Cover image for Encyclopedia of Electronic Components Volume 1

Book description

Want to know how to use an electronic component? This first book of a three-volume set includes key information on electronics parts for your projects—complete with photographs, schematics, and diagrams. You’ll learn what each one does, how it works, why it’s useful, and what variants exist. No matter how much you know about electronics, you’ll find fascinating details you’ve never come across before.

Table of Contents

  1. Dedication
  2. Preface
    1. 1. Datasheets
    2. 2. Wikipedia
    3. 3. Manufacturers’ Tutorials
    4. 4. Personal Guides
    5. The Encyclopedic Solution
    6. The Audience
    7. Completeness
    8. Acknowledgments
  3. 1. How to Use This Book
    1. Reference vs. Tutorial
    2. Theory and Practice
    3. Organization
    4. Subject Paths
    5. Inclusions and Exclusions
    6. Typographical Conventions
    7. Volume Contents
    8. Safari® Books Online
    9. How to Contact Us
  4. 2. battery
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. Electrode Terminology
    3. Variants
      1. Disposable Batteries
      2. Rechargeable Batteries
    4. Values
      1. Amperage
      2. Capacity
      3. Voltage
    5. How to Use it
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Short Circuits: Overheating and Fire
      2. Diminished Performance Caused by Improper Recharging
      3. Complete Discharge of Lead-Acid Battery
      4. Inadequate Current
      5. Incorrect Polarity
      6. Reverse Charging
      7. Sulfurization
      8. High Current Flow Between Parallel Batteries
  5. 3. jumper
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
    4. Values
    5. How to Use it
    6. What Can Go Wrong
  6. 4. fuse
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Values
    4. Variants
      1. Small Cartridge Fuses
      2. Automotive Fuses
      3. Strip Fuses
      4. Through-Hole Fuses
      5. Resettable Fuses
      6. Surface Mount Fuses
    5. How to Use it
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Repeated Failure
      2. Soldering Damage
      3. Placement
  7. 5. pushbutton
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Poles and Throws
      2. On-Off Behavior
      3. Slider
      4. Styles
      5. Termination and Contact Plating
      6. Mounting Style
      7. Sealed or Unsealed
      8. Latching
      9. Foot Pedal
      10. Keypad
      11. Tactile Switch
      12. Membrane Pad
      13. Radio Buttons
      14. Snap-Action Switches
      15. Emergency Switch
    4. Values
    5. How to Use it
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. No Button
      2. Mounting Problems
      3. LED Issues
      4. Other Problems
  8. 6. switch
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Terminology
      2. Poles and Throws
      3. On-Off Behavior
      4. Snap-Action
      5. Rocker
      6. Slider
      7. Toggle
      8. DIP
      9. SIP
      10. Paddle
      11. Vandal Resistant Switch
      12. Tactile Switch
      13. Mounting Options
      14. Termination
      15. Contact Plating Options
    4. Values
    5. How to Use it
      1. Power Switches
      2. Limit Switches
      3. Logic Circuits
      4. Alternatives
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Arcing
      2. Dry Joints
      3. Short Circuits
      4. Contact Contamination
      5. Wrong Terminal Type
      6. Contact Bounce
      7. Mechanical Wear
      8. Mounting Problems
      9. Cryptic Schematics
  9. 7. rotary switch
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Conventional
      2. Rotary DIP
      3. Gray Code
      4. PC Board Rotary Switch
      5. Mechanical Encoder
      6. Pushwheel and Thumbwheel
      7. Keylock
    4. Values
    5. How to Use it
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Vulnerable Contacts
      2. Contact Overload
      3. Misalignment
      4. Misidentified Shorting Switch
      5. User Abuse
      6. Wrong Shaft, Wrong Knobs, Nuts That Get Lost, Too Big to Fit
  10. 8. rotational encoder
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Pulses and Detents
      2. Format
      3. Output
      4. Rotational Resistance
    4. Values
      1. Contact Bounce
      2. Sliding Noise
    5. How to Use it
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Switch Bounce
      2. Contact Burnout
  11. 9. relay
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Latching
      2. Polarity
      3. Pinout Variations
      4. Reed Relay
      5. Small Signal Relay
      6. Automotive Relays
      7. General Purpose/Industrial
      8. Time Delay Relay
      9. Contactor
    4. Values
    5. How to Use it
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Wrong Pinouts
      2. Wrong Orientation
      3. Wrong Type
      4. Wrong Polarity
      5. AC and DC
      6. Chatter
      7. Relay Coil Voltage Spike
      8. Arcing
      9. Magnetic Fields
      10. Environmental Hazards
  12. 10. resistor
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Resistor Array
    4. Values
      1. Tolerance
      2. Value Coding
      3. Stability
      4. Materials
    5. How to Use it
      1. In Series with LED
      2. Current Limiting with a Transistor
      3. Pullup and Pulldown Resistors
      4. Audio Tone Control
      5. RC Network
      6. Voltage Divider
      7. Resistors in Series
      8. Resistors in Parallel
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Heat
      2. Noise
      3. Inductance
      4. Inaccuracy
      5. Wrong Values
  13. 11. potentiometer
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Linear and Log Taper
      2. Classic-style Potentiometer
      3. Multiple-Turn Potentiometer
      4. Ganged Potentiometer
      5. Switched Potentiometer
      6. Slider Potentiometer
      7. Trimmer Potentiometer
    4. How to Use it
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Wear and Tear
      2. Knobs that Don’t Fit
      3. Nuts that Get Lost
      4. A Shaft that Isn’t Long Enough
      5. Sliders with No Finger Grip
      6. Too Big to Fit
      7. Overheating
      8. The Wrong Taper
  14. 12. capacitor
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Format
      2. Principal Types
      3. Dielectrics
    4. Values
      1. Farads
      2. Commonly Used Values
      3. Dielectric Constant
      4. The Time Constant
      5. Multiple Capacitors
      6. Alternating Current and Capacitive Reactance
      7. Equivalent Series Resistance
    5. How to Use it
      1. Bypass Capacitor
      2. Coupling Capacitor
      3. High-Pass Filter
      4. Low-Pass Filter
      5. Smoothing Capacitor
      6. Snubber
      7. Capacitor as a Battery Substitute
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Wrong Polarity
      2. Voltage Overload
      3. Leakage
      4. Dielectric Memory
      5. Specific Electrolytic Issues
      6. Heat
      7. Vibration
      8. Misleading Nomenclature
  15. 13. variable capacitor
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Values
      2. Formats
    4. How to Use it
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Failure to Ground Trimmer Capacitor While Adjusting it
      2. Application of Overcoat Material or “Lock Paint”
      3. Lack of Shielding
  16. 14. inductor
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. DC Through a Coil
      2. Magnetic Core
      3. EMF and Back-EMF
      4. Electrical and Magnetic Polarity
    3. Variants
      1. Magnetic Cores
      2. Nonmagnetic Cores
      3. Variable Inductors
      4. Ferrite Beads
      5. Toroidal Cores
      6. Gyrator
    4. Values
      1. Calculating Inductance
      2. Calculating Reactance
      3. Calculating Reluctance
      4. Datasheet Terminology
      5. Series and Parallel Configurations
      6. Time Constant
    5. How to Use it
      1. Core Choices
      2. Miniaturization
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Real-World Defects
      2. Saturation
      3. RF Problems
  17. 15. AC-AC transformer
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. The Core
      2. Taps
    3. Variants
      1. Core Shapes
      2. Power Transformer
      3. Plug-in Transformer
      4. Isolation Transformer
      5. Autotransformer
      6. Variable Transformer
      7. Audio Transformer
      8. Split-Bobbin Transformer
      9. Surface-Mount Transformer
    4. Values
    5. How to Use it
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Reversal of Input and Output
      2. Shock Hazard from Common Ground
      3. Accidental DC Input
      4. Overload
      5. Incorrect AC Frequency
  18. 16. AC-DC power supply
    1. What It Does
    2. Variants
      1. Linear Regulated Power Supply
      2. Switching Power Supply
      3. Unregulated Power Supply
      4. Adjustable Power Supply
      5. Voltage Multiplier
    3. Formats
    4. How to Use it
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. High Voltage Shock
      2. Capacitor Failure
      3. Electrical Noise
      4. Peak Inrush
  19. 17. DC-DC converter
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Buck Converter
      2. Boost Converter
      3. Flyback Converter with Inductor
      4. Flyback Converter with Transformer
      5. Formats
    4. Values
      1. Nominal Input Voltage and Frequency
      2. Output Voltage
      3. Input Current and Output Current
      4. Load Regulation
      5. Efficiency
      6. Ripple and Noise
      7. Isolated or Non-Isolated
    5. How to Use it
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Electrical Noise in Output
      2. Excess Heat with No Load
      3. Inaccurate Voltage Output with Low Load
  20. 18. DC-AC inverter
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
    4. Values
    5. How to Use it
    6. What Can Go Wrong
  21. 19. voltage regulator
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Packaging
      2. Popular Varieties
      3. Adjustable Regulators
      4. Negative and Positive Regulators
      5. Low-Dropout Linear Regulators
      6. Quasi-Low-Dropout Linear Regulators
      7. Additional Pin Functions
    4. Values
    5. How to Use it
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Inadequate Heat Management
      2. Transient Response
      3. Misidentified Parts
      4. Misidentified Pins
      5. Dropout Caused by Low Battery
      6. Inaccurate Delivered Voltage
  22. 20. electromagnet
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
    4. Values
    5. How to Use it
    6. What Can Go Wrong
  23. 21. solenoid
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Low Profile
      2. Latching
      3. Rotary
      4. Hinged Clapper
    4. Values
      1. Coil Size vs. Power
    5. How to Use it
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Heat
      2. AC Inrush
      3. Unwanted EMF
      4. Loose Plunger
  24. 22. DC motor
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Coil Configurations
      2. Gearhead Motor
      3. Brushless DC Motor
      4. Linear Actuator
      5. Values
    4. How to Use it
      1. Speed Control
      2. Direction Control
      3. Limit Switches
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Brushes and Commutator
      2. Electrical Noise
      3. Heat effects
      4. Ambient Conditions
      5. Wrong Shaft Type or Diameter
      6. Incompatible Motor Mounts
      7. Backlash
      8. Bearings
      9. Audible Noise
  25. 23. AC motor
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. Stator Design
      2. Rotor Design
    3. Variants
      1. Single-Phase Induction Motor
      2. Three-Phase Induction Motor
      3. Synchronous Motor
      4. Reluctance Motor
      5. Variable Frequency Drive
      6. Wound-Rotor AC Induction Motor
      7. Universal Motor
      8. Inverted AC Motors
    4. Values
    5. How to Use It
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Premature Restart
      2. Frequent Restart
      3. Undervoltage or Voltage Imbalance
      4. Stalled Motor
      5. Protective Relays
      6. Excess Torque
      7. Internal Breakage
  26. 24. servo motor
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
    4. Values
    5. How to Use it
      1. Modification for Continuous Rotation
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Incorrect Wiring
      2. Shaft/Horn Mismatch
      3. Unrealistically Rapid Software Commands
      4. Jitter
      5. Motor Overload
      6. Unrealistic Duty Cycle
      7. Electrical Noise
  27. 25. stepper motor
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. Reluctance Stepper Motors
      2. Permanent Magnet Stepper Motors
      3. Bipolar Stepper Motors
      4. Unipolar Motors
    3. Variants
      1. High Phase Count
      2. Hybrid
      3. Bifilar
      4. Multiphase
      5. Microstepping
      6. Sensing and Feedback
      7. Voltage Control
    4. Values
    5. How to Use it
      1. Protection Diodes
      2. Positional Control
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Incorrect Wiring
      2. Step Loss
      3. Excessive Torque
      4. Hysteresis
      5. Resonance
      6. Hunting
      7. Saturation
      8. Rotor Demagnetization
  28. 26. diode
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
      1. Packaging
      2. Signal Diodes
      3. Rectifier Diodes
      4. Zener Diode
      5. Transient Voltage Suppressor (TVS)
      6. Schottky Diode
      7. Varactor Diode
      8. Tunnel Diode, Gunn Diode, PIN Diode
      9. Diode Array
      10. Bridge Rectifier
    4. Values
    5. How to Use it
      1. Rectification
      2. Back-EMF Suppression
      3. Voltage Selection
      4. Voltage Clamping
      5. Logic Gate
      6. DC Voltage Regulation and Noise Suppression
      7. AC Voltage Control and Signal Clipping
      8. Voltage Sensing
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Overload
      2. Reversed Polarity
      3. Wrong Type of Diode
  29. 27. unijunction transistor
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
    3. Variants
    4. Values
      1. How to Use it
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Name Confusion
      2. Incorrect Bias
      3. Overload
  30. 28. bipolar transistor
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. Current Gain
      2. Terminology
    3. Variants
      1. Packaging
      2. Connections
    4. How to Use it
      1. Darlington Pairs
      2. Amplifiers
    5. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Wrong Connections on a Bipolar Transistor
      2. Wrong Connections on a Darlington Pair Chip
      3. Soldering Damage
      4. Excessive Current or Voltage
      5. Excessive Leakage
  31. 29. field effect transistor
    1. What It Does
    2. How It Works
      1. JFETs
      2. JFET Behavior
      3. MOSFETs
      4. The Substrate Connection
    3. Variants
      1. MESFET
      2. V-Channel MOSFET
      3. Trench MOS
    4. Values
    5. How to Use it
      1. P-Channel Disadvantage
      2. Bipolar Substitution
      3. Amplifier Front Ends
      4. Voltage-Controlled Resistor
      5. Compatibility with Digital Devices
    6. What Can Go Wrong
      1. Static Electricity
      2. Heat
      3. Wrong Bias
  32. A. Schematic Symbols
  33. Index
  34. About the Author
  35. Copyright