Cover image for A Web for Everyone

Book description

If you are in charge of the user experience, development, or strategy for a web site, A Web for Everyone will help you make your site accessible without sacrificing design or innovation. Rooted in universal design principles, this book provides solutions: practical advice and examples of how to create sites that everyone can use.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. HOW TO USE THIS BOOK
    1. Who Should Read This Book?
    2. What’s in This Book?
    3. What Comes with This Book?
  6. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
    1. I’m not a designer (or I’m not a developer), so why should I read this book?
    2. This isn’t part of my job description, so whose job is it?
    3. How big an issue is accessibility anyway?
    4. I’m already doing responsive design. Isn’t that enough?
    5. Is content part of accessibility?
    6. Should I follow Section 508 or WCAG?
  7. CONTENTS
  8. FOREWORD
  9. CHAPTER 1 A Web for Everyone
    1. Understanding the Accessibility Equation
      1. Accessibility
      2. Inclusive design
    2. Building a Framework for Accessible User Experience
      1. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
      2. Principles of Universal Design
      3. Design Thinking
    3. Using Design Thinking for Accessibility
    4. Summary
  10. CHAPTER 2 People First: Designing for Differences
    1. Know Your Audience
    2. About Personas
    3. What’s in the Personas?
    4. Meet the Personas
      1. Trevor
      2. Emily
      3. Jacob
      4. Lea
      5. Steven
      6. Vishnu
      7. Maria
      8. Carol
    5. Summary
  11. CHAPTER 3 Clear Purpose: Well-Defined Goals
    1. How Clear Purpose Supports Accessibility
      1. When a site is confusing, I just leave.
    2. How to Design for a Clear Purpose
      1. Start with purpose and goals
      2. Design for clarity and simplicity
      3. Think “accessibility first”
      4. Make templates accessible, too
      5. Choose an accessibility strategy
    3. Who Is Responsible for Clear Purpose?
    4. Summary
    5. Profile: Simple and Usable with Giles Colborne
      1. Simplicity is good science and good interface design.
      2. Simple designs put complexity in its place.
      3. Observe real people to learn what’s needed.
      4. Designing for multiple devices supports accessibility.
  12. CHAPTER 4 Solid Structure: Built to Standards
    1. How Solid Structure Supports Accessibility
    2. How to Create a Solid Structure
      1. Code content to be machine-readable
      2. Code to standards
      3. Use standard web technologies
      4. Organize code for clarity and flow
      5. Use stylesheets to separate content and presentation
      6. Use semantic markup for content
    3. Who Is Responsible for a Solid Structure?
    4. WCAG 2.0 and Solid Structure
    5. Summary
    6. Profile: Accessibility Standards with Mike Paciello
      1. An early commitment to people and technology.
      2. Beginning to explore accessible electronic documents.
      3. Markup languages bring meaning to electronic documents.
      4. A pioneer for web accessibility.
      5. Helping set standards for web accessibility.
  13. CHAPTER 5 Easy Interaction: Everything Works
    1. How Easy Interaction Supports Accessibility
    2. Designing for Easy Interaction
      1. Identify and describe interactive elements
      2. Use basic HTML codes correctly
      3. Use WAI-ARIA for complex elements
      4. Use features of the technology platform
      5. Provide accessible instructions and feedback
      6. Support keyboard interaction
        1. Provide a logical tab order
        2. Don’t require point-and-click interaction
        3. Show which element has keyboard focus
        4. Don’t trap keyboard focus
      7. Make controls large enough to operate easily
      8. Let users control the operation of the interface
      9. Design for contingencies
      10. Allow users to request more time
    3. Who Is Responsible for Easy Interaction?
    4. WCAG 2.0 and Easy Interaction
    5. Summary
    6. Profile: Accessible Interaction with Derek Featherstone
      1. People are the starting point.
      2. Best accessibility techniques are constantly changing.
      3. Technical remediation can help make interaction accessible.
      4. Integrated accessibility produces the best outcomes.
      5. Tools help teams integrate accessible components.
      6. The most influential tool for accessibility is clear purpose.
      7. Solutions come from different places.
  14. CHAPTER 6 Helpful Wayfinding: Guides Users
    1. How Helpful Wayfinding Supports Accessibility
    2. How to Design Helpful Wayfinding
      1. Create consistent cues for orientation and navigation
      2. Present things that are the same in the same way
      3. Differentiate things that are different
      4. Provide orientation cues
      5. Provide clear landmarks within the page
      6. Provide alternative ways to navigate
    3. Who Is Responsible for Wayfinding?
    4. WCAG 2.0 and Helpful Wayfinding
    5. Summary
    6. Profile: Coding Accessibility with Steve Faulkner
      1. Elements of an accessible user interface.
      2. An accessibility API needs more than HTML.
      3. WAI-ARIA fills the gaps.
      4. HTML5, ARIA, or both?
      5. Advice for project teams.
  15. CHAPTER 7 Clean Presentation: Supports Meaning
    1. How Clean Presentation Supports Accessibility
    2. How to Design for Clean Presentation
      1. Design simply
      2. Minimize distracting clutter
      3. Design for customization of the display
      4. Support customization through the browser
      5. Design content for easy comprehension
      6. Use color contrast to separate foreground from background
      7. Use visual and semantic space
      8. Provide enough space between lines of text
      9. Use clean typography
    3. Who Is Responsible for Clean Presentation?
    4. WCAG 2.0 and Clean Presentation
    5. Summary
    6. Profile: Responsive Design with Ethan Marcotte
      1. Balancing control and flexibility through responsive design.
      2. Redesigning the Boston Globe website.
      3. Ahead: More opportunities for responsiveness.
  16. CHAPTER 8 Plain Language: Creates a Conversation
    1. How Plain Language Supports Accessibility
    2. How to Design for Plain Language
      1. Write for your audience
      2. Follow plain language guidelines for writing content
      3. Support users through their tasks
      4. Structure the whole page for scanning and understanding
      5. Write sentences and paragraphs for easy scanning
      6. Write helpful links
      7. Use language your audience is familiar with or provide definitions
      8. Provide plain language summaries of complex content
      9. Don’t rely on readability formulas
      10. Usability test your content
    3. Who Is Responsible for Plain Language?
    4. WCAG 2.0 and Plain Language
    5. Summary
    6. Profile: Universal Plain Language with Ginny Redish
      1. Plain language is important for accessibility.
      2. Design projects need content people.
  17. CHAPTER 9 Accessible Media: Supports All Senses
    1. How Accessible Media Supports Accessibility
    2. When I hear and see it, health information makes more sense.
    3. How to Design for Accessible Media
      1. Don’t use only color to communicate meaning
      2. Provide instructions without relying on visual cues
      3. Describe the content or meaning of images
      4. Provide captions and descriptions for video
      5. Format captions to enhance meaning
      6. Provide alternatives to time-based media
      7. Use dynamic elements carefully
      8. Make presentations accessible
    4. Who Is Responsible for Accessible Media?
    5. WCAG 2.0 and Accessible Media
    6. Summary
    7. Profile: Accessible Media with Larry Goldberg
      1. Integrated technology as the tipping point.
      2. Becoming part of the process.
      3. Enhancing media with accessible features.
      4. Making text from audio.
      5. Partnering with transcription software.
      6. Adding captioning to the web media production workflow.
      7. Looking ahead for accessible media.
  18. CHAPTER 10 Universal Usability: Creates Delight
    1. How Universal Usability Supports Web Accessibility
    2. How to Design for Universal Usability
      1. Design for exploration and discovery
        1. Design for direct manipulation
        2. Disclose the right things at the right time
        3. Give rewards
        4. Support beginners and experts
      2. Create a conversation
        1. Layer information
        2. Tell a story
      3. Be informative and helpful
        1. Provide an overview
        2. Give instructions at the right time, in the right place
      4. Practice usability for accessibility
        1. Do usability testing
        2. Include people with disabilities in usability work
    3. Who Is Responsible for Universal Usability?
    4. Summary
    5. Profile: Toward Universal Usability with Ben Shneiderman
      1. We are making progress toward universal usability.
      2. Universal usability is about satisfying experiences.
      3. Expecting to be successful in our use of technology.
      4. Strategies for delivering universally usable experiences.
      5. Building awareness and expertise in the profession.
  19. CHAPTER 11 In Practice: An Integrated Process
    1. Making Accessibility the Way You Do Business
    2. Making a Commitment to Accessibility
    3. Assessing What’s Needed for an Integrated Practice
      1. Evaluate the current site
      2. Identify ways to allocate resources
      3. Identify opportunities to integrate accessibility into current processes
      4. Assess current knowledge and readiness
    4. Supporting an Integrated Practice
      1. Set policies and develop training
      2. Choose content and development tools that support accessibility
      3. Create a style guide and media library
      4. Include people with disabilities
    5. Provide tools and assistive technology for ongoing evaluation
      1. Toolbars
      2. Assistive technology
    6. Make accessibility part of site maintenance
    7. Summary
    8. Profile: Design Education with Valerie Fletcher
      1. The state of accessibility and universal design.
      2. Education is a catalyst for change.
      3. Building a curriculum in universal design and accessibility.
      4. Accessibility guidelines set the baseline.
      5. Great examples inspire great designs.
  20. CHAPTER 12 The Future: Design for All
    1. What a Web for Everyone Looks Like
    2. What We Need to Do to Get There
      1. Get out in front with web accessibility
      2. Build awareness and understanding of more diverse people
      3. Get support for accessibility into mainstream products
      4. Make accessibility part of how we think
      5. Don’t launch until it’s accessible
    3. Now, to the Future
  21. APPENDIX A Accessible UX Principles and Guidelines
  22. APPENDIX B WCAG 2.0 Cross-Reference
    1. People First: Designing for Differences
    2. Clear Purpose: Well-Defined Goals
    3. Solid Structure: Built to Standards
    4. Easy Interaction: Everything Works
    5. Helpful Wayfinding: Guides Users
    6. Clean Presentation: Supports Meaning
    7. Plain Language: Creates a Conversation
    8. Accessible Media: Supports All Senses
    9. Universal Usability: Creates Delight
    10. Summary: WCAG Requirements in Order
  23. APPENDIX C More Reading
    1. Chapter 1: A Web for Everyone
      1. Design Principles
      2. Books on Web Accessibility
    2. Chapter 2: People First
      1. User Research and Personas
      2. Disability Demographics and User Research
      3. About Assistive Technology
      4. Personas of People with Disabilities
    3. Chapter 3: Clear Purpose
    4. Chapter 4: Solid Structure
      1. Web and Accessibility Standards
      2. Code Validators
    5. Chapter 5: Easy Interaction
    6. Chapter 6: Helpful Wayfinding
    7. Chapter 7: Clean Presentation
    8. Chapter 8: Plain Language
      1. Plain Language Guidelines
      2. Writing for Different Audiences
    9. Chapter 9: Accessible Media
      1. Writing Alternative Text
      2. Captions and Multimedia Accessibility
    10. Chapter 10: Universal Usability
      1. Usability Testing
    11. Chapter 11: Integrated Process
      1. Planning and Project Management
      2. Accessibility Evaluation
      3. Toolbars to Check Accessibility
      4. Screen Readers and Screen Magnifiers for Windows
      5. Tools to Evaluate Flash and Other Rich Internet Applications
    12. Chapter 12: The Future
  24. Index
  25. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  26. ABOUT THE AUTHORS
  27. Footnotes
    1. People First: Designing for Differences
    2. Solid Structure: Built to Standards
    3. Easy Interaction: Everything Works
    4. Plain Language: Creates a Conversation
    5. Universal Usability: Creates Delight
    6. In Practice: an Integrated Process