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Book description

Ethernet is a core networking technology used by every high tech business. While the basic protocols have changed little, new options such as Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet have increased the complexity of the topic. Ethernet has been the flavor of choice for networking administrators since the early 1980s because of its ease of use and scalability. Written by one of the foremost experts on Ethernet standards and configuration, Charles E. Spurgeon, Ethernet: The Definitive Guide includes everything you need to know to set up and maintain an Ethernet network. Ethernet: The Definitive Guide teaches you everything you need to know about the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard and its protocols. The book is logically separated into five parts:

  • Introduction to Ethernet provides a tour of basic Ethernet theory and operation, including a description of Ethernet frames, operation of the Media Access Control (MAC) protocol, full-duplex mode and auto-negotiation.

  • Ethernet Media Systems is the heart of the book. This sectionof Ethernet: The Definitive Guide shows you how to build media-specific Ethernet networks, from a basic 10BASE-T Ethernet offering 10 Mbps over twisted-pair cables, to an advanced 1000BASE-X Gigabit Ethernet, providing up to 1 Gbps of data transfer over fiber optic cables.

  • Building Your Ethernet System teaches you how to build twisted-pair and fiber optic media segments, as well as how to build your Ethernet using repeaters and hubs.

  • Performance and Troubleshooting is divided into two chapters. The first describes both the performance of a given Ethernet channel, as well as the performance of the entire network system. The second includes a tutorial on troubleshooting techniques and describes the kinds of problems network administrators are likely to encounter.

The last part of the book includes a complete glossary of terms used throughout the book, a resource list, descriptions of thick and thin coax-based Ethernet systems, a guide to AUI equipment installation and configuration, and a listing of troubleshooting numbers.

This book is the definitive guide for anyone wanting to build a scalable local area network (LAN) using Ethernet.

Table of Contents

  1. Ethernet: The Definitive Guide
    1. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
    2. Preface
      1. Ethernet Is Everywhere
        1. Cost
        2. Scalability
        3. Reliability
        4. Widely Available Management Tools
      2. Design for Reliability
        1. Downtime Is Expensive
      3. Organization of This Book
        1. Part I
        2. Part II
        3. Part III
        4. Part IV
        5. Part V
      4. Online References
      5. How to Use This Book
      6. Conventions Used in This Book
      7. How to Contact Us
      8. Acknowledgments
    3. I. Introduction to Ethernet
      1. 1. The Evolution of Ethernet
        1. 1.1. History of Ethernet
          1. 1.1.1. The Aloha Network
          2. 1.1.2. Invention of Ethernet
          3. 1.1.3. Evolution of the Ethernet Standard
        2. 1.2. The Latest Ethernet Standard
          1. 1.2.1. IEEE Supplements
          2. 1.2.2. Differences in the Standard
        3. 1.3. Organization of IEEE Standards
          1. 1.3.1. The Seven Layers of OSI
          2. 1.3.2. IEEE Layers Within the OSI Model
        4. 1.4. Levels of Compliance
          1. 1.4.1. The Effect of Standards Compliance
          2. 1.4.2. Equipment Included in the Standard
        5. 1.5. IEEE Identifiers
          1. 1.5.1. 100 Mbps Media Systems
          2. 1.5.2. 1000 Mbps Media Systems
        6. 1.6. Reinventing Ethernet
          1. 1.6.1. Reinventing Ethernet for Twisted-Pair Media
          2. 1.6.2. Reinventing Ethernet for 100 Mbps
          3. 1.6.3. Reinventing Ethernet for 1000 Mbps
          4. 1.6.4. Reinventing Ethernet for New Capabilities
        7. 1.7. Multi-Gigabit Ethernet
      2. 2. The Ethernet System
        1. 2.1. Four Basic Elements of Ethernet
          1. 2.1.1. The Ethernet Frame
          2. 2.1.2. The Media Access Control Protocol
            1. 2.1.2.1. The CSMA/CD protocol
            2. 2.1.2.2. Collisions
        2. 2.2. Ethernet Hardware
          1. 2.2.1. Signaling Components
          2. 2.2.2. Media Components
          3. 2.2.3. Round-Trip Timing
          4. 2.2.4. Ethernet Hubs
        3. 2.3. Network Protocols and Ethernet
          1. 2.3.1. Design of Network Protocols
            1. 2.3.1.1. Protocol encapsulation
          2. 2.3.2. Internet Protocol and Ethernet Addresses
            1. 2.3.2.1. Operation of the ARP protocol
      3. 3. The Media Access Control Protocol
        1. 3.1. The Ethernet Frame
          1. 3.1.1. Preamble
          2. 3.1.2. Destination Address
          3. 3.1.3. Source Address
          4. 3.1.4. VLAN Tag Header
          5. 3.1.5. Type Field or Length Field
          6. 3.1.6. Data Field
          7. 3.1.7. FCS Field
          8. 3.1.8. End of Frame Detection
        2. 3.2. Media Access Control Rules
        3. 3.3. Essential Media System Timing
          1. 3.3.1. Ethernet Slot Time
          2. 3.3.2. Slot Time and Network Diameter
          3. 3.3.3. Use of the Slot Time
          4. 3.3.4. Slot Time and Minimum Frame Length
        4. 3.4. Collision Detection and Backoff
          1. 3.4.1. Operation of Collision Detect
            1. 3.4.1.1. Collision detection on media systems
          2. 3.4.2. Late Collisions
            1. 3.4.2.1. Common causes of late collision
          3. 3.4.3. The Collision Backoff Algorithm
          4. 3.4.4. Operation of the Backoff Algorithm
          5. 3.4.5. Choosing a Backoff Time
        5. 3.5. Gigabit Ethernet Half-Duplex Operation
          1. 3.5.1. Gigabit Ethernet Half-Duplex Network Diameter
          2. 3.5.2. Looking for Bit Times
          3. 3.5.3. Carrier Extension
          4. 3.5.4. Frame Bursting
            1. 3.5.4.1. Frame bursting and channel efficiency
        6. 3.6. Collision Domain
        7. 3.7. Ethernet Channel Capture
          1. 3.7.1. Operation of Channel Capture
          2. 3.7.2. Long-Term Fairness
          3. 3.7.3. A Fix for Channel Capture?
        8. 3.8. High-level Protocols and the Ethernet Frame
          1. 3.8.1. Multiplexing Data in Frames
          2. 3.8.2. Multiplexing Data with LLC
          3. 3.8.3. LLC Sub-Network Access Protocol
      4. 4. Full-Duplex Ethernet
        1. 4.1. Operation of Full-Duplex
          1. 4.1.1. Effects of Full-Duplex Operation
          2. 4.1.2. Configuring Full-Duplex Operation
          3. 4.1.3. Full-Duplex Media Support
          4. 4.1.4. Full-Duplex Media Segment Distances
        2. 4.2. Ethernet Flow Control
          1. 4.2.1. MAC Control Protocol
          2. 4.2.2. PAUSE Operation
      5. 5. Auto-Negotiation
        1. 5.1. Development of Auto-Negotiation
        2. 5.2. Basic Concepts of Auto-Negotiation
        3. 5.3. Auto-Negotiation Signaling
          1. 5.3.1. FLP Operation
        4. 5.4. Auto-Negotiation Operation
          1. 5.4.1. Repeater Hubs and Auto-Negotiation
          2. 5.4.2. Auto-Negotiation and Cable Type
        5. 5.5. Parallel Detection
          1. 5.5.1. Problems with Parallel Detection
        6. 5.6. Management Interface
        7. 5.7. 1000BASE-X Auto-Negotiation
    4. II. Ethernet Media Systems
      1. 6. Ethernet Media Fundamentals
        1. 6.1. Attachment Unit Interface
          1. 6.1.1. Data Terminal Equipment or Repeater Port
          2. 6.1.2. Attachment Unit Interface and Cable
          3. 6.1.3. AUI Connector
          4. 6.1.4. AUI Transceiver Cable
          5. 6.1.5. Medium Attachment Unit
            1. 6.1.5.1. AUI transceiver jabber protection
            2. 6.1.5.2. The SQE Test signal
          6. 6.1.6. Medium-Dependent Interface
        2. 6.2. Medium-Independent Interface
          1. 6.2.1. MII Connector
            1. 6.2.1.1. MII connector signals
          2. 6.2.2. MII Transceiver and Cable
            1. 6.2.2.1. MII jabber protection
            2. 6.2.2.2. MII SQE Test
        3. 6.3. Gigabit Medium-Independent Interface
          1. 6.3.1. Gigabit Ten-Bit Interface
          2. 6.3.2. GMII Transceiver
          3. 6.3.3. Gigabit Interface Converter
        4. 6.4. Ethernet Signal Encoding
          1. 6.4.1. AUI Signal Encoding
          2. 6.4.2. MII Signal Encoding
            1. 6.4.2.1. 100BASE-X encoding
          3. 6.4.3. GMII Signal Encoding
        5. 6.5. Ethernet Network Interface Card
          1. 6.5.1. Ethernet Interface Buyer's Guide
            1. 6.5.1.1. Gigabit Ethernet interfaces
      2. 7. Twisted-Pair Media System (10BASE-T)
        1. 7.1. 10BASE-T Signaling Components
          1. 7.1.1. 10BASE-T Ethernet Interface
          2. 7.1.2. Transceiver Cable
          3. 7.1.3. External 10BASE-T Transceiver
          4. 7.1.4. Signal Polarity and Polarity Reversal
          5. 7.1.5. 10BASE-T Signal Encoding
            1. 7.1.5.1. Physical line signaling
        2. 7.2. 10BASE-T Media Components
          1. 7.2.1. UTP Cable
          2. 7.2.2. 10BASE-T Segments Longer than 100 Meters
            1. 7.2.2.1. 10BASE-T attenuation specifications
            2. 7.2.2.2. Special signaling equipment
          3. 7.2.3. Twisted-Pair Impedance Rating
          4. 7.2.4. Eight-Position RJ-45-Style Jack Connector
          5. 7.2.5. Connecting a Station to 10BASE-T Ethernet
          6. 7.2.6. 10BASE-T Link Integrity Test
        3. 7.3. 10BASE-T Configuration Guidelines
      3. 8. Fiber Optic Media System (10BASE-F)
        1. 8.1. Old and New Fiber Link Segments
        2. 8.2. 10BASE-FL Signaling Components
          1. 8.2.1. 10BASE-FL Ethernet Interface
          2. 8.2.2. Transceiver Cable
          3. 8.2.3. 10BASE-FL Transceiver
          4. 8.2.4. 10BASE-FL Signal Encoding
            1. 8.2.4.1. Physical line signaling
        3. 8.3. 10BASE-FL Media Components
          1. 8.3.1. Fiber Optic Cable
          2. 8.3.2. Fiber Optic Connector
        4. 8.4. Connecting a Station to 10BASE-FL Ethernet
          1. 8.4.1. 10BASE-FL Link Integrity Test
        5. 8.5. 10BASE-FL Configuration Guidelines
          1. 8.5.1. Longer 10 Mbps Fiber Segments
      4. 9. Fast Ethernet Twisted-PairMedia System (100BASE-TX)
        1. 9.1. 100BASE-TX Signaling Components
          1. 9.1.1. 100BASE-TX Ethernet Interface
          2. 9.1.2. Medium-Independent Interface
          3. 9.1.3. 100BASE-TX Transceiver
          4. 9.1.4. 100BASE-TX Signal Encoding
            1. 9.1.4.1. Physical line signaling
        2. 9.2. 100BASE-TX Media Components
          1. 9.2.1. Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cable
          2. 9.2.2. Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable
          3. 9.2.3. Eight-Position RJ-45-Style Jack Connector
        3. 9.3. Connecting a Station to 100BASE-TX Ethernet
          1. 9.3.1. 100BASE-TX Link Integrity Test
        4. 9.4. 100BASE-TX Configuration Guidelines
      5. 10. Fast Ethernet Fiber Optic Media System (100BASE-FX)
        1. 10.1. 100BASE-FX Signaling Components
          1. 10.1.1. 100BASE-FX Ethernet Interface
          2. 10.1.2. Media-Independent Interface
          3. 10.1.3. 100BASE-FX Transceiver
          4. 10.1.4. 100BASE-FX Signal Encoding
            1. 10.1.4.1. Physical line signaling
        2. 10.2. 100BASE-FX Media Components
          1. 10.2.1. Fiber Optic Cable
          2. 10.2.2. Fiber Optic Connector
        3. 10.3. Connecting a Stationto 100BASE-FX Ethernet
          1. 10.3.1. 100BASE-FX Link Integrity Test
        4. 10.4. 100BASE-FX Configuration Guidelines
          1. 10.4.1. Longer Fiber Segments
      6. 11. Gigabit Ethernet Twisted-PairMedia System (1000BASE-T)
        1. 11.1. 1000BASE-T Signaling Components
        2. 11.2. 1000BASE-T Signal Encoding
          1. 11.2.1. Signaling and Data Rate
          2. 11.2.2. Signal Clocking
          3. 11.2.3. 1000BASE-T Cabling Requirements
        3. 11.3. 1000BASE-T Media Components
          1. 11.3.1. UTP Cable
          2. 11.3.2. Eight-Position RJ-45-Style Jack Connector
        4. 11.4. Connecting a Stationto 1000BASE-T Ethernet
          1. 11.4.1. 1000BASE-T Link Integrity Test
        5. 11.5. 1000BASE-T Configuration Guidelines
      7. 12. Gigabit Ethernet Fiber OpticMedia System (1000BASE-X)
        1. 12.1. 1000BASE-X Signaling Components
          1. 12.1.1. 1000BASE-X Link Integrity Test
        2. 12.2. 1000BASE-X Signal Encoding
          1. 12.2.1. Physical line signaling
        3. 12.3. 1000BASE-X Media Components
        4. 12.4. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LXMedia Components
          1. 12.4.1. Fiber Optic Cable
          2. 12.4.2. Fiber Optic Connectors
          3. 12.4.3. Gigabit Interface Converter
        5. 12.5. 1000BASE-CX Media Components
          1. 12.5.1. 1000BASE-CX Connectors
        6. 12.6. 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX Configuration Guidelines
      8. 13. Multi-Segment Configuration Guidelines
        1. 13.1. Scope of the Configuration Guidelines
        2. 13.2. Network Documentation
        3. 13.3. Collision Domain
        4. 13.4. Model 1 Configuration Guidelines for 10 Mbps
        5. 13.5. Model 2 Configuration Guidelines for 10 Mbps
          1. 13.5.1. Network Models and Delay Values
          2. 13.5.2. Finding the Worst-Case Path
          3. 13.5.3. Calculating Round-Trip Delay Time
          4. 13.5.4. Calculating the Interframe Gap Shrinkage
        6. 13.6. Model 1 Configuration Guidelines for Fast Ethernet
          1. 13.6.1. Longer Inter-Repeater Links
        7. 13.7. Model 2 Configuration Guidelines for Fast Ethernet
          1. 13.7.1. Calculating Round-Trip Delay Time
          2. 13.7.2. Calculating Your Own Segment Delay Values
          3. 13.7.3. Typical Propagation Values for Cables
        8. 13.8. Model 1 Configuration Guidelines for Gigabit Ethernet
        9. 13.9. Model 2 Configuration Guidelines for Gigabit Ethernet
          1. 13.9.1. Calculating the Path Delay Value
          2. 13.9.2. Segment Delay Value
        10. 13.10. Sample Network Configurations
          1. 13.10.1. Simple 10 Mbps Model 2 Configuration
            1. 13.10.1.1. Round-trip delay
            2. 13.10.1.2. Interframe gap shrinkage
          2. 13.10.2. Complex 10 Mbps Model 2 Configuration
            1. 13.10.2.1. Calculating separate left end values
            2. 13.10.2.2. AUI delay value
            3. 13.10.2.3. Calculating middle segment values
            4. 13.10.2.4. Completing the round-trip timing calculation
            5. 13.10.2.5. Interframe gap shrinkage
          3. 13.10.3. 100 Mbps Model 2 Configuration
            1. 13.10.3.1. Worst-case path
            2. 13.10.3.2. Working with bit time values
    5. III. Building Your Ethernet System
      1. 14. Structured Cabling
        1. 14.1. Structured Cabling Systems
        2. 14.2. TIA/EIA Cabling Standards
          1. 14.2.1. Six Elements of Structured Cabling
          2. 14.2.2. Star Topology
        3. 14.3. Twisted-Pair Categories
          1. 14.3.1. Category 5 and 5e Recommendation
          2. 14.3.2. Category 6
        4. 14.4. Ethernet and the Category System
        5. 14.5. Horizontal Cabling
          1. 14.5.1. Horizontal Channel and Basic Link
        6. 14.6. New Twisted-Pair Standards
          1. 14.6.1. Additional Category 5 Specifications
          2. 14.6.2. Enhanced Category 5 Cable Standard
        7. 14.7. Identifying the Cables
        8. 14.8. Documenting the Cable System
        9. 14.9. Building the Cabling System
      2. 15. Twisted-Pair Cables and Connectors
        1. 15.1. Category 5 Horizontal Cable Segment
          1. 15.1.1. Category 5 Twisted-Pair Cable
          2. 15.1.2. Twisted-Pair Cable Signal Crosstalk
          3. 15.1.3. Twisted-Pair Cable Construction
          4. 15.1.4. Twisted-Pair Installation Practices
        2. 15.2. Eight-Position (RJ-45-Style) Jack
        3. 15.3. Four-Pair Wiring Schemes
          1. 15.3.1. Tip and Ring
          2. 15.3.2. Color Codes
          3. 15.3.3. Wiring Sequence
        4. 15.4. Modular Patch Panel
        5. 15.5. Work Area Outlet
        6. 15.6. Twisted-Pair Patch Cables
          1. 15.6.1. Telephone-Grade Patch Cables
          2. 15.6.2. Equipment Cables
          3. 15.6.3. 50-Pin Connectors and 25-Pair Cables
            1. 15.6.3.1. 50-pin wiring sequence and mounting hardware
            2. 15.6.3.2. 50-pin multiple disturber crosstalk
            3. 15.6.3.3. Harmonica connectors
        7. 15.7. Building a Twisted-Pair Patch Cable
          1. 15.7.1. Installing an RJ-45 Plug
        8. 15.8. Ethernet Signal Crossover
          1. 15.8.1. 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T Crossover Cable
          2. 15.8.2. 1000BASE-T Crossover Cable
          3. 15.8.3. Identifying a Crossover Cable
        9. 15.9. Twisted-Pair Ethernetand Telephone Signals
      3. 16. Fiber Optic Cables and Connectors
        1. 16.1. Fiber Optic Cable
          1. 16.1.1. Fiber Optic Core Diameters
          2. 16.1.2. Fiber Optic Modes
          3. 16.1.3. Fiber Optic Bandwidth
          4. 16.1.4. Fiber Optic Loss Budget
          5. 16.1.5. Fiber Optic Connectors
            1. 16.1.5.1. ST connector
            2. 16.1.5.2. SC connector
            3. 16.1.5.3. MT-RJ connector
          6. 16.1.6. Building Fiber Optic Cables
          7. 16.1.7. Signal Crossover in Fiber Optic Systems
        2. 16.2. 10BASE-FL Fiber Optic Characteristics
          1. 16.2.1. Alternate 10BASE-FL Fiber Optic Cables
        3. 16.3. 100BASE-FX Fiber Optic Characteristics
          1. 16.3.1. Alternate 100BASE-FX Fiber Optic Cables
        4. 16.4. 1000BASE-X Fiber Optic Characteristics
          1. 16.4.1. 1000BASE-SX Loss Budget
          2. 16.4.2. 1000BASE-LX Loss Budget
          3. 16.4.3. 1000BASE-LX/LH Long Haul Loss Budget
          4. 16.4.4. Differential Mode Delay
          5. 16.4.5. Mode-Conditioning Patch Cord
      4. 17. Ethernet Repeater Hubs
        1. 17.1. Collision Domain
        2. 17.2. Basic Repeater Operation
          1. 17.2.1. Collision Enforcement
          2. 17.2.2. Fragment Extension
          3. 17.2.3. Automatic Partitioning
          4. 17.2.4. The Limit on Repeaters
        3. 17.3. Repeater Buying Guide
          1. 17.3.1. Chassis Hubs
          2. 17.3.2. Stackable Repeaters
          3. 17.3.3. Repeater Signal Lights
          4. 17.3.4. Managed Hubs
            1. 17.3.4.1. Secure hubs
            2. 17.3.4.2. Intruder protection
            3. 17.3.4.3. Eavesdrop protection
        4. 17.4. 10 Mbps Repeaters
          1. 17.4.1. Preamble Restoration
          2. 17.4.2. SQE Test Signal and 10 Mbps Repeaters
            1. 17.4.2.1. SQE Test and slow network performance
          3. 17.4.3. Sample 10 Mbps Repeater Configurations
            1. 17.4.3.1. Stackable repeaters reduce hop count
            2. 17.4.3.2. Fiber optic 10 Mbps repeater hub
        5. 17.5. 100 Mbps Repeaters
          1. 17.5.1. 100 Mbps Repeater Types
            1. 17.5.1.1. Automatic partitioning
            2. 17.5.1.2. 100 Mbps repeater buying guide
          2. 17.5.2. Sample 100 Mbps Repeater Configurations
        6. 17.6. 1000 Mbps Gigabit Ethernet Repeater
        7. 17.7. Repeater Management
          1. 17.7.1. Repeater Management Interface
          2. 17.7.2. Repeater Management Information
          3. 17.7.3. Framing Function
        8. 17.8. Repeater Port Statistics
          1. 17.8.1. Readable Frames
          2. 17.8.2. Readable Octets
          3. 17.8.3. Frame Check Sequence Errors
          4. 17.8.4. Alignment Error
          5. 17.8.5. Frames Too Long
          6. 17.8.6. Short Events
          7. 17.8.7. Runts
          8. 17.8.8. Collisions
          9. 17.8.9. Late Events
          10. 17.8.10. Very Long Events
          11. 17.8.11. Data Rate Mismatches
          12. 17.8.12. Auto Partitions
          13. 17.8.13. Last Source Address
          14. 17.8.14. Source Address Changes
          15. 17.8.15. Using the Management Interface
      5. 18. Ethernet Switching Hubs
        1. 18.1. Brief Tutorial on Ethernet Bridging
          1. 18.1.1. Transparent Bridging
          2. 18.1.2. Address Learning
          3. 18.1.3. Traffic Filtering
            1. 18.1.3.1. Frame flooding
          4. 18.1.4. Broadcast and Multicast Domains
          5. 18.1.5. Spanning Tree Algorithm
        2. 18.2. Advantages of Switching Hubs
          1. 18.2.1. Improved Network Performance
          2. 18.2.2. Linking Segments at Different Speeds
          3. 18.2.3. Hybrid Switching and Repeating Hubs
          4. 18.2.4. Buffered Distributor
        3. 18.3. Switching Hub Performance Issues
          1. 18.3.1. Network Design with Switching Hubs
          2. 18.3.2. Switch Performance Measurement
        4. 18.4. Advanced Features of Switching Hubs
          1. 18.4.1. Switch Management
          2. 18.4.2. Custom Filters
          3. 18.4.3. Congestion Management
          4. 18.4.4. Traffic Management
          5. 18.4.5. Virtual LANs
            1. 18.4.5.1. 802.1Q VLAN standard
        5. 18.5. Network Design Issues with Switches
          1. 18.5.1. Seven Hop Maximum
          2. 18.5.2. Bridging Between Different LANs
            1. 18.5.2.1. Multiple systems for identifying data
          3. 18.5.3. Routers
          4. 18.5.4. Routers or Switching Hubs?
    6. IV. Performance and Troubleshooting
      1. 19. Ethernet Performance
        1. 19.1. Performance of an Ethernet Channel
          1. 19.1.1. Persistent Myths About Ethernet Performance
          2. 19.1.2. Ethernet Channel Analysis
        2. 19.2. Measuring Ethernet Performance
          1. 19.2.1. Measurement Time Scale
          2. 19.2.2. Collecting Statistics
        3. 19.3. Network Performance and the User
          1. 19.3.1. Data Throughput Versus Bandwidth
            1. 19.3.1.1. Maximum data rates on Ethernet
            2. 19.3.1.2. Network performance for the user
        4. 19.4. Network Design for Best Performance
          1. 19.4.1. Switching Hubs and Network Bandwidth
          2. 19.4.2. Growth of Network Bandwidth
          3. 19.4.3. Change in Application Requirements
          4. 19.4.4. Design for the Future
      2. 20. Troubleshooting
        1. 20.1. Reliable Network Design
        2. 20.2. Network Documentation
          1. 20.2.1. Equipment Manuals
          2. 20.2.2. System Monitoring and Baselines
        3. 20.3. The Troubleshooting Model
        4. 20.4. Fault Detection
          1. 20.4.1. Gather Information
        5. 20.5. Fault Isolation
          1. 20.5.1. Determining the Network Path
          2. 20.5.2. Duplicating the Symptom
          3. 20.5.3. Binary Search Isolation
            1. 20.5.3.1. Dividing network systems
        6. 20.6. Troubleshooting Twisted-Pair Systems
          1. 20.6.1. Twisted-Pair Troubleshooting Tools
          2. 20.6.2. Common Twisted-Pair Problems
            1. 20.6.2.1. Twisted-pair patch cables
            2. 20.6.2.2. 50-pin connectors and hydra cables
            3. 20.6.2.3. Twisted-pair segment cabling
        7. 20.7. Troubleshooting Fiber Optic Systems
          1. 20.7.1. Fiber Optic Troubleshooting Tools
          2. 20.7.2. Common Fiber Optic Problems
        8. 20.8. Data Link Troubleshooting
          1. 20.8.1. Collecting Data Link Information
          2. 20.8.2. Collecting Information with Probes
          3. 20.8.3. Collecting Information with RMON and SMON
            1. 20.8.3.1. RMON Version 1
            2. 20.8.3.2. Sample of RMON statistics
            3. 20.8.3.3. RMON Version 2
        9. 20.9. Network Layer Troubleshooting
    7. V. Appendixes
      1. A. Resources
        1. A.1. AUI Slide Latch Retainer
        2. A.2. Buyer's Guides
        3. A.3. Cable and Connector Suppliers
        4. A.4. Cable Testers
        5. A.5. Cabling Information
        6. A.6. Ethernet Jumbo Frames
        7. A.7. Ethernet Media Converters
        8. A.8. Ethernet Vendor Codes
          1. A.8.1. List of OUIs Maintained by the IEEE
          2. A.8.2. List of OUIs Compiled by Volunteers
        9. A.9. Ethernet Web Site
        10. A.10. FAQs on Cabling and Ethernet
        11. A.11. Network Analyzers
        12. A.12. Networking Magazines and Trade Journals
        13. A.13. Network Management Information
        14. A.14. Requests for Comments (RFCs)
        15. A.15. Standards Documents and Standards Organizations
          1. A.15.1. BICSI
          2. A.15.2. Fibre Channel Standards
          3. A.15.3. IEEE Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI)
          4. A.15.4. IEEE 802.1 Rapid Reconfiguration of Spanning Tree
          5. A.15.5. IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) Standard
          6. A.15.6. IEEE Higher Speed Study Group
          7. A.15.7. Telecommunications Cabling Standards
          8. A.15.8. Other Standards Organizations
        16. A.16. Wireless Ethernet
      2. B. Thick and Thin Coaxial Media Systems
        1. B.1. Thick Coaxial Media System
        2. B.2. 10BASE5 Signaling Components
          1. B.2.1. Ethernet Interface
          2. B.2.2. Transceiver Cable
          3. B.2.3. 10BASE5 Transceiver
          4. B.2.4. 10BASE5 Signal Encoding
            1. B.2.4.1. Physical line signaling
        3. B.3. 10BASE5 Media Components
        4. B.4. Connecting a Station to 10BASE5 Ethernet
        5. B.5. 10BASE5 Configuration Guidelines
        6. B.6. Thin Coaxial Media System
        7. B.7. 10BASE2 Signaling Components
          1. B.7.1. 10BASE2 Ethernet Interface
          2. B.7.2. Transceiver Cable
          3. B.7.3. External 10BASE2 Transceiver
          4. B.7.4. 10BASE2 Signal Encoding
        8. B.8. 10BASE2 Media Components
        9. B.9. Connecting a Station to 10BASE2 Ethernet
        10. B.10. 10BASE2 Configuration Guidelines
        11. B.11. Coaxial Cables and Connectors
          1. B.11.1. Coax Cable Safety Rules
          2. B.11.2. Coaxial Cable Grounding
            1. B.11.2.1. Connector insulators
          3. B.11.3. 50 ohm Impedance Rating
            1. B.11.3.1. Incorrect video cable
            2. B.11.3.2. Incorrect cable sections
        12. B.12. 10BASE5 Coaxial Cable and Connectors
          1. B.12.1. Building 10BASE5 Segments with Multiple Cable Sections
          2. B.12.2. N-type Coaxial Connector
          3. B.12.3. N-type Barrel
          4. B.12.4. N-type Terminator
          5. B.12.5. Thick Coax Cable Topology
        13. B.13. 10BASE2 Coaxial Cable and Connectors
          1. B.13.1. Multiple Cable Sections for 10BASE2 Segments
          2. B.13.2. Male BNC Coaxial Connector
          3. B.13.3. BNC Crimp-on Connector
          4. B.13.4. BNC Ts and Barrels
          5. B.13.5. Thin Coax Stub Cables
          6. B.13.6. BNC Terminator
          7. B.13.7. 10BASE2 Cable Topology
            1. B.13.7.1. Point-to-point topology
            2. B.13.7.2. Bus topology
        14. B.14. Installing Coaxial Cable Connectors
          1. B.14.1. Installing an N-type Connector
          2. B.14.2. Installing a BNC Connector
          3. B.14.3. Installing Transceiver Taps on Thick Coax
          4. B.14.4. Removing a Transceiver
        15. B.15. Troubleshooting Coaxial Cable Systems
          1. B.15.1. Coaxial Cable Troubleshooting Tools
            1. B.15.1.1. Hand-held coaxial testers
          2. B.15.2. Common Coaxial Cable Problems
            1. B.15.2.1. Thin coax problems
            2. B.15.2.2. Thick coax problems
      3. C. AUI Equipment: Installation and Configuration
        1. C.1. The AUI Slide Latch
          1. C.1.1. Problems with the Sliding Latch
          2. C.1.2. Tips for Sliding Latches
        2. C.2. Operation of SQE Test
          1. C.2.1. Ethernet Stations and SQE Test
        3. C.3. AUI Port Concentrator
          1. C.3.1. Port Concentrator Guidelines
          2. C.3.2. Problems with Concentrators
          3. C.3.3. Cascaded Port Concentrators
          4. C.3.4. SQE Test and the Port Concentrator
    8. 21. Glossary
    9. Index
    10. Colophon
    11. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly