the Contributor Versus Evaluating the Contribution
          3. 22.3.3. Status Quo Versus Change Bias
          4. 22.3.4. Timing
          5. 22.3.5. Granularity of Knowledge
          6. 22.3.6. System Failure Mode
          7. 22.3.7. Security
        4. 22.4. What Should We Do Differently?
      9. 23. Communicating Many to Many
        1. 23.1. The Origins of Slashdot
        2. 23.2. Slashdot in the Early Days
        3. 23.3. The Slashdot Effect
        4. 23.4. Trolls, Anonymous Cowards, and Insensitive Clods
        5. 23.5. Columbine
        6. 23.6. Slashdot Grows Up
        7. 23.7. September 11
        8. 23.8. Conclusion
    8. III. Appendixes
      1. A. The Open Source Definition
        1. A.1. The Open Source Definition, Version 1.9
          1. A.1.1. Introduction
          2. A.1.2. 1. Free Redistribution
          3. A.1.3. 2. Source Code
          4. A.1.4. 3. Derived Works
          5. A.1.5. 4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code
          6. A.1.6. 5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups
          7. A.1.7. 6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor
          8. A.1.8. 7. Distribution of License
          9. A.1.9. 8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product
          10. A.1.10. 9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software
      2. B. Referenced Open Source Licenses
        1. B.1. The BSD License
        2. B.2. The GNU General Public License (GPL)
          1. B.2.1. Version 2, June 1991
          2. B.2.2. Preamble
          3. B.2.3. Terms and Conditions for Copying, Distribution, and Modification
          4. B.2.4. NO WARRANTY
          5. B.2.5. How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
        3. B.3. The Sleepycat License
        4. B.4. The Creative Commons License
          1. B.4.1. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5
            1. B.4.1.1. Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5
            2. B.4.1.2. License
      3. C. Columns from Slashdot
        1. C.1. Simple Solutions
        2. C.2. Why Kids Kill
    9. Index
    10. About the Authors
    11. Colophon
    12. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly