Cover image for Enterprise SOA

Book description

Information Technology professionals can use this book to move beyond the excitement of web services and service oriented architecture (SOA) and begin the process of finding actionable ideas to innovate and create business value. In Enterprise SOA: Designing IT for Business Innovation, SAP's blueprint for putting SOA to work is analyzed from top to bottom. In addition to design, development, and architecture, vital contextual issues such as governance, security, change management, and culture are also explored. This comprehensive perspective reduces risk as IT departments implement ESA, a sound, flexible architecture for adapting business processes in response to changing market conditions.

This book answers the following questions:

  • What forces created the need for Enterprise Services Architecture?

  • How does ESA enable business process innovation?

  • How is model-driven development used at all levels of design, configuration, and deployment?

  • How do all the layers of technology that support ESA work together?

  • How will composite applications extend business process automation?

  • How does ESA create new models for IT governance?

  • How can companies manage disruptive change?

  • How can enterprise services be discovered and designed?

  • How will the process of adapting applications be simplified?

Based on extensive research with experts from the German software company SAP, this definitive book is ideal for architects, developers, and other IT professionals who want to understand the technology and business relevance of ESA in a detailed way--especially those who want to move on the technology now, rather than in the next year or two.

Table of Contents

  1. Enterprise SOA
    1. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
    2. Foreword
    3. Preface
      1. Safari® Enabled
      2. How can I comment on this book?
      3. Acknowledgments
    4. I. THE CONTEXT FOR ESA
      1. ONE. ESA in the World of Information Technology
        1. 1.1. Who is this book for?
        2. 1.2. Why so many questions?
        3. 1.3. What forces created ESA?
          1. 1.3.1. Application proliferation: systems of record are built out
          2. 1.3.2. Bridging the gap among systems of record
          3. 1.3.3. Consolidation: mySAP? Business Suite and SAP NetWeaver
          4. 1.3.4. The web services era
        4. 1.4. What is ESA?
          1. 1.4.1. User interface
          2. 1.4.2. Process orchestration
          3. 1.4.3. Enterprise services
          4. 1.4.4. Business objects
          5. 1.4.5. Distributed persistence
        5. 1.5. How will ESA change how applications are designed and built?
        6. 1.6. What supporting infrastructure does ESA require?
          1. 1.6.1. Model-driven, pattern-based development tools
          2. 1.6.2. Enterprise Services Infrastructure
          3. 1.6.3. Enterprise Services Repository
          4. 1.6.4. Enterprise Services Inventory
          5. 1.6.5. Life cycle management, operations, and security
          6. 1.6.6. Industry and technology standards
          7. 1.6.7. ESA ecosystem
        7. 1.7. Is ESA compatible with event-driven architecture?
        8. 1.8. What is the promise of ESA?
        9. 1.9. How will the transition to ESA occur?
          1. 1.9.1. ESA's areas of focus for applications
          2. 1.9.2. ESA today: SAP R/3
          3. 1.9.3. ESA in mySAP ERP 2004 and mySAP ERP 2005
          4. 1.9.4. ESA in the future
        10. 1.10. How can ESA be addressed at a tactical level?
        11. 1.11. Why does ESA matter?
        12. 1.12. What are the core values of ESA?
        13. 1.13. Where can we go for more answers?
        14. 1.14. ESA in action: Mitsui
      2. TWO. The Business Case for ESA
        1. 2.1. What attributes must ESA embody?
        2. 2.2. What principles should be driving my IT decisions?
        3. 2.3. What happens when core eventually becomes context?
        4. 2.4. How does ESA enable consolidation and reuse?
        5. 2.5. What kind of innovation should companies pursue, and how will ESA help them?
        6. 2.6. What are ESA's practical implementation issues?
        7. 2.7. What's the long-term adoption path of ESA? How quickly will I see ROI, and what form will it take?
        8. 2.8. What is ESA's long-range impact on corporations?
        9. 2.9. ESA in action: Nordzucker AG
      3. THREE. Evolving Toward ESA
        1. 3.1. Conceiving
        2. 3.2. Consuming
        3. 3.3. Composing
        4. 3.4. Creating
        5. 3.5. Controlling
        6. 3.6. Just how much and what kind of change will ESA involve?
        7. 3.7. What is IT's role within ESA?
        8. 3.8. What do you mean by "business process?"
        9. 3.9. That's a good point, but how do you bring the two sides together in the first place?
        10. 3.10. What is IT's role if all of this comes to pass? What does my company look like then?
        11. 3.11. What stages will we go through on the way there? What skills will we have to develop?
        12. 3.12. What kind of architecture skills does ESA call for?
        13. 3.13. How does a cultural transformation happen in the real world? What can SupplyOn tell us about how to manage the change inherent in ESA?
        14. 3.14. How will IT change in an ESA world?
        15. 3.15. What will the shift to a model-driven world mean for IT, and where will these business analysts come from?
        16. 3.16. How will governance function within ESA?
        17. 3.17. How and where should I begin evolving toward ESA?
        18. 3.18. How will modeling translate between enterprises with different architectures? Will a standards body evolve to resolve potential conflicts?
        19. 3.19. What do the analysts think, and what trouble do they foresee?
        20. 3.20. What kind of company will we be after ESA?
    5. II. CONCEIVING A VISION FOR ESA
      1. FOUR. ESA Fundamentals: Learning to Think ESA
        1. 4.1. What is architecture and why is it important?
        2. 4.2. What is enterprise architecture and how will ESA change it?
        3. 4.3. What motivated the creation of ESA?
        4. 4.4. What are the architectural challenges of ESA?
        5. 4.5. How does ESA meet those challenges?
        6. 4.6. Does ESA make all my existing systems worthless?
        7. 4.7. What are systems of record?
        8. 4.8. What are transactional systems?
        9. 4.9. What are web services?
        10. 4.10. What is the difference between a web service and an enterprise service?
        11. 4.11. What is service-oriented architecture?
        12. 4.12. What is the difference between ESA and other approaches to SOA?
        13. 4.13. What are composite applications?
        14. 4.14. What are service consumers?
        15. 4.15. What are service providers?
        16. 4.16. What are xApps?
        17. 4.17. What role does the mySAP Business Suite play in ESA?
        18. 4.18. What role does SAP NetWeaver play in ESA?
        19. 4.19. What are IT practices and IT scenarios?
        20. 4.20. What is event-driven architecture?
        21. 4.21. Why are analytics so important to ESA?
        22. 4.22. How does ESA provide for easier adaptation and a better requirements fit?
        23. 4.23. What is the basic structure of an enterprise service?
        24. 4.24. What are global data types?
        25. 4.25. Why is XML messaging so important to ESA?
        26. 4.26. What is the difference between a frontend and a backend application?
        27. 4.27. What is service composition?
        28. 4.28. What is the role of business objects in ESA?
        29. 4.29. How does persistence change in ESA?
        30. 4.30. Why does modeling matter? Isn't it just another form of coding?
        31. 4.31. Will modeling replace coding?
        32. 4.32. How are patterns used in ESA and what value do they provide?
        33. 4.33. What is process orchestration?
        34. 4.34. What is process integration?
        35. 4.35. How will ESA change the way applications are packaged and delivered?
        36. 4.36. What are the special needs of composite applications?
        37. 4.37. What is the relationship between ESA, standards, and commoditization?
        38. 4.38. Is buy versus build a false tradeoff in ESA?
        39. 4.39. Why is an ecosystem of companies and standards so important to ESA?
      2. FIVE. The Structure of ESA
        1. 5.1. Basics of ESA applications
          1. 5.1.1. How are applications in ESA different from previous generations?
          2. 5.1.2. How are services combined into applications in ESA?
          3. 5.1.3. Can an application be both a consumer and a provider of services?
          4. 5.1.4. How does ESA work with event-driven architectures?
            1. 5.1.4.1. Core events and business events
        2. 5.2. The ESA stack, layer by layer
          1. 5.2.1. What challenges face the ESA stack?
            1. 5.2.1.1. User interface
            2. 5.2.1.2. Process orchestration
            3. 5.2.1.3. Enterprise services
            4. 5.2.1.4. Business objects
            5. 5.2.1.5. Persistence
        3. 5.3. The enterprise services layer
          1. 5.3.1. What is the basic structure of enterprise services?
          2. 5.3.2. What are global data types and how are they related to enterprise services?
          3. 5.3.3. Does ESA have an Enterprise Service Bus or the equivalent?
          4. 5.3.4. How are database transactions handled in ESA?
          5. 5.3.5. This is all rather technical; how do enterprise services get the business meaning they are supposed to have?
          6. 5.3.6. How do enterprise services fit into business process modeling?
          7. 5.3.7. What is service composition? How can you build enterprise services from other enterprise services?
          8. 5.3.8. What are the main categories of enterprise services?
          9. 5.3.9. What kinds of enterprise services support the special needs of composite applications?
            1. 5.3.9.1. Master data management
            2. 5.3.9.2. Business Intelligence (BI) Consumer Services
            3. 5.3.9.3. Analytics
            4. 5.3.9.4. Knowledge management
            5. 5.3.9.5. Collaboration
            6. 5.3.9.6. Mobile
          10. 5.3.10. What development tools are used to create enterprise services?
        4. 5.4. The business objects layer
        5. 5.5. The process orchestration layer
          1. 5.5.1. What is process orchestration?
          2. 5.5.2. Why is process orchestration important in ESA?
          3. 5.5.3. What forms of process orchestration will be used in ESA?
          4. 5.5.4. What are the limits of process orchestration?
          5. 5.5.5. How does process component modeling work?
        6. 5.6. The UI layer
          1. 5.6.1. How will the UI layer change in ESA?
          2. 5.6.2. How will modeling be used to create the UI layer?
          3. 5.6.3. What are patterns and UI building blocks?
          4. 5.6.4. How will UI building blocks and patterns change the nature of applications?
          5. 5.6.5. How will the UI be implemented under ESA?
        7. 5.7. The persistence layer
          1. 5.7.1. How will this discussion be continued?
      3. SIX. The Enterprise Services Community
        1. 6.1. What is the ES-Community?
        2. 6.2. What is the value of the ES-Community?
        3. 6.3. What is a Definition Group? Who can join?
        4. 6.4. What does the ES-Community contribute?
        5. 6.5. Will the ES-Community create new standards?
        6. 6.6. How are enterprise service definitions created within the ES-Community?
        7. 6.7. What is the organizational structure of a Definition Group?
          1. 6.7.1. How do Request Definition Groups operate?
          2. 6.7.2. How do Review Definition Groups operate?
        8. 6.8. What is certification? Is it mandatory?
        9. 6.9. What is ES-Ready? How can partners use this brand?
        10. 6.10. How does the ES-Community balance efficiency with open participation?
        11. 6.11. What is required to participate in the ES-Community?
        12. 6.12. How is intellectual property (IP) treated in the ES-Community?
        13. 6.13. How will the ES-Community differ from SAP's other partner and customer efforts?
        14. 6.14. How does participation in the ES-Community benefit customers?
        15. 6.15. What should a company do to get involved in the community process?
      4. SEVEN. Creating a Roadmap with the ESA Adoption Program
        1. 7.1. Why the roadmap approach?
        2. 7.2. What challenges do companies face in adopting ESA?
        3. 7.3. How does SAP help customers adopt ESA?
          1. 7.3.1. What happens in the Discover phase?
            1. 7.3.1.1. What do the workshops reveal?
            2. 7.3.1.2. How about a concrete example?
            3. 7.3.1.3. Are there different types of enterprise services to look for?
            4. 7.3.1.4. How can companies avoid disruptive change?
          2. 7.3.2. What happens in the Evaluate phase?
            1. 7.3.2.1. What will the customer be able to see with the roadmap in hand?
          3. 7.3.3. What about the Implement phase?
          4. 7.3.4. What happens in the Operate phase?
        4. 7.4. Is there more to success with ESA than just analyzing technologies and preparing roadmaps?
        5. 7.5. How have companies put SAP's ESA Adoption Program to work?
          1. 7.5.1. ESA in action: Manchette Publicité
          2. 7.5.2. ESA in action: Wacker Chemie AG
          3. 7.5.3. ESA in action: LHI Leasing
    6. III. CONSUMING SERVICES
      1. EIGHT. The Enterprise Services Repository and the Enterprise Services Inventory
        1. 8.1. What is the Enterprise Services Repository?
          1. 8.1.1. What are the Enterprise Services Repository's roots?
          2. 8.1.2. What are the advantages of the Enterprise Services Repository?
            1. 8.1.2.1. Orderly development
            2. 8.1.2.2. Reuse
            3. 8.1.2.3. Ease of development
            4. 8.1.2.4. Model-driven development
            5. 8.1.2.5. Service orchestration
          3. 8.1.3. What tools do you use to access the Enterprise Services Repository?
          4. 8.1.4. If the Enterprise Services Repository is at the heart of ESA, don't less technical people use it, too?
          5. 8.1.5. What is in the Enterprise Services Repository?
            1. 8.1.5.1. Data types
            2. 8.1.5.2. Message types
            3. 8.1.5.3. Operations
            4. 8.1.5.4. Service interfaces
            5. 8.1.5.5. Integration objects
            6. 8.1.5.6. Process models
            7. 8.1.5.7. Business objects
          6. 8.1.6. What is the role of namespaces in the Enterprise Services Repository?
        2. 8.2. What is the Enterprise Services Inventory?
          1. 8.2.1. What does the Enterprise Services Inventory provide for each service?
          2. 8.2.2. What kinds of services are part of the Enterprise Services Inventory?
          3. 8.2.3. What methodology has SAP created for service enablement?
          4. 8.2.4. How do the indicators and the procedural model work in practice?
            1. 8.2.4.1. Scenario for purchasing a new component
            2. 8.2.4.2. Process flow
            3. 8.2.4.3. Deployment
            4. 8.2.4.4. Service identification by applying the indicators
            5. 8.2.4.5. Applying general indicators
            6. 8.2.4.6. Applying user productivity and centricity indicators
            7. 8.2.4.7. Applying best practices and process innovation indicators
            8. 8.2.4.8. Applying business automation and process efficiency indicators
            9. 8.2.4.9. Applying flexible deployment indicators
          5. 8.2.5. For each service, what does the Enterprise Services Inventory provide?
          6. 8.2.6. What is the Enterprise Services Preview?
        3. 8.3. ESA in action: Elsag
        4. 8.4. ESA in action: Kimberly-Clark
        5. 8.5. ESA in action: CSA International
      2. NINE. Project Mendocino: A Product Based on Consuming Enterprise Services
        1. 9.1. What is the goal of Project Mendocino?
        2. 9.2. How does Project Mendocino use ESA?
        3. 9.3. Project Mendocino applications
          1. 9.3.1. What is the goal of the Time Management application?
          2. 9.3.2. What is the goal of the Leave Management application?
          3. 9.3.3. What is the goal of the Budget Monitoring application?
          4. 9.3.4. What is the goal of the Team Management application?
        4. 9.4. The Project Mendocino architecture
          1. 9.4.1. What makes up the Mendocino extensions?
          2. 9.4.2. What is the Office Add-On?
          3. 9.4.3. How is data routed through the Project Mendocino architecture?
          4. 9.4.4. What are the system requirements for using the Project Mendocino architecture?
          5. 9.4.5. What is the primary function of the Office Add-On?
          6. 9.4.6. What are the functions of the Mendocino extensions components?
          7. 9.4.7. How is security handled in the Project Mendocino environment?
          8. 9.4.8. How will Project Mendocino change in the future?
        5. 9.5. ESA in action: Agile Solutions Ltda
      3. TEN. ESA at Work: Examples from the Field
        1. 10.1. ESA in consumer products
        2. 10.2. Store-specific pricing
        3. 10.3. ESA in CRM: service request processing
        4. 10.4. ESA in the chemical industry: e-VMI at Solvay
        5. 10.5. ESA for logistic service providers
        6. 10.6. ESA for professional service providers
        7. 10.7. ESA in manufacturing
        8. 10.8. ESA in the chemicals industry
    7. IV. COMPOSING SERVICES
      1. ELEVEN. SAP xApps Composite Applications for Analytics
        1. 11.1. How do SAP xApp Analytics help business users?
          1. 11.1.1. SAP xApp Analytics for credit management
          2. 11.1.2. SAP xApp Analytics composite application for campaign management
          3. 11.1.3. SAP xApp Analytics composite application for corporate governance
        2. 11.2. How hard is it to deploy SAP xApp Analytics?
        3. 11.3. What are the different parts of an analytic composite application?
        4. 11.4. In which application and process areas are analytic composites being created?
        5. 11.5. How do ESA and SAP NetWeaver help create analytic composites?
        6. 11.6. What are the benefits of SAP analytics?
      2. TWELVE. The Architecture and Development Tools of Composite Applications
        1. 12.1. The architecture of composite applications
          1. 12.1.1. What is the purpose of composite applications in ESA?
          2. 12.1.2. What is the architecture of composite applications?
            1. 12.1.2.1. Roles and work centers
            2. 12.1.2.2. Composite processes and business activities
            3. 12.1.2.3. Actions
            4. 12.1.2.4. Composite application business logic and abstraction layer
