Cover image for IPv6 Essentials, 3rd Edition

Book description

If your organization is gearing up for IPv6, this in-depth book provides the practical information and guidance you need to plan for, design, and implement this vastly improved protocol. System and network administrators, engineers, and network designers will learn the technical details of IPv6 features and functions, and provides options for those who need to integrate IPv6 with their current IPv4 infrastructure.

Table of Contents

  1. Praise for
  2. Foreword
  3. Preface
    1. Audience
    2. About This Book
    3. Organization
    4. Conventions Used in This Book
    5. Safari® Books Online
    6. How to Contact Us
    7. Acknowledgments
  4. 1. Why IPv6?
    1. The History of IPv6
    2. What’s New in IPv6?
    3. Why Do We Need IPv6?
    4. Common Misconceptions
    5. When Is It Time for IPv6?
    6. IPv6 Status and Vendor Support
    7. References
      1. RFCs
  5. 2. IPv6 Addressing
    1. The IPv6 Address Space
    2. Address Types
      1. Unicast, Multicast, and Anycast Addresses
      2. Some General Rules
    3. Address Notation
    4. Prefix Notation
    5. Global Routing Prefixes
    6. Global Unicast Address
      1. International Registry Services and Current Address Allocations
      2. So How Large Is This Address Space Again?
      3. The Interface ID
      4. Address Privacy
    7. Special Addresses
      1. IPv6 Addresses with Embedded IPv4 Addresses
      2. 6to4 Addresses
      3. 6rd Addresses
      4. ISATAP Addresses
      5. Teredo Addresses
      6. Cryptographically Generated Addresses
    8. Link-Local and Unique Local IPv6 Addresses
    9. Anycast Address
    10. Multicast Address
      1. Well-Known Multicast Addresses
      2. Solicited-Node Multicast Address
      3. Mapping Multicast Addresses to MAC Addresses
      4. Dynamic Allocation of Multicast Addresses
    11. Required Addresses
    12. Default Address Selection
    13. References
      1. RFCs
      2. Drafts
  6. 3. The Structure of the IPv6 Protocol
    1. General Header Structure
    2. The Fields in the IPv6 Header
    3. Extension Headers
      1. Hop-by-Hop Options Header
        1. Option Type Jumbogram
        2. Option Router Alert
      2. Routing Header
      3. Fragment Header
      4. Destination Options Header
      5. New Extension Header Format
      6. Processing of Extension Headers and Header Chain Length
    4. References
      1. RFCs
      2. Drafts
  7. 4. ICMPv6
    1. General Message Format
    2. ICMP Error Messages
      1. Destination Unreachable
      2. Packet Too Big
      3. Time Exceeded
      4. Parameter Problem
    3. ICMP Informational Messages
      1. Echo Request Message
      2. Echo Reply
    4. Processing Rules
    5. The ICMPv6 Header in a Trace File
    6. Neighbor Discovery
      1. Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement
      2. Neighbor Solicitation and Neighbor Advertisement
      3. The ICMP Redirect Message
      4. Inverse Neighbor Discovery
      5. Neighbor Discovery Options
      6. Secure Neighbor Discovery
      7. Router Advertisement in the Trace File
      8. Link-Layer Address Resolution
      9. Neighbor Unreachability Detection
      10. Neighbor Cache and Destination Cache
      11. Neighbor Discovery and Fragmentation
    7. Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)
    8. Network Renumbering
    9. Path MTU Discovery
    10. Multicast Listener Discovery
      1. MLDv1
      2. MLDv2
    11. Multicast Router Discovery
    12. References
      1. RFCs
      2. Drafts
  8. 5. Networking
    1. Layer 2 Support for IPv6
      1. Ethernet (RFC 2464)
      2. Point-to-Point Protocol (RFC 5072)
      3. IEEE 802.15.4 (RFC 4944)
      4. ATM (RFC 2492)
      5. Frame Relay (RFC 2590)
    2. Upper-Layer Protocols
      1. UDP/TCP and Checksums
    3. Multicast
      1. Multicast Addressing
      2. Group Membership Management
      3. Multicast Layer 2 Protocols
      4. Multicast Routing
      5. Protocol Independent Multicast
    4. Routing Protocols
      1. The Routing Table
        1. Routing table lookup and content
        2. Default route
      2. RIPng
        1. Distance-Vector Algorithm for RIPng
        2. Limitations of the protocol
        3. Changes in topology and preventing instability
      3. OSPF for IPv6 (OSPFv3)
        1. Overview of OSPF for IPv6
        2. Differences between OSPF for IPv4 and OSPF for IPv6
        3. Encapsulation in IP datagrams
        4. Support for multiple address families
      4. Routing IPv6 with IS-IS
      5. EIGRP for IPv6
      6. BGP-4 Support for IPv6
        1. BGP-4 overview
        2. BGP Multiprotocol Extension for IPv6
      7. Routing Protocol Choices for Network Designs with IPv6
    5. Quality of Service
      1. QoS Basics
        1. Integrated Services
        2. Differentiated Services
      2. QoS in IPv6 Protocols
        1. IPv6 Header
          1. Traffic Class
          2. Flow Label
          3. The use of the Flow Label
        2. IPv6 Extension header
    6. Provisioning
      1. DHCP
        1. DHCP Terms
        2. DHCPv6 header format
          1. Client-server messages
        3. Relay Agent—server message format
        4. DHCP Unique Identifier (DUID)
        5. Identity Association
        6. DHCP communication
          1. Client and server communication
          2. Renew/Rebind
          3. Information Request
          4. Reconfigure process
          5. Relay Agent communication
          6. DHCPv6 communication in the trace file
        7. Stateless DHCP
        8. Prefix Delegation
        9. Security considerations
          1. Security for messages between Relay Agents and DHCP servers
          2. DHCP Authentication
        10. Further development
        11. Dynamic updates to DNS
      2. DNS
        1. AAAA records and IP6.ARPA
        2. DNS servers
        3. DNS resolvers and DNS design
          1. Happy Eyeballs
          2. Name space fragmentation
        4. DNS communication in the trace file
    7. References
      1. RFCs
      2. Drafts
  9. 6. Security with IPv6
    1. General Security Concepts
    2. General Security Practices
    3. IPsec Basics
      1. Security Associations
      2. Key Management
        1. IKEv1
        2. IKEv2
    4. IPv6 Security Elements
      1. Authentication Header
      2. Encapsulating Security Payload Header
      3. Combination of AH and ESP
    5. Interaction of IPsec with IPv6 Elements
    6. IPv6 Security “Gotchas”
      1. Native IPv6
        1. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
        2. Firewalls and intrusion detection/prevention systems
        3. Implementation issues
        4. Neighbor Discovery issues
        5. First-hop security
        6. Fragmentation
        7. Address and port scanning
        8. Multicast issues
      2. Transition and Tunneling Mechanisms
    7. Enterprise Security Models for IPv6
      1. The New Model
      2. Using Directory Services for Controlling Access
      3. IPv6 Firewall Filter Rules
    8. References
      1. RFCs
      2. Drafts
  10. 7. Transition Technologies
    1. Dual-Stack
    2. Tunneling Techniques
      1. How Tunneling Works
      2. Automatic Tunneling
      3. Configured Tunneling (RFC 4213)
      4. Encapsulation in IPv6 (RFC 2473)
      5. Tunneling Mechanisms
        1. 6to4
        2. IPv6 Rapid Deployment—6rd
        3. ISATAP
        4. Teredo
        5. Tunnel Broker
        6. IPv4/IPv6 coexistence by using VLANs
        7. IPv6 in MPLS networks
          1. 6PE
          2. 6VPE
        8. Locator ID Separation Protocol (LISP)
        9. Generic Routing Encapsulation
        10. Softwire Hub and Spoke Deployment Framework
        11. Proto 41 forwarding
        12. SSH (Secure Shell) Tunnels
        13. IPv4 Residual Deployment via IPv6 (4rd)
    3. Network Address and Protocol Translation
      1. Stateless IP/ICMP Translation
        1. Translating IPv4 to IPv6
        2. Translating ICMPv4 to ICMPv6 and vice versa
        3. Translating IPv6 to IPv4
      2. NAT to Extend IPv4 Address Space
        1. Carrier Grade NAT
        2. NAT464
        3. DS-Lite
      3. NAT as an IPv6 Translation Mechanism
        1. Stateless NAT64
        2. Stateful NAT64 and DNS64
        3. NAT64 scenarios
        4. 464XLAT
        5. MAP
      4. NPTv6 and NAT66
        1. IPv6-to-IPv6 Prefix Translation (NPTv6)
        2. NAT66
      5. Other Translation Techniques
        1. Bump-in-the-Host
        2. Transport Relay Translator
      6. Load Balancing
    4. Comparison
      1. Dual-Stack
      2. Tunneling
      3. Translation
    5. References
      1. RFCs
      2. Drafts
  11. 8. Mobile IPv6
    1. Overview
      1. Mobile IPv6 Terms
      2. How Mobile IPv6 Works
    2. The Mobile IPv6 Protocol
      1. Mobility Header and Mobility Messages
      2. The Binding Update Message
      3. The Binding Acknowledgment
      4. The Binding Revocation
      5. Mobility Options
      6. Routing Header Type 2
    3. ICMPv6 and Mobile IPv6
      1. Home Agent Address Discovery
        1. ICMPv6 Home Agent Address Discovery messages
        2. Home agents list
      2. Mobile Prefix Solicitation
      3. Changes in Neighbor Discovery (ND)
        1. Modified Router Advertisement format
        2. Modified Prefix option
        3. New Advertisement Interval option
        4. New Home Agent Information option
    4. Mobile IPv6 Communication
      1. Binding Cache
      2. Binding Update List
      3. Return Routability Procedure
      4. Home Agent Operation
        1. Proxy Neighbor Discovery
        2. Bidirectional tunneling
      5. Mobile Node Operation
        1. Route Optimization in detail
        2. Communication with bidirectional tunneling
        3. Movement Detection
        4. Returning home
    5. Security
    6. Extensions to Mobile IPv6
      1. NEMO
      2. Hierarchical Mobile IPv6
      3. Proxy Mobile IPv6
      4. Multiple Care-of Addresses Registration
      5. Flow Binding
      6. Fast Handover
      7. Support for Dual-Stack Hosts and Routers
    7. References
      1. RFCs
  12. 9. Planning for IPv6
    1. When to Choose IPv6?
    2. Integration Scenarios
      1. Organizations
      2. ISPs
        1. Mobile networks
        2. Home networks
    3. Planning for IPv6
      1. Where to Start
      2. A Word on Applications
      3. Do’s and Don’ts
        1. Is IPv6 just like IPv4?
        2. Inescapable bugs and why generic assessments are not very useful
        3. Vendor strategy and RFC requirements
      4. General Design Guidelines
      5. Address Plan
        1. What is new?
        2. Global addresses versus ULAs
        3. General considerations
        4. Configuration of interface IDs
      6. Where Do You Get Your Address Space From?
      7. How Much Space Will You Get?
      8. Multihoming with IPv6
    4. Cost of Introduction
      1. Hardware and Operating Systems
      2. Software
      3. Education
      4. Planning
      5. Other Costs
    5. References
      1. RFCs
      2. Drafts
  13. A. RFCs
    1. General RFC Information
    2. Drafts
    3. RFC Index for IPv6
  14. B. Recommended Reading
  15. Index
  16. Colophon
  17. Copyright