Cover image for Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments

Book description

For students, DIY hobbyists, and science buffs, who can no longer get real chemistry sets, this one-of-a-kind guide explains how to set up and use a home chemistry lab, with step-by-step instructions for conducting experiments in basic chemistry -- not just to make pretty colors and stinky smells, but to learn how to do real lab work:

  • Purify alcohol by distillation

  • Produce hydrogen and oxygen gas by electrolysis

  • Smelt metallic copper from copper ore you make yourself

  • Analyze the makeup of seawater, bone, and other common substances

  • Synthesize oil of wintergreen from aspirin and rayon fiber from paper

  • Perform forensics tests for fingerprints, blood, drugs, and poisons

  • and much more

From the 1930s through the 1970s, chemistry sets were among the most popular Christmas gifts, selling in the millions. But two decades ago, real chemistry sets began to disappear as manufacturers and retailers became concerned about liability. ,em>The Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments steps up to the plate with lessons on how to equip your home chemistry lab, master laboratory skills, and work safely in your lab. The bulk of this book consists of 17 hands-on chapters that include multiple laboratory sessions on the following topics:

  • Separating Mixtures

  • Solubility and Solutions

  • Colligative Properties of Solutions

  • Introduction to Chemical Reactions & Stoichiometry

  • Reduction-Oxidation (Redox) Reactions

  • Acid-Base Chemistry

  • Chemical Kinetics

  • Chemical Equilibrium and Le Chatelier's Principle

  • Gas Chemistry

  • Thermochemistry and Calorimetry

  • Electrochemistry

  • Photochemistry

  • Colloids and Suspensions

  • Qualitative Analysis

  • Quantitative Analysis

  • Synthesis of Useful Compounds

  • Forensic Chemistry

With plenty of full-color illustrations and photos, Illustrated Guide to Home Chemistry Experiments offers introductory level sessions suitable for a middle school or first-year high school chemistry laboratory course, and more advanced sessions suitable for students who intend to take the College Board Advanced Placement (AP) Chemistry exam. A student who completes all of the laboratories in this book will have done the equivalent of two full years of high school chemistry lab work or a first-year college general chemistry laboratory course.

This hands-on introduction to real chemistry -- using real equipment, real chemicals, and real quantitative experiments -- is ideal for the many thousands of young people and adults who want to experience the magic of chemistry.

Table of Contents

  1. Dedication
  2. Preface
    1. Who This Book is For
    2. How This Book is Organized
    3. Acknowledgments
    4. Thank You
  3. 1. Introduction
    1. Maintaining a Laboratory Notebook
      1. Laboratory Notebook Guidelines
        1. Use the following guidelines to maintain your laboratory notebook:
      2. Laboratory Notebook Format
        1. Use the following general format for recording an experiment in your lab notebook:
  4. 2. Laboratory Safety
    1. Laboratory Safety Rules We Recommend
      1. Prepare Properly
        1. All Laboratory Activities Must be Supervised by a Responsible Adult
        2. Familiarize Yourself with Safety Procedures and Equipment
        3. Always Read the MSDS for Every Chemical that You Will Use in a Laboratory Session
        4. Organize Your Work Area
      2. Dress Properly
        1. Wear Approved Eye Protection at All Times
        2. Wear Protective Gloves and Clothing
      3. Avoid Laboratory Hazards
        1. Avoid Chemical Hazards
        2. Avoid Fire Hazards
        3. Avoid Glassware Hazards
      4. Don’t Do Stupid Things
        1. Never Eat, Drink, or Smoke in the Laboratory
        2. Never Work Alone in the Laboratory
        3. No Horsing Around
        4. Never Combine Chemicals Arbitrarily
        5. Don’t Make Explosives
  5. 3. Equipping a Home Chemistry Laboratory
    1. General Purpose Glassware and Plasticware
      1. Test Tubes
      2. Beakers
      3. FlaskS
        1. Erlenmeyer Flasks
        2. Florence (Boiling) Flasks
        3. Filtering Flasks
      4. Funnels
      5. Bottles and Vials
        1. Storage Bottles
        2. Barnes Bottles
        3. Wash Bottles
      6. Miscellaneous General Glassware
    2. Volumetric Glassware
      1. Graduated Cylinders
      2. Pipettes
      3. Burettes
      4. Volumetric Flasks
    3. Microscale Equipment
      1. Reaction Plates
      2. Droppers and Disposable Pipettes
    4. Recommended Laboratory Glassware
    5. Laboratory Equipment and Supplies
      1. Balance
      2. Heat Sources
      3. Support Stands, Rings, and Clamps
      4. Pipetters
      5. pH Measuring Tools
      6. Thermometers
      7. Scoops, Spatulas, and Spoons
      8. Filter Paper
      9. Chromatography Paper
      10. Battery and Electrodes
      11. Rubber Stoppers and Corks
      12. Recommended Laboratory Equipment and Supplies
      13. Miscellaneous Equipment (Junk Collecting)
    6. Work Area
  6. 4. Chemicals for the Home Chemistry Lab
    1. Chemical Names
    2. Chemical Grades
    3. Chemical Risk Factors and Safety Advice
      1. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
      2. NFPA 704 Fire Diamond
      3. Risk Phrases (R-phrases) and Safety Phrases (S-phrases)
    4. Hazard Pictograms and Letter Symbols
    5. Safe Chemical Handling
      1. Incompatible Chemicals
        1. Storage Color Codes
      2. Proper Disposal of Used and Unneeded Chemicals
        1. Disposal of Common Laboratory Chemicals
        2. Disposal of Heavy-Metal and Other Toxic Compounds
    6. Chemicals Used in This Book
      1. Notes:
      2. Shipping Hazardous Chemicals
  7. 5. Mastering Laboratory Skills
    1. Measurement Resolution and Significant Figures
    2. Handling Chemicals Properly
    3. Using a Balance
    4. Measuring Liquids by Volume
      1. Using a Volumetric Flask
      2. Using a Pipette
        1. Cleaning a Pipette
        2. Calibrating a Disposable Plastic Pipette
      3. Using a Burette
      4. Performing Titrations without a Burette
        1. Titrate Using a Graduated Cylinder
        2. Titrate Using a Mohr Pipette
    5. Filtration
    6. Separations
    7. Using Heat Sources
      1. Using an Alcohol Lamp
      2. Using a Gas Burner
      3. Evaporating and Drying
    8. Working with Glass Tubing
      1. Cutting Glass Tubing
      2. Bending and Drawing Glass Tubing
      3. Inserting Glass Tubing into Corks and Stoppers Safely
    9. Cleaning Glassware
  8. 6. Laboratory: Separating Mixtures
    1. Laboratory 6.1: Differential Solubility: Separate Sand and Sucrose
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 6.2: Distillation: Purify ethanol
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    3. Laboratory 6.3: Recrystallization: Purify Copper Sulfate
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    4. Laboratory 6.4: Solvent Extraction
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    5. Laboratory 6.5: Chromatography: Two-Phase Separation of Mixtures
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Basic Chromatography
        2. Part II: Two-Dimensional Chromatography
      2. Review Questions
    6. Laboratory 6.6: Determine the Formula of a Hydrate
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
  9. 7. Laboratory: Solubility and Solutions
    1. Laboratory 7.1: Make Up a Molar Solution of a Solid Chemical
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 7.2: Make Up a Molal Solution of a Solid Chemical
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    3. Laboratory 7.3: Make Up a Molar Solution of a Liquid Chemical
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    4. Laboratory 7.4: Make Up a Mass-to-Volume Percentage Solution
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    5. Laboratory 7.5: Determine Concentration of a Solution by Visual Colorimetry
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Make Up Reference Solutions
        2. Part II: Determine the Concentration of an Unknown Solution
      2. Review Questions
  10. 8. Laboratory: Colligative Properties of Solutions
    1. Laboratory 8.1: Determine Molar Mass by Boiling Point Elevation
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Determine the Boiling Point of Water Under Ambient Pressure
        2. Part II: Prepare Molal Solutions of Sodium Chloride and Sucrose
        3. Part III: Determine the Boiling Points of Sodium Chloride and Sucrose Solutions
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 8.2: Determine Molar Mass by Freezing Point Depression
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Prepare the Ice Bath and Determine the Freezing Point of Water
        2. Part II: Determine the Freezing Points of Sodium Chloride and Sucrose Solutions
      2. Review Questions
    3. Laboratory 8.3: Observe the Effects of Osmotic Pressure
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
  11. 9. Laboratory: Introduction to Chemical Reactions and Stoichiometry
    1. Laboratory 9.1: Observe a Composition Reaction
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 9.2: Observe a Decomposition Reaction
      1. Procedure
      2. Part I
      3. Part II
      4. Review Questions
    3. Laboratory 9.3: Observe a Single Displacement Reaction
      1. Procedure
      2. Part I
      3. Part II
      4. Review Questions
    4. Laboratory 9.4: Stoichiometry of a Double Displacement Reaction
      1. Procedure
      2. Part I
      3. Part II
      4. Review Questions
  12. 10. Laboratory: Reduction-Oxidation (Redox) Reactions
    1. Laboratory 10.1: Reduction of copper ore to copper metal
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 10.2: Observe the Oxidation States of Manganese
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
  13. 11. Laboratory: Acid-Base Chemistry
    1. Laboratory 11.1: Determine the Effect of Concentration on PH
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 11.2: Determine the pH of Aqueous Salt Solutions
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    3. Laboratory 11.3: Observe the Characteristics of a Buffer Solution
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    4. Laboratory 11.4: Standardize a Hydrochloric Acid Solution by Titration
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Make Up a Stock Reference Solution of ~1.500 M Sodium Carbonate
        2. Part II: Use Serial Dilution to Make Up a Working Reference Solution of ~0.1500 M Sodium Carbonate
        3. Part III: Standardize a Bench Solution of ~1 M Hydrochloric Acid
      2. Review Questions
  14. 12. Laboratory: Chemical Kinetics
    1. Laboratory 12.1: Determine the Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 12.2: Determine the Effect of Surface Area on Reaction Rate
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    3. Laboratory 12.3: Determine the Effect of Concentration on Reaction Rate
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    4. Laboratory 12.4: Determine the Effect of a Catalyst on Reaction Rate
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
  15. 13. Laboratory: Chemical Equilibrium and Le Chatelier’s Principle
    1. Laboratory 13.1: Observe Le Chatelier’s Principle in Action
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Examine the Effect of Concentration on Equilibrium
        2. Part II: Examine the Effect of Temperature on Equilibrium
        3. Part III: Examine the Effect of Volume on Equilibrium
        4. PART IV: Examine the Effect of Pressure (and Temperature) on Equilibrium
      2. Observations
      3. Part I
      4. Part II
      5. Part III
      6. Part IV
      7. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 13.2: Quantify the Common Ion Effect
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    3. Laboratory 13.3: Determine a Solubility Product Constant
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Determine the K
        2. Part II: Determine the K
      2. Review Questions
  16. 14. Laboratory: Gas Chemistry
    1. Laboratory 14.1: Observe the Volume-Pressure Relationship of Gases (Boyle’s Law)
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 14.2: Observe the Volume-Temperature Relationship of Gases (Charles’ Law)
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    3. Laboratory 14.3: Observe the Pressure-Temperature Relationship of Gases (Gay-Lussac’s Law)
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    4. Laboratory 14.4: Use the Ideal Gas Law to Determine the Percentage of Acetic Acid in Vinegar
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    5. Laboratory 14.5: Determine Molar Mass from Vapor Density
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
  17. 15. Laboratory: Thermochemistry and Calorimetry
    1. Laboratory 15.1: Determine Heat of Solution
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 15.2: Determine the Heat of Fusion of Ice
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    3. Laboratory 15.3: Determine the Specific Heat of a Metal
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    4. Laboratory 15.4: Determine the Enthalpy Change of a Reaction
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
  18. 16. Laboratory: Electrochemistry
    1. Laboratory 16.1: Produce Hydrogen and Oxygen by Electrolysis of Water
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 16.2: Observe the Electrochemical Oxidation of Iron
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    3. Laboratory 16.3: Measure Electrode Potentials
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    4. Laboratory 16.4: Observe Energy Transformation (Voltage and Current)
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    5. Laboratory 16.5: Build a Voltaic Cell with Two Half-Cells
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    6. Laboratory 16.6: Build a Battery
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
  19. 17. Laboratory: Photochemistry
    1. Laboratory 17.1: Photochemical Reaction of Iodine and Oxalate
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Prepare Reference Samples
        2. Part II: Determine the Effects of Different Light Sources on Iodine/Oxalate Solution Samples
      2. Review Questions
  20. 18. Laboratory: Colloids and Suspensions
    1. Laboratory 18.1 Observe Some Properties of Colloids and Suspensions
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 18.2: Produce Firefighting Foam
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    3. Laboratory 18.3: Prepare a Gelled Sol
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
  21. 19. Laboratory: Qualitative Analysis
    1. Laboratory 19.1: Use Flame Tests to Discriminate Metal Ions
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 19.2: Use Borax Bead Tests to Discriminate Metal Ions
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    3. Laboratory 19.3: Qualitative Analysis of Inorganic Anions
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Testing for Nitrate Ions
        2. Part II: Testing for Other Anions
      2. Review Questions
    4. Laboratory 19.4: Qualitative Analysis of Inorganic Cations
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    5. Laboratory 19.5: Qualitative Analysis of Bone
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Sample Preparation
        2. Part II: Analysis of Ions
      2. Review Questions
  22. 20. Laboratory: Quantitative Analysis
    1. Laboratory 20.1: Quantitative Analysis of Vitamin C by Acid-Base Titration
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 20.2: Quantitative Analysis of Chlorine Bleach by Redox Titration
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Determine the Density of Chlorine Bleach
        2. Part II: Determine Hypochlorite Concentration
      2. Review Questions
    3. Laboratory 20.3: Quantitative Anion Analysis of Seawater
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Determine Seawater Density and Total Dissolved Solids
        2. Part II: Determine Chloride Ion Quantitatively
        3. Part III: Determine Sulfate Ion Quantitatively
      2. Review Questions
  23. 21. Laboratory: Synthesis of Useful Compounds
    1. Laboratory 21.1: Synthesize Methyl Salicylate From Aspirin
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Synthesize Methyl Salicylate
        2. Part II: Isolate and Purify the Product
        3. Part III: Determine Density and Freezing Point of the Product
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 21.2: Produce Rayon Fiber
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
  24. 22. Laboratory: Forensic Chemistry
    1. Laboratory 22.1: Use the Sherlock Holmes Test to Detect Blood
      1. Procedure
      2. Review Questions
    2. Laboratory 22.2: Perform a Presumptive Test for Illicit Drugs
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Prepare Reagents
        2. Part II: Run the Tests
      2. Review Questions
    3. Laboratory 22.3: Reveal Latent Fingerprints
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Iodine Fuming
        2. Part II: Ninhydrin Spray
        3. Part III: Silver Nitrate Spray
      2. Review Questions
    4. Laboratory 22.4: Perform the Marsh Test
      1. Procedure
        1. Part I: Establish Reagent Purity
        2. Part II: Test the Samples
        3. Part III: Discriminate between Arsenic and Antimony
      2. Review Questions
  25. Index
  26. About the Author
  27. Copyright