            5. 12.1.2.5. Service providers
          3. 12.1.3. What are the main categories of composite applications?
          4. 12.1.4. How are processes modeled in composite applications?
          5. 12.1.5. How do composite applications use patterns?
        2. 12.2. Development tools for composite applications
          1. 12.2.1. What development tools are used to create composites?
          2. 12.2.2. Can every development challenge be met through modeling?
          3. 12.2.3. What role does SAP NetWeaver Visual Composer play in creating composites?
          4. 12.2.4. What role does the Guided Procedures design time play in creating composites?
          5. 12.2.5. What role does the SAP CAF play in creating composites?
          6. 12.2.6. What roles do the ABAP Development Workbench and SAP NetWeaver Developer Studio play in creating composites?
        3. 12.3. ESA in action: Asian Paints
        4. 12.4. ESA in action: Zuger Kantonalbank
      3. THIRTEEN. Supporting Composite Applications
        1. 13.1. How are composite applications different from the previous generation of applications?
          1. 13.1.1. What are the challenges facing composite application developers and architects?
          2. 13.1.2. What is information management and how will it help?
        2. 13.2. SAP NetWeaver MDM
          1. 13.2.1. What is master data?
          2. 13.2.2. What is SAP NetWeaver MDM?
          3. 13.2.3. What are the key capabilities of SAP NetWeaver MDM for information quality?
          4. 13.2.4. What are the key capabilities of SAP NetWeaver MDM for information synchronization?
          5. 13.2.5. How does SAP NetWeaver MDM help development of composite applications?
        3. 13.3. SAP NetWeaver Business intelligence
          1. 13.3.1. What are the core functions of SAP NetWeaver BI?
            1. 13.3.1.1. Enterprise data warehousing
            2. 13.3.1.2. Enterprise reporting, querying, and analysis
            3. 13.3.1.3. Business planning and analytical services
            4. 13.3.1.4. Data quality
          2. 13.3.2. How is business intelligence becoming service enabled?
          3. 13.3.3. What is the SAP NetWeaver BI Accelerator?
          4. 13.3.4. How will SAP NetWeaver BI help embed analytics into composites?
        4. 13.4. SAP NetWeaver Knowledge Management and Collaboration
          1. 13.4.1. What is Knowledge Management and Collaboration?
          2. 13.4.2. What Knowledge Management capabilities can help composite applications?
          3. 13.4.3. What collaboration capabilities can help composite applications?
          4. 13.4.4. How can KMC help composite applications?
        5. 13.5. SAP NetWeaver Mobile
        6. 13.6. ESA in action: Arla Foods
    8. V. CREATING SERVICES
      1. FOURTEEN. Web Services Basics
        1. 14.1. What are web services and why do we care?
        2. 14.2. What are some examples of web services?
        3. 14.3. What are services?
        4. 14.4. What is service-oriented architecture?
        5. 14.5. Why is service orientation better than object orientation?
        6. 14.6. What are the main components of web services?
        7. 14.7. What is XML?
        8. 14.8. What is XML schema?
        9. 14.9. What are XML namespaces?
        10. 14.10. What is SOAP?
        11. 14.11. What is WSDL?
        12. 14.12. What is UDDI and how does it relate to SAP?
        13. 14.13. How can we ensure that web services will interoperate?
        14. 14.14. What about web services security?
      2. FIFTEEN. Creating Enterprise Services in ABAP
        1. 15.1. Can I start creating enterprise services today, or should I wait?
        2. 15.2. How do web services and enterprise services compare?
        3. 15.3. What are two ways to create services in ABAP?
          1. 15.3.1. What does it mean to create services from the inside out?
          2. 15.3.2. How do you create a service from the inside out using ABAP?
          3. 15.3.3. What does it mean to create services from the outside in?
          4. 15.3.4. How do you create a service from the outside in using ABAP?
        4. 15.4. What is SAP NetWeaver's role in creating enterprise services?
        5. 15.5. What is the role of the SAP NetWeaver Application Server?
        6. 15.6. What is SAP NetWeaver XI's role as an integration broker?
        7. 15.7. What steps are involved with web services brokering using SAP NetWeaver XI?
        8. 15.8. How can services be adapted to reflect changing customer needs?
        9. 15.9. What does the future hold for creating enterprise services?
          1. 15.9.1. What are business objects?
          2. 15.9.2. What are the steps one takes to develop enterprise services?
      3. SIXTEEN. Creating and Consuming Services in Java
        1. 16.1. What development tools are available for Java developers?
        2. 16.2. How do you create a service provider in Java?
        3. 16.3. How do you create a service consumer using Web Dynpro for Java?
        4. 16.4. ESA in action: Arcelor
        5. 16.5. ESA in action: TRW
    9. VI. CONTROLLING SERVICES
      1. SEVENTEEN. ESA and IT Governance
        1. 17.1. What are typical models for IT governance?
        2. 17.2. What are the challenges and problems with existing models?
        3. 17.3. How does ESA decrease the need for IT governance?
        4. 17.4. How does ESA improve the relationship between business and IT?
        5. 17.5. Who owns enterprise services? Who makes a decision about creating new services?
        6. 17.6. What processes make sense for approving new enterprise services?
        7. 17.7. ESA in action: Whirlpool Corporation
      2. EIGHTEEN. ESA Life Cycle Management and Operations
        1. 18.1. Which operations and management problems will ESA actually solve?
        2. 18.2. What is life cycle management?
        3. 18.3. What is life cycle management in the context of ESA?
        4. 18.4. What are the challenges for life cycle management in the context of ESA?
        5. 18.5. How will services be monitored in an ESA landscape? Where will the necessary metadata come from?
        6. 18.6. How does ESA affect implementation issues?
        7. 18.7. How are operations affected by ESA?
          1. 18.7.1. What is capacity planning in the world of ESA?
          2. 18.7.2. How do you size composite applications?
          3. 18.7.3. How does performance monitoring work in an ESA environment?
          4. 18.7.4. How does virtualization affect capacity planning?
        8. 18.8. How will ESA affect change management and software logistics?
          1. 18.8.1. What is the SAP NetWeaver Administrator? How will it adapt to the demands of an ESA environment?
        9. 18.9. What is adaptive computing and how does it relate to ESA?
          1. 18.9.1. What's behind adaptive computing?
          2. 18.9.2. The Adaptive Computing Controller
          3. 18.9.3. How do conventional infrastructure approaches compare to adaptive computing?
          4. 18.9.4. What will adaptive computing mean for SAP's partners?
        10. 18.10. What does the introduction of ESA and its impact on life cycle management mean for IT departments?
        11. 18.11. Will life cycle management capabilities be available to ISVs?
        12. 18.12. What additional capabilities does ESA offer in terms of allowing business analysts to determine which revenue-generating services should receive additional resources?
      3. NINETEEN. ESA Security
        1. 19.1. What security challenges face enterprise architects?
        2. 19.2. What are identity management and authentication?
        3. 19.3. How does identity management change within ESA?
        4. 19.4. What is access management?
        5. 19.5. How does access management change within ESA?
        6. 19.6. How are messages that are sent from enterprise services secured? What standards have been developed?
        7. 19.7. How do you develop secure composite applications without weaknesses?
        8. 19.8. How will security between companies function and evolve in an ESA environment?
      4. TWENTY. Standards and ESA
        1. 20.1. How do standards relate to ESA?
          1. 20.1.1. Isn't standardization between disparate brands of systems and between independent companies easier said than done?
          2. 20.1.2. What kinds of standards does ESA rely on?
          3. 20.1.3. What is SAP's general approach to standards?
          4. 20.1.4. Does ESA provide support for every major IT standard?
        2. 20.2. What are semantic standards, and how do they help build IT solutions?
          1. 20.2.1. Are semantic standards simply sets of XML tags?
          2. 20.2.2. What are core components and how do they relate to SAP's concept of semantic standards?
        3. 20.3. Which technology standards does SAP support, and how do they help build IT solutions?
          1. 20.3.1. What's an example of a critical technology standard?
        4. 20.4. Which technology standards does SAP NetWeaver support?
          1. 20.4.1. How do portability standards help customers to build IT solutions?
          2. 20.4.2. What is SAP's relationship to industry-specific standards groups?
          3. 20.4.3. Are standards tested to ensure they provide interoperability?
          4. 20.4.4. Which additional standards will ESA support in the future?
    10. Index
    11. About the Authors
    12. Colophon
    13. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